POD: Germany never stops unrestricted submarine warfare in 1915. Relations between the US and Germany deteriorate worse than OTL. Germany looks for a way to keep the US busy in case of war, and does something similar to the Zimmerman Telegram. This pisses off the US, but still no war, but the US institutes convoying to protect its ships. Germany begins attacking the convoys and this is the last straw. Near the end of 1915 the US declares war.

Basic Outline of TL:

The US spends the last bit of 1915, and most of 1916 just mobilizing it's army. It's Navy joins the Allies campaign against the Germans. The submarines are a real menace, but with political pressure convoying is introduced and the submarines are no longer a major threat in 1916. The Allies offensives go a little better in 1916 thanks to more US goods and the US service men. It's still not enough to make that much of a significant difference. However, Germany tries to win the war in the west before the US can intervene in significant numbers. It doesn't go as nearly as well as OTL's Michelle offensive because the Germans are busy in Russia as well, and aren't as innovative (no Storm troopers) as they were in OTL 1918.

Come 1917 the US, British, and French Army vastly outnumbers the Germans on the western front. The US economy has been fully mobilized for war at this point, and artillery and aircraft are in astonishingly large numbers. (and the fist tanks but only a few) The Russian front is going only OK for the Germans, but not nearly as well as OTL. Too many troops must be kept to face the Allies in the West.

The 1917 offensive is large and unstoppable. The Germans are spread to thin, and the Allies are too packed. The Americans have the largest Army at this point, but the British is in good shapes, and the French have one last large offensive left in them.

The losses to Germany are staggering. For the fist time large numbers of German troops are surrendering. The rolling offensive's main problem is logistics, but this is being worked on and improved (but it's no W.W.II). The German economy was squeezed harder than in OTL, and facing the horrendous losses of 1917 is too much. The high command finally admits that Germany has no hope of winning. The end comes in mid 1917 when the Germans ask for an armistice and the Kaiser is overthrown and a republic proclaimed.

Astria-Hungary is obviously on the ropes and asks for an armistice too. The Ottoman realizes that she can't face the Allies alone and also asks for an armistice as well.

The peace treaty is like OTL's Versailles but harsher as the Russians side with the French to punish Germany more. East Prussia comes under Russian control, Poland is slightly larger than OTL at Germanys expense (and a Russian puppet), Reparations are higher too. The French don't get a protectorate over the Rhineland, but get something pretty damned close. Russia also supports Italy against A-H and Italy gets more than she did in OTL.

The Ottoman Empire is very rickety as it negotiates the peace treaty, and has to admit to the independence (under French and British control) of large parts of her empire. The Russian annexations are the worst though. Russia doesn't get Constanople, but she gets a lot and this breaks the back of the Ottoman Empire. Soon after the peace treaty is signed Ataturk takes over, and the Ottoman Empire becomes Turkey.

The League of Nations is also set up. The Democrats have enough of a majority (gained in 1916 as a "don't change horses in mid-stream" type thing and patriotism for our brave boys fighting over there) that despite a number of really stupid moves on Wilson's part (like not brining any Republicans to Europe) the US joins the League. Barely.

The Czar is shaky, but holding on. Winning the war big time has helped him, but the cost was pretty damned high. Russia, like France, and to a lesser extent Britain, is in debt to the US and these debts are semi-tied to Germanys reparations.

Germany's payment of reparations are little better in this TL due to the more immediate fear of Russian and French intervention if she doesn't, and some measures to insure payment that didn't happen in OTL. The Republic is even more shaky as a result.

Japan is doing better than OTL. With no Siberian adventure things are a little more stable, and without the Soviet threat the militarist aren't as prominent as OTL. The last of the Genro are dying off, and people are unsure of what the future will bring.

The Democrats get hit bad in the Recession of 1918, and while things improve (the general economy of the world is better in this TL thanks to the war ending sooner, and no Russian default on debts and withdrawing from the world economy, but the US economy is worse because it got more involved in a total war economy and transferring back was more of bitch) they still lose the Presidency in 1920. The US has lost vastly more men than in OTL. Deaths are around .75 million, and casualties equal to that. There is a large growing sense of isolationism, and that the millions of casualties weren't worth it. The US culture isn't as vibrant with many more casualties. Immigration hasn't been as restricted nearly as much as in OTL. The War was less worse in Europe, and the US wasn't as untouched, so the flood that happened in OTL at the end is less. The US also needs more people to replace all the lost bodies (something similar happened after the Civil War in the North).

Britain never made any promises to a Zionist state, or to an independent India. There is no Amister in this TL, but things in India aren't exactly peaceful in India either. The troubles in Ireland still happen pretty similar to OTL.

And that's how the world stands in 1920. Anything I miss? Thoughts on the future of this world?

US Declares War on Germany in 1915 Pt 2: President Pershing

-------------------

President Pershing is not happy in office. [1] He hadn't wanted this job, and looking back allowing himself to be talked into it was a mistake. He had done it almost holy out of a sense of duty, but now he was beginning to think that duty had been misplaced. He knew that he was a strict disciplinarian, cold, distant, and often demanding, but he also knew that was required for a general. But apparently not for a President. It just didn't seem to fit the mood of the country anymore. The mood had changed so fast in the years following the war.

The War. Hard to believe it had been over for seven years now. And yet, so much of his first term seemed to be dealing with the aftereffects of the war. The GI Bill for instance. He was glad he managed to get that passed. His boys, and he thought of them as his boys, needed all the help they could get after. All of them. But others didn't see it that way.

His Negro Education Reform bill had gone down to a crushing defeat. He should have known it would, but he had thought that by sheer force of will, and the moral necessity of it, he could do it. And, in his inner heart, he knew he was also inspired and driven by his own experience at teaching a Negro school. He felt he did a good job, but he also knew what hamstrings those who taught Negroes worked under. At least the veterans would get some leg up, even if there brothers and sisters wouldn't.

Hopefully they would be able to find jobs. More and more of them were moving North. At least the economy was doing well. And

The Philippines Independence Bill was also rather controversial. Even thought Independence wouldn't be formally granted for another 15 years, it was now clearly on the table, and the US government was committed to a firm schedule for Philippinoization. In Pershing’s mind it was only fair. Filipinos had served the US valiantly in the War, and they deserved a pay back. He was quite popular in the Philippines now, and it wasn't the first time. Back in 1911 a serious outbreak arose on the island of Jolo and Pershing led a campaign which resulted in the final pacification of the tribes. Afterwards, he went about among the recent rebels, showing them that there was no animosity on the part of the Americans and that so long as they were peaceable they could count on friendliness and justice. He won the hearts of the various chieftains and their followers and was made a "datto," a native ruler, in recognition of their respect and confidence. Sometimes he wished he could go over there and take up the mantle of “datto” over that of the President. Because as soon as one problem was solved here, ten more arose to take its place.

Like Japan. Relations with Japan were pretty touchy. He had moved tooth and nail to try to get California to not pass the Japanese – Exclusion Act. The Gentleman’s Agreement was working fine, but even one new Japanese was too much for the citizens of California, so they passed it anyway. And the Japanese screamed and howled over it and there was nothing he could do. Oh well. It would be his successors problem.

His successor. And when would his successor be? 1925 or 1929? He had to decide. Did he want a second term? No. Did he really think the country needed him? No. Then did he actually have a compelling reason to seek a second term?

In the end the decision was no decision at all.

[1] In OTL Pershing decided to bring his family with him to Fort Blis. The arrangements were almost complete when a tremendous tragedy occurred at the Presidio on 27 August 1915: the quarters were destroyed by fire and Mrs. Pershing and the three little girls died in the holocaust. Only his son Warren survived. In this TL Pershing is pulled away to Washington and his family comes with him and are spared. This creates a significant difference in Pershing’s personality from OTL, and is the main reason why he runs for office in this TL while he refused in ours. He also has greater experience in politics, dealing with coalitions and other nations longer and more intensely in this TL.

--

Thoughts?

US in WWI 1915: Part 3: Fall of the Republic

As the war years passed further into memory, more and more of Europe tried to put the whole affair behind them. But it was proving especially hard to awake from the nightmare of the past. The massive new cemeteries, the millions of crippled men, the deep trench line running through a continent, all helped remind people and politicians of what had gone before.

In the west, Germany was in the worst shape. Inflation was running rampant, and had sunk to 400 marks to the dollar in 1921. The German government asked for a postponement of payments. With inflation so far out of control, it was unreasonable for the victorious powers to expect Germany to keep paying out hard gold and other valuable commodities in currency. There simply wouldn't be any left in all of Germany soon. The US and Britain were sympathetic to these please, both just wanting to put the whole affair behind them, but the French and the Russians flatly refused.

The winter of 1922 was a cold and dark one for Germany. The German government was in a difficult decision. If they continued trying to pay the reparations there would almost certainly be civil unrest. The coalition government was hanging together by a thread, and the socialists were screaming how if _they_ were in power the Russians and French would never dare treat fellow workers in such a way. And more and more Germans were abandoning the mainstream candidates and going over to extreme fringe groups who were becoming not so fringe. Yet, if the Government DID refuse to pay reparations, what they? What would the French and the Russians do? In the end they decided to roll the dice and hope for the best.

The announcement hit Paris and Moscow like a bomb shell. Both France and Russia had begun to depend on reparations for a number of budgetary maters (the Russians needed all the money they could get), and there was the principle of the thing. France and Russia were right on the border of Germany. The scars of war were on their land. And now, Germany didn't want to help them heal those scars because it was too tough? Well, tough.

In May of 1922, the French Army occupied the industrial part of Germany known as the Ruhr, the Russians though decided to do one better. The German Army was a shell of its former self, the Czar and his advisors were sure that it couldn't withstand the mighty force of the Russian Army. They would march too, only they would have a different target, Berlin.

Soon after the ultimatum was received in Berlin (basically “pay the money or else”) a furious debate broke out in the cabinet. If the government were to reverse its position now, before anything happened, it would look incredibly weak and beholden to the Russians. But again that pesky other side of the coin popped up. There was that whole, “Russian Army Marching to Berlin” thing to consider.

International opinion was largely against the French and Russians. The American loudly chastised their former allies for planning another attack on a defeated foe and acting with such unilateralism. They said that all such problems should be worked out through the League of Nations, not through independent military actions. The French and Russian response to this was that Germany was breaking the treaty the League had agreed to, and thereby no permission from the League of Nations was needed. This was not the interpretation the Americans had and the whole affair was regarded as pure self interest justification on the part of the Europeans.

But the Czar did not care two sniffs of used snuff about the opinion of the United States. Russian needed money. Germany owed Russia money. Germany has a very small army. Russia had a very large army. Germany would pay Russia.

But according to the Republic, Germany would not pay Russia. The German Government was sick and tired of being pushed around. It was ready to grasp at any straw, and grasp it did. The French occupation of the Ruhr (which was currently be dealt with by non-violent resistance) was remarkably quick compared with the Russians. Many hoped that it meant the Czar was just bluffing and some sort of deal would be worked out.

Unfortunately for Germany it was no bluff. The Russians took a while to get ready, but when they were they came like a steamroller. Making remarkable progress, the Russian forces looked like they would easily take Berlin without a struggle. And then the German government caved. The Reichswehr was pressuring it considerably to fight. To support non-violent resistance in the Ruhr was hard enough to stomach, but to let the Russians barbarians take Berlin without a fight was intolerable. But even more intolerable to the government was to fight a war it knew that it would lose. The Russian ambassador received a rather urgent meeting. And while the Russian forces were mere days away from Berlin, a deal was worked out. Germany would restart reparations. To grind salt into the wound the Czar demanded that the cost of mobilization and invading Germany be added to its bill. With gritted teeth, the Germans accepted. Payments resumed and within a month of entering, the French and the Russians left.

The German economy continued to sink lower and lower, and after this humiliation many began to speak of it as only being a matter of time before the government was overthrown. There was a widespread feeling of discontent in the air. The German people had rallied to their government when it had defied the French and Russians, only to have all their hopes and inspirations crushed when it caved in. To many, the worst part was that it all happened without a fight.

It was a particularly hot summer afternoon when a bread riot broke out. It began small, but perhaps it was the heat, or the lingering frustration, or just bad timing, but it grew and grew. Soon various extremist groups of every type were fighting each other in the street. The police tried there best to stop it, but they were not powerful enough. Mobs attacked many government buildings, and both left and right extremists began kidnapping or assassinating politicians they didn't like. The government was very nervous as report after report of anarchy came in. It soon decided it would be best to take flight. Better to control things from outside a riot than from within one.

While escaping, it ordered the Reichswehr to march into Berlin and restore order. This was the final straw. The Republic Government was leading Germany into disaster. It was caving to Germanys enemies too readily, and had shown itself unwilling to fight too often. If things continued as they were, who knew what type of regime could take over.

Phone calls were made. Quick deals were struck, and the civilian government was quietly placed under protective custody by the Reichswehr. An announcement was made that Germany was now under temporary marshal law.

The Germans troops who marched into Berlin were professional and knew what they were doing. Block by block, street by street, they took over the city, hitting the leftist controlled neighborhoods particularly hard. General Erich Ludendorff, the de facto leader of the Junta was pleased with the progress. Berlin was under the control of the right people again. And from Berlin, Germany.

US in WWI 1915: Part 4: Imperium et libertas

It's ten years after the Great War ended, and two Empires dominate the globe. The United States, who was arguably the most powerful country in the world in 1917 has withdrawn almost entirely in her shell. Increasingly the Americans wish they had just let Europe settle its own quarrel, and in doing so saved hundreds of thousands of American lives. But the dead are dead and all America can do now is try to insure that she never enters such a morass again.

The Great Republic has withdrawn from the world stage, perhaps never to return, and instead, two empires glower against each other across the vast distances that separate them. Distances in the mind, and in the land.

For increasingly the British and the Russian Empires are seen as the premier powers of the day. In the past people talked of the Great Powers, but that phrase has fallen out of usage and a new one has arisen to take its place: The Preeminent Powers.

No one who reads history can not help but to be struck by the similarities to past ages. One dominant on land, the other ruler of the seas. One far flung, one contiguous. One ruled by a Czar, the other moving steadily towards universal suffrage. One growing more and more weary of its power and rule, the other embracing it. To witch will the future belong to?

In 1927, none can say. The Russian Empire's economy was certainly growing at an vast rate, but it was also wracked with internal problems. The Depression of 1924 was now mostly over, and growth had resumed, but the memories lasted. Bread riots in St. Petersburg, the guards being called out, the blood on the street, and once again the Czar had had to make token acquiescence to a legitimate Duma. But just like before it was a sham, and everyone knew that real power was quickly returning back to the throne.

For Nicholas, even though advancing in years, still viewed the fate of the Romonov family as inseparable from the fate of Russia. The two were interlined, and in giving up power he was failing in his duty to God and country.

And God was so trying his country at the moment. Everywhere he looked he saw problems. West Prussia was a continued sore. Even after ten years the people of Prussia had not yet accepted being under Russian rule. There were constant squabbles, and when there weren't squabbles there were plots, and when the plots hatched their were riots, and when there were riots he had to dispatch troops, which always seemed to upset the western powers for some reason.

Not that they could do much about it. It wasn't mentioned much in polite international circles, but he felt Russia was undoubtedly the strongest country in Europe, and would remain so as long as he could keep the French interested in keeping the Germans down. Which France was increasingly disinterested in doing. The French just wanted to till their gardens now. The Double Occupation was the last spurt of the war years, and after that they had become increasingly lackluster willing to do what it took to keep Germany downs. They'd even agreed to a conference with the German Junta to discus the possibility of revisions of various parts of the treaties. Nicholas could only shake his head, such was the folly of democracy, and such would his country be if he allowed it.

Enemies had to be kept down. He saw that, why couldn't they? Yes, all this industrial growth and railroads Russia was building were very nice, but they would only turn into booty for Russia's enemies, both foreign and domestic, if he let his guard down. The Mensheviks had created a disturbingly large amount of trouble during the Panic of ’24. They had been stomped on, and stomped on hard, yet like rats they seemed to flourish and grow. Nicholas had few ideas how he could destroy them, save stopping harder.

Which quite a few members of the Duma were perfectly willing to go along with. The Russian Patriot Party of the Common Man was proving a particularly useful ally. The whole idea of having Parties as allies was strange and bizarre to Nicholas, but his advisors mainly took care of the messy details.

Not all his enemies where within his borders of course. The Japanese were increasingly becoming interested in Manchuria. Since the Russo-Japanese war Manchuria had largely been their sphere of influence, but the war had changed a great deal. More and more Russia's development was being done in the East and the South. To allow the Japanese to build a strong foothold in which to strike at Russia could not be allowed.

But the Japanese were allied with the British. The British. At least the Americans had had the good sense to go home and mind there own damned business after the war, but not the British. Still they thought of themselves as the rulers of the world. What would they do?

Nicholas didn't know, but he wondered how far he could push. He wondered a great deal.

US in WWI 1915: Part 5: Don't Trust Them in the Dark

What the British would do would be to desperately try to keep the peace at almost any cost. The British were tired. They had lost many men in the war, and unlike the Czar, the British rulers had to at least make some shows of support for what the common man wanted, and what the common man wanted was to ignore all that irrelevant geo-political bull and get to work on really creating a land fit for heroes.

The Depression of ’24 had been bad in Britain, but manageable. Labor and the Socialists had picked up a bunch of seats, and some progressive measures had been passed, but nothing as dramatic as the Americans “Rebirth of Fairness” had come about. Yet, recovery was now here all the same, and Britain chugged on while her empire chugged on with her.

Not that most Britons cared about the Empire. The local papers devoted five times as much space to the local sports news as they did to what happened far away to a bunch of people only a few desk jockeys at colonial affairs office actually knew anything about, and even they didn't know that much.

Yet, numerous politicians clamored about the empire. It was a nifty and grand stage to act on, but I'm sure the real reason they cared about it was that it was only through the Empire that Britons safety, and security, and prosperity were guaranteed, eh wot? Take for instance this riot in India. Now, now doubt it was a regrettable tragedy that those protesters had been shot last year, but what would have happened if that rot had been allowed to spread? The whole of India would have gone into chaos, and that would have been a lot worse, wouldn't it? I mean, sure Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's death poem that he wrote from his hospital bead was moving and all, but the man had only just last year been a believer in constitutional change, and as soon as he switched to agitation he ends up dead. Surely there is a lesson to be learned there?

And most of the rest of the Empire was at peace. Even the newly created Anglo-Arabs seemed to be getting used to their new lifestyle. The thrill of the Bedouin seemed to fit the British style to a T. The British were kind, just, boyish masters there. I mean, they were certainly better than the alternative, right? What would it be like if the Jews had been allowed to flood into Palestine like they were before the war? Why, it would be nothing but agitation, turmoil and strife. The Local Landlords let the Jews buy land with no regard for civil harmony, but the British had put a stop to that once it was obvious what problems that created. Instead, the Jews had gone to America. Or at least they had before the Crash of ’24 when America practically closed off immigration. Now . . . well, they'd get by in Europe, surely?

And the Dominions had just signed the Treaty of York, showing the glorious future of self government within the empire that awaited all British colonies. You know, in a century or two. Or possibly three. Lets see how things go, shall we?

Traveling around the world one could not help but be struck by how much worse things would be if Britain was not the top dog. But as Winston Churchill never failed to remind people, if Britain wasn't careful, Britain would not be top dog much loner. Germany had grown powerful enough to pose a threat to Britain in 1914, and there was every indication that Russia was growing even more powerful still. Her army was the largest the world had ever known, and if you completely ignored logistics she could use that army to take India! Horrors.

But more and more people were talking economics. GNP was why Germany had been crushed. To be a world power you needed the largest amount of world production as possible, and the figures were not looking good for Britain.

% Of World Total GP

UK , 1913 13.6%, 1928 10.3%

US , 1913 32.0%, 1928 36.1%

Gr. ,1913 14.8%, 1928 10.1%

Fr., 1913 6.1%, 1928 6.7%

Ru., 1913 8.2%, 1928 10.9%

AH., 1913 4.4%

It., 1913 2.4%, 1928 2.8% [1]

The Russian Empire was .6% higher than Britain. That didn't seem like much, but combined with her growth rate it produced some scary prospects for the future. The Russian fleet was no match for Britain, . . . yet. But who knew what would happen to it in the future. Already Britain heard rumors of plans to build a fleet that would be able to travel the world, and cause those in far off lands to respect the glorious Russians and their Czar.

And their were all the progoms and reparations of various minorities in the Russian empire. Those made sensational press, especially when they were good white people like the Prussians. Just one more log of fuel on the fire.

It all just added up. The bullying of Turkey, the Bulling of Japan, the Bullying of German, it was fast becoming clear that Russia was no longer willing to confine herself to herself, but instead was trying to become supreme in the world. But Britain was tired A direct fight was impossible, but Britain could not stand idly by while some other power tried to assume world dominance. Likewise, Russia could not accept a power who would deny her proper place in the sun. And so, with a heavy heart over a period of months, what everyone had been dreading became a reality, the entente was over. And people began asking, “How long until the second Great Game begins?”

[1] OTL's numbers where:

UK , 1913 13.6%, 1928 9.9%, 1938 10.7%

US , 1913 32.0%, 1928 39.3%, 1938 31.4%

Gr. ,1913 14.8%, 1928 11.6%,1938 12.7%

Fr., 1913 6.1%, 1928 6.0%, 1938 10.7%

Ru., 1913 8.2%, 1928 5.3%, 1938 9.0%

AH., 1913 4.4%

It., 1913 2.4%, 1928 2.7%, 1938 2.8%

US in WWI 1915: Part 6: 1927 - 1932: Brief Biographies

GEORGE S. PATTON JR. winces in pain as he walks out of his door and looks at the long distance that separates him from his morning paper. Absolutely it's only a couple of yards, but relatively it looks like a marathon run to George. A little over ten years ago he wouldn't have thought about it. A little over ten years ago, George was at the highlight of his life; leading his men in a time war. He still remembered the sounds and sight of all the glorious battles he had lived through. And then, two months before the end of the war, a shell fragment hit his hip, shattering the bones as well as piercing his bowels. He had been taught to walk (in a fashion) in the long painful years of recovery, but despite a number of surgery operations his digestive system had never fully recovered and his health had suffered for it. He was constantly sick and over time so much of his energy had been drained out of him just fighting off illness after illness that he was frequently a depressed man. It had been all he could manage just to write his memoirs. "War as I Knew It," sold well enough for him to afford this modest home, with some help from his disability pension, but sales had been dropping steadily. The book was old, and styles had changed. Does anybody want to read about the glories of war anymore? Maybe. The only way George will find out will be if he finally gets around to re-starting that novel he's toyed with. But could he do that if he didn't even have the energy to get a paper? Probably not. He doesn't want to give in. He'd doesn't want to be constantly sick. He wants to be back in the army, but that road is now denied to him. This one is open to him. Does he have the strength to walk down it? There is only one way to find out.

HENRY FORD looks around the snow covered city of St. Petersburg and smiles to himself. Now truly this is a land made for industry. None of that "Rebirth of Fairness" crap here. The Czar has personally invited him to set up a new plant in Russia, and show just what Yankee ingenuity could do. And Ford has big ideas. He'd got a lot of promises before he had came over to set up shop. None of that Union crap, none of that worker disability crap, just good old honest days work for an honest days pay. Except during the worst of the slump, Russia had been growing at pretty impressive rates. Plant after plant, factory after factory, all had seemed to have sprouted up on the fertile soil Russia. The only troubling thing was that when he had told his Russian workers how many cars they were supposed to produce a month, they had thought he'd meant in a year. Well, Henry Ford is going to prove the wrong. If he can't get mass production capitalism to flourish in Russia, were can he?

VLADIMIR ILICH LENIN is back in Switzerland. He was so sure that the time was right, but he had misjudged. During the worst of the Worldwide Slump, there was rioting in the streets against a dictatorial government, and unrest in the countryside. Everything Marx had predicted was coming to be. But it had ended so bloodily. The soldiers fired on the protesters, the police arrested his closest allies, and he had to flee the country as fast as he could. It looked like Revolution would not come to Germany in the immediate future. He flipped through the pages of his newspaper. Perhaps back in Russia though . . .

ALFRIED KRUPP stares at the news article. His business hasn't been doing well lately, but this was probably good news. He had thanked his God when the Junta had come to power. Surely a good military regime was just what could set the Fatherland back on track. And surely they would need lots of good Krupp steel to do so. But they had been strangely reluctant to order too many goods from Krupp. With so much of the wealth of the Fatherland was going to pay those bastards in Paris and St. Petersburg there wasn't that much to pay for new weapons. And during the worst of the Great Slump the Regime had been very reluctant to spend money on anything but keeping the people from rioting. Things had gotten very bad for a while. The Rhineland Riot hadn't been a civil war, but it hadn't exactly been only a riot either. Alfred Krupp had friends in high places and knew just how worried the regime was. But now the French had finally cracked in their solidarity with the Russians. They were just now coming around to the belief that beggaring their neighbor just wasn't cost effective. So they were willing to talk about reforming the reparation system, but only with a democratic regime. Elections had been promised to happen a year from now, and now Krupp was actually beginning to wonder if that might not be a good thing?

ADOLPH HITLER is sure that it will be a good thing. When the Military Regime had first come to power he had thrown the National Socialists behind it and it had paid off handsomely. He had a nice cushy government job, and had been allowed to make a number of speeches, all of which tactfully blamed all the problems Germany was going through on the Republic. The Nazi Party wasn't officially in operation of course. No party was officially in operation. But for something that didn't exist the Nazi party had a surprisingly large staff. If, (when his mind shouted), the elections came about he was sure he would be able to grab maybe as many as 20 or even 30 seats.

JAWAHALA NEHRU is languishing in a jail cell. It's not the first time he's been in one, but he is worried that it might be his last. Oh, he doesn't actually think the British will put a bullet in his brain. They are bastards, but he understands what type of bastards they are. But this cell is damp, and he hasn't been feeling well since he caught that nasty bug in '30. His moral doesn't help him much either. The cause wasn't going where he wanted it to go. Oh sure, the elites were behind him but the masses remained silent. If every Indian pissed on a Britain, the English would be swept to the sea in a yellow tidal wave. But instead the masses cared little for politics and toiled their earth. There were protests in colleges, but the British ignored these as much as they did many others. Nehru was sure that eventually the Indian masses would awake. They just had to be shown the way by their betters. Perhaps another article and the socio-economic problems inherit in the imperialist framework would be the way to go?

CECIL B. demise is putting together the biggest motion picture of all time. It's going to be great! It'll be swell! It'll have them on the edge of their seat until they get tired of that and start cheering in the aisles. The extra he's using are incredibly expensive, but never have so many stars been assembled for one show. The Gimmick? The Somme. What better topic to make a movie about than the biggest battle in military history? He's even thrown in a few Brits in the hope of getting a bit of the foreign market. The biggest problem he has is how to work in the anti-war theme while still making the movie a glorious extravaganza? But Cecil is confident. If anyone can do it, he can.

ISHIWARA KANJI is aware that he stands on trial. He is aware of the gravity of the situation. He is aware of the consequences of his actions. He is aware that he has a number of behind the scene supporters. He is also aware that they might not be able to do anything for him. He acted against orders. He invaded a sovereign country. But he had come to the grip of victory. And then the Russians came. Japan and Russia had made agreements about Manchuria, and the Czar really didn't care much that Ishiwara was acting against orders from Tokyo. Perhaps he didn't even believe it. Whatever he thought, he had moved troops in to defend the government of Manchuria. Ishiwara's army had a hard enough time just dealing with the Manchurians, with the Russians in the mix he hadn't had a chance. So Russia and Japan stood on the brink of war, and in the end Japan had to cave. The government fell, the army was discredited, and he knew that the emperor was personally furious at the shame his actions had brought to Japan. He wondered if the tribunal would allow him to take care of things in a way that could save his country any further dishonor.

QUENTIN ROOSEVELT is going over the last few notes before he goes up to the podium. He is more nervous for this debate than for any other event in his political career. As well he should, for he is the youngest candidate for the Vice Presidency in US history. His age would have killed him for the top spot, (or probably would have he thinks after remembering Bryant), but things that would kill a chance at the top spot are often overlooked for a VP. He knew he had a couple of spots that were overlooked, not least of which was his liberal tendencies. He was chosen more for a sop to the liberal wing of the GOP than for much else, and to help insure his state's vote of course. That's just one more reason he has to do good tonight. He has a fair amount of experience in his own right, but he can't help wanting to strive. Ever since WWI he's always been on a quest to prove himself. After leaving Harvard in order to learn how to fly so he could join the war effort he went into the army air force. He assumed he would be sent into battle right away. But it had taken precious months, and four days (FOUR DAYS!) before he was set to take his first action against the enemy the war ended. He was blameless, but in his own mind it was a failure. Since then he'd graduated and had quickly gone into politics. It had been a quick ride, and now here he was running for VP. Just like Dad. Quentin takes a deep breath and goes out to meet his opponent. Commentators have been talking about the coincidence for a while now, might as well give them a show.

FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT jauntily walks off the stage in a trot. He's in a pretty good spirit tonight. In his mind at least he was the clear winner in tonight's debate. And it had been played on the radio live, a first. FDR was glad of that. He knew he had a good voice, and had used it to good effect tonight. If he was honest with himself he knew that he could have had the top spot, but just hadn't pushed himself hard enough. But hey, being VP wouldn't be too bad would it?

CZAR NICHOLAS II lies down in his bed and takes a heavy breath of air. All the air has been heavy lately. His lungs seem to take a great deal of effort to fill. He feels weighted to the bed. It's like he can't move. And then there is a sharp stabbing pain in his chest. He eyes fly open one last time as he lets out a quite gasp. His eyes will remain open until the maid finds him in the morning. She lets out a scream and a doctor is called in. The Czar is dead. Long live the Czarina!

US in WWI 1915: 1933 Man of The Year

From Time Magazine:

On the last day of 1933, who loomed calm, masterful and popular as Man of the Year?

"It hasn’t been as lean a year as in the recent past, but we've still got a long way to go," said Prime Minister James Ramsay MacDonald with suppressed emotion.

The year 1933 sent Jawaharlal Nehru disgruntled back to India; faced Czarina Olga with an unsteady assumption of power as the first Czarina since Catherine the Great; failed to produce a Fascist government under Adolph Hitler (potential Man of 1934) in the recent semi free election in Germany. But who rose from obscurity to world prominence, steered a Great Power safely through 1933, closed the year on a peak of popularity among his countrymen?

Only one man did these things and at the height of his sudden greatness wagged an explanatory finger at President Ludendorff. The keynote of 1933 was sounded by Man-of-the-Year Pierre Laval as he went to Berlin: "The severe correctional and disciplinary period is under consideration."

Twelve months ago Pierre Laval was as obscure--even in France. But what a year its been.

On the morning of Jan. 24, 1933 there was yet another French crisis. The Cabinet had fallen following charges that the Minister of Finance had misappropriated Germany's reparation funds, thus paving the way for the new Laval Cabinet.

February: Just getting into his stride, Premier Laval pledged France to observe the One year Naval Holiday proposed by Britain. It is widely regarded that only France's compliance convinced Russia to go along as well, thus heading off a potentially dangerous naval race between the Pre-Eminent Powers.

March: Faced by Anarcho-Syndicalists riots in French Indo-China, the Premier convened the High Colonial Council in Paris for the first time in three years and studied critically the results of guillotining 700 native Anarchists in the past two years--with the result that the Minister of Colonies is now in the Far East "sympathetically examining native grievances."

April: The conciliatory policy toward Germany that has been gaining speed first kicked into high gear, with the first conference that produced definite (but minor revisions) of the reparations. The revision was tied to Germany setting a firm date for elections, and more were promised depending on how fair the elections were.

May: France won its bid for the 1944 Olympics, thanks in a large part to Laval's strong campaigning. 1944 promises to be a memorable year for France.

June: Premier Laval showed his tough mettle by hammering out a trade deal with the US. The Trade Wars of the 20’s are now regarded as having been very detrimental and a major cause of the World Slump, but fixing them will not come automaticaly, but Laval and others like him have taken the first steps.

July: M. Laval signed the Middle East Accord after tense negotiations in Moscow. Czarina Olga is showing herself more accommodating than Czar Nicholas ever did

August: The Premier in his character of Worker, Driver, Leader recuperated in the grand manner by taking the cure at Vichy where go so many Frenchmen.

September: Premier Laval junketed to Berlin, where he conferred with Ludendorff about the semi free election. Ludendorff claimed the new revision of reparation didn't go far enough, and Laval claimed that the elections weren't free enough. The meeting achieved little or nothing, but boosted his fame enormously.

October: Pierre Laval made the journey to Washington. D.C. that stamped his name upon millions of U.S. minds and swelled his fame throughout the world. The President challenged the French thesis of "Security before Disarmament," insisting on "real disarmament" when the Disarmament Conference meets.

November: The French Unemployment Rate hit a high not seen since 1924, at the beginning of the Great Slump.

December: Chamber and Senate passed not only numerous routine Budget bills and the like but also approved several highly controversial steps involving the tightening up of security in France's colonies. He also squashed any further immediate plans for revision of reparations saying, “We have given Germany a lifeline. That is enough collaboration for now.”

"Tenez bon! Hold tight!" shouted a delighted auditor.

"I always do!" cried the Man-of-the-Year

US in WWI 1915: 1939 Suruna

The Royal Palace, St. Petersburg. December 25, 1939

“So this is Christmas,” thought Czarina Olga. “And what has it brought?” The view from her elegant window is not a pleasant one. It is the exact same view she has always looked out of, but the mood is different. This is no longer her city. Or at least not entirely.

It is said that the most dangerous time in any regimes life is when it tries to reform. Was that her mistake? Did she try to push to fast? Or is it democracy? Is that the problem? Is life just too complex to be left in the hands of the people. Many thought so. The decades since the war had certainly not been kind to democracy. But all the richest and most powerful countries, France, the UK, and the US, are democratic, and to her it seemed the way to go. And yet, one of the most popular Russian parties is one that promised to take away those advances.

So why had the people pressed for democracy so much? Did they really just desire a new modern dictatorship, instead of the familiar autocracy? She didn't think so, but their were plenty who did. And plenty who didn't, thank God, or she might not be . . . here right now.

Her old nemesis, the aging Nikolai Maklakov is still a big force at the back of the League of the Russian People (Soyuz Russkogo Naroda or Soruna as it is called in the West). He is approaching 70 now, but still heavily in the game. It was odd, how much she had worked to kick him out of government service, and now he was her greatest ally.

It was common knowledge to her now that there was a split in the Suruna party. Half of them, mainly old Black Hundreds, still regard the Czar as all important, and all powerful. The other half, the newer tougher breed that had been baptized in war, do not put so much faith in her. For now, Maklakov’s faction have their way. But Olga knows it is a thin line.

Czar, Faith, Motherland. That is the official slogan of Suruna after all. It was what attracted so many voters. Industrialization had hit Russia hard. And her social modernization had not gone down as well as she had once hoped. What was a peasant to do when he moved to the big city, and had everything he knew turned around? He'd turn to someone promising something familiar, and yet newly glorified and modernized at the same time. And the Suruna gave him that.

Of course, the peasants are not their only support. Suruna’s glorification of power sucked in too many of the young cadets. Too many who are sure that the Czarina was being deceived by false ministers, and that they, THEY, could save mother Russia. She should have seen it coming.

She _did_ see it coming, damn it. If only they hadn't done so well in the last election. If only so many of them hadn't been in the Okhrana. If only the recession hadn't hit Russia so hard. If, if, if, if. She has to concentrate on the now.

She has a . . . meeting with Ivan Dimitrov, that fish-monger who some how rides his party like a horse and is the leader behind the coup. She had a choice. She could work with him . . . or face the consequences.

She doesn’t think they would kill her. That would be too despicable, even for them. But confinement, even forced abdication is not out of the question. And what then? Civil War? What would that do to the country? What would Russia's enemies do to her while she was distracted?

In the ends she decides that she has to make herself useful, necessary even, to the Suruna. She is young, only 45. She could outlast these bastards. She will play them like a fiddle, and when the time was ripe they would pay for their assumption of her prerogatives.

The door opens.

"Dimitrov, what a pleasure to finally meet you.” She says with a smile. “I believe we can accomplish a great many things for Russia . . . together.”

US in WWI 1915: 1940 The Rising Stars

As 1940 drew to a close these were them . . .

WINSTON SPENCER CHURCHILL had just arrived in India and would soon assume the post of Viceroy, making him the head honcho of a sub-continent. Nice job if you could get it. And it seemed to him to be a fitting end to a long and distinguished career. He also had plans to write a grand multi-volume history of Anglo-India, and it wouldn't hurt to get some first hand experience at ruling it, his editors would appreciate that. Not only that, but he was getting old and feared this would be his last significant post. The last few years had been a rather strange trip for him through the political roller coaster. People had finally begun to wake up to the Russian threat that he had talked about for so long. Sometimes he wondered if he hadn't been given this job just to get him out of the way. But whatever the reason; He was here and Winston was determined to make his mark on India. This was his canvas. It was time to paint.

NETAJI SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE looked around the conference room in triumph. It had taken time, it had taken effort, but right then he knew that these were his men. He was the leader, and they would follow him where he took them. The time for action was now. Nehru had been too patient with the British, but now it was his turn. The Indian Congress had issued a demand for _Poorna Swaraj_ (complete freedom). It gave the British six months to hand India over to the Indians, failing which there would be a revolt. That was three months ago. It didn't look like it was going to be met, especially with that new baboon of a Viceroy they were sending. Instead of caving in, the British were striking back at India's leaders. Bose himself was on the arrest-on-sight list for treasonous activities, and he was far from being alone on that list. But that was all right, for they had planned for this. The Indian Congress was dissipated across the country and many top leaders were in hiding. The British didn't want to do things the easy way, fine. It was only through violent struggle that the masses of India would finally awaken. In their hearts, Bose knew they yearned for that, and he would give it to them. In three months.

ENRICO FERMI was pleased as punch (an expression he wouldn't have understood) after the publication of his on the capture of neutrons by carbon. It's sure to be a ground breaking work that will be read by every important nuclear physicist in the world. He'll be going to Germany soon for a meeting with Albert Einstein. Perhaps the trip will turn into a permanent vacation. He has . . . issues with the new regime in his home land.

BENITO MUSSOLINI didn't think he was getting enough credit. Franco was practically worshiping at the alter of that fish monger in Saint Petersburg, while forgetting Rome. Hell, that was true of the whole world. It wasn't fair. His Party had seized power months before Dimitrov, but the entire world was talking about _cobmecthoe_ and then only mentioning fascism only as an appendage. Well he would show them. They had laughed at the first March on Rome when he was throne in jail, and they had laughed when he tried to rebuild his party over the next decade. But he had played the parliamentary game, and finally after a particularly juicy government scandal during the worst days of the Second Great Slump he and his allies in the Army had taken Rome. It had been a damned close thing. But now he had his hands on the weal of state, and it was time to take the lady out for a spin.

FRANCISCO FRANCO was fighting on the outskirts of his provisional capital city. He knew that he would have been fighting on the _inskirts_ of it, if it hadn't been for the timely arrival of the Italian “volunteers.” The forces of Anarcho-Syndicalism had gained such an upper hand, but finally the forces of order had a big tough friend to back them.

TOJO HIDEKI was worried for his country when he assumed the position of Prime Minister. In 1931, following the humiliation of the Manchurian adventure in which Russia forced the Japanese to back down and apologize, over a thousand fiery young soldiers had tried to institute a military coup in Tokyo. They murdered several politicians and occupied most of Tokyo's government buildings before Emperor Hirohito ordered the army to crush the rebellion. At the time Tojo was in command of the First Infantry Regiment in Tokyo. This Regiment bore some of the toughest of the street fighting and Tojo frequently put himself in dangerous positions. His quick mind, and decisiveness actions earned him the nickname of “The Razor” as well as a promotion. Over the years he had advanced further and further in the ranks until now when relations with Russia were deteriorating fast, the army had turned to him for the highest political post in Japan. Russia had managed to force Japan out of Manchuria when Japan invaded, but what could Japan do if the situation was reversed?

PETER GOLDMARK was pleased to announce that CBS had a marketable color technology, consisting of a part electronic, part mechanical spinning color wheel system. With approximately 40,000 television sets operating in America (And over 200,000 in Britain the world's leader in Television technology), he had great hopes that his new improvement would help expand the market.

And the new American President Elect was very busy getting his cabinet ready . . .

US in WWI 1915: Part 11: 11 Short Scenes from the 1940’s

Well, I pulled this out of the closet again. I just felt like I wanted to bring it to some sort of “end” but I knew I didn't have the time or energy to write it long style. So you're just going to get the quick and dirty version.

Now, in Chronological order.

ADOLPH HITLER closed his eyes as the mask was placed over his head. Curse them. Curse them all. It was their fault that this was happening. Fascism had come about in Russia. It had happened in Italy and Spain too, so why not Germany? Because of them. They had thwarted him and ruined his coup. Someday Germany would realize what a threat they were and then they would pay. Oh how they would pay. And he, Adolph Hitler, would be remembered as the hero that he was. This thought comforted him and he felt the rope go over his neck.

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QUENTIN ROOSEVELT listened intently to the radio broadcast and then it was finally over. He was now President Elect of the United states. Quentin could hardly believe he had made it this far. His nomination for President singled a major shift for the Republicans. Ever since a few years after the war, the country had moved more and more leftward. The Democrats managed to seize this opportunity and had been in primary control for the last 16 years. But finally the GOP old guard realized that the change wasn't going away, and the Republicans had shifted to match the times. It was now time to see if the Party of Lincoln could return to the spirit of Lincoln. His outreach to the northern Negro vote had cost him the South, but Republicans would never be big in the South anyway, so it was probably worth it. Time would tell.

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CHIANG KAI SHEK looked at his map one last time and said, “Commence the operation.” For too long he had allowed their to be two Chinas. No more. He had defeated all of his internal enemies and united China. It had been long and hard struggle, especially against those elusive Anarcho-syndicalists, but it was now over. Every warlord, every province China was his, except those in Manchuria. Still the Russians, and to a certain extent the Japanese, ruled their puppets and refused to even consider the idea of Manchuria resuming its rightful place as part of Mother China. They could not deny the right of national self determination! This was the 1940’s, and it was not only his right, but his duty to reclaim land stolen from China. He would set things right.

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THE JAPANESE AMBASSADOR convened with his Russian counterpart. This was unacceptable. Russia and Japan had issues with each others presence in Manchuria, but neither had any wish to allow it to fall to Chiang. This was a complete breach of numerous treaties. This aggression would not stand. That was the easy part. The hard part was determining what exactly to do about it. The Russians had far more resources than the Japanese, and they could counterattack and retake all of Manchuria a lot faster than the Japanese. The Japanese didn't like this at all. If only Russian forces were in Manchuria it wasn't too hard to see which country would control it after the peace. There wasn't nothing that Japan could do about it, its army in Manchuria was small and under funded, because after the debacle in ’31 the Japanese government didn't trust it to be anything else. It had suffered severe losses to Chiang initial invasion. Troops were being built up now, but Russia would beat Japan to the punch. Japan would have to be compensated in other areas.

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NETAJI SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE dogged a bullet that rang past his room. New Delhi was a battleground of immense proportions. The War of Revolution had begun! His forces already controlled Delhi and the surrounding areas, and soon they would spread to all of India. That fool of a Viceroy Churchill had slipped out of his grasp and ran south. Let him run, all the way back to England. For soon the British would be out, and India would be for the Indians.

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KURT SCHUMACHER sat down in the Prime Minister's chair. It was his after all. There was a lot of worry that the Army would not actually allow him to assume the office, but in the end they did. It would be a tricky next few years, trying to liberalize the country without threatening the army too much, but Schumacher was always willing to fight for his beliefs.

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NIKOLAI MAKLAKOV enjoyed the new map that had been presented to him. Manchuria was now shown as part of Russia, and occupied Northern China was shown in a special color code. Southern China was shown as occupied by Japan, but he knew that was misleading. It was actually areas where Japanese armies could quickly bolt from their cities strongholds, make quick forays into the countryside, and then return as quickly as possible. But northern China was ruled by Soruna (*Fascist) Russia pretty firmly. He was wise to push for limited gains, and his faction would gain power for it. He was getting old. Some of the younger members would have to be taking on more responsibility from now on. This may have been his last major policy decision.

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WINSTON CHURCHILL tried to resist smiling but couldn't. He knew it wouldn't do well for others to see him gloating over the deaths of so many Indians but he couldn't help it. He had won! He had stopped the Second Mutiny and crushed his foes. His adventurous escape from New Delhi was a heroic journey that would live on forever. He would go down in history as one of India's greatest viceroys. He knew this would be so, because he was going to write the history. How could he not gloat! The only rain cloud on his horizon were these disturbing reports he was getting to treat the Indians with leniency.

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CHARLES DE GAULLE wondered around waste deep in the fetid jungles of Northern Vietnam. He was on his way to the new local HQ and his car broke down so he had to continue on foot. It was frustrating, but not nearly so much as looking for the ever elusive Anarcho-Syndicalists. They kept infiltrating from the safe havens that Japan gave them in Southern China. Would the French government ever get off their ass and allow its soldiers to attack Japan?

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QUENTIN ROOSEVELT watched as his successor took the oath of the Presidency. It had been a long eight years. Full of some successes and some defeats. But that was true of every presidency. On the whole, he thought he had done a good job. The Philippines were now an independent country, a shiny example to the Europeans and the Japanese to decolonize. The economy had been bad for the first two years of his term, but was going quite well now. Maybe it was a good thing that Social Security, the Federal Reserve, and the International World Bank still existed. It was also weird to think that when he took office Televisions were a rarity, but by the end of it about half the families in America had one. His desegregation campaign hadn't gone as far as he would have liked, but his successor was going to push for it too. Indeed, that was probably a major reason his successor had got the job. When the Dixiecrats bolted it had split the democrats, with the inevitable result. There was now ferrous infighting and it looked like the Democrat Racial Reactionaries were going to win. That probably helped his party, but he was sad to see it happen anyway. If both parties could combine to push for it, racial improvement would happen a lot faster. But that was not to be. It was going to have to be a partisan effort. He hoped his successor was up for the job. Time would tell.

IVAN DIMITROV cried crocodile tears over the death of Nikolai Maklakov. He was a great man and had certainly helped Russia become strong, but his time has passed. He was living not in the late 40’s but in the time when Russia was weak and led by corrupt ministers. Now that Russia had grown strong it was time to reach out. Poland and Prussia were under tight control, as was Manchuria. The Czarina was kept quite. The rebels within the motherland were in jail or dead, and his party now reigned supreme. It was time for action. For centuries, Russia had been denied a warm water port. But no more. The clashes on the border had proved to infuriating, and he was finally going to get rid the running sore of Persia. He didn't fear the Persians, but he did have some doubts about the British. No matter. It was time to roll the dice and see what happened. The invasion of Persia was about to begin.

US in WWI 1915: The Quick and Dirty 50’s.

Russia: The Russian invasion of Persia (never called Iran in the West in this TL) created a huge scare of a second great war. The British Empire, which still held India was terrified by it. The Russians quickly occupied most of the northern half in a way very similar to W.W.II, but then their logistical structure began to faultier and the advance petered out. The *Fascist running Russia picked army leaders more for loyalty than talent and this had predictable results. The Raj funneled literally tons of weapons and supplies to the beleaguered Iranians. This helped, but in the end the Russian forces were too big and the entire country was occupied. The Czarina worked behind the scenes to convince a number of influential people that the cost had been too high, and combined with the growing complaints over corruption, Ivan Dimitrov’s (the leader of the *Fascists) kudos from victory were largely negated by this. By this time the Russian economy is the second largest in the world with a bullet. The second closest is the combined economies of the British Empire and Dominions. The end of the 50’s saw a slowly down of the hot house economic growth though. Many blamed this on the institutional corruption, the increasingly closed economic policies of the Russian government, and the large costs of occupying Northern China, Persia, Prussia, and other areas of the Empire.

Japan has grown increasingly militarized over the last few decades. Even though the world economic situation had stabilized, the intense fluctuations of the last couple of decades had radicalized a number of officers. When combined with the ongoing war in Southern China the end result was a split civilian military rule, with the military in the dominant position. The economy is by far the biggest in Asia, but increasingly has been faltering. The costs of the China occupation is very draining on the small Japanese economy.

The British Empire is on its last legs and knows it. Despite the brief radicalization of the imperialists after the Second Mutiny/War of Independence/Great Rebellion/Whatever, they were going out of power and knew. Britain's economy and society has grown increasingly democratic over the years, and the people were just no longer willing to hold India against India's will. Near the end of the 1950’s India was given Dominion status and de facto independence. Pakistan never exists in this TL and India keeps stronger ties with Britain in this TL due to the combined Russian/Japanese threat. In Europe, Britain increases its ties to France and Germany to counter the Russian colossus. Outside of India the first large scale independence movements begin to shape up.

India is more nationalistic, and less socialistic than OTL. The insurrection against Britain in the 1940’s left its mark. It only joined the Western Alliance after furious debate, but its PM pushed hard after his experience talking with the Persian government in exile. Better to be allied with a former enemy who used a whip, than to be conquered by one who used a sword.

The Dominion: Canada, Australia, and South Africa are all more closely allied to Britain and Europe, and not at all to the US in comparison to OTL.

The US is an economic giant but a diplomatic and military pygmy. The US is completely isolationists and there is precisely zero interest in being anything else. The cost of the war still haunts the US and most war movies are anti-war. TV shows largely ignore the Great War as too depressing, and instead focus on Westerns. The US takes a look at the world and ignores it. The only alliance it has is a commitment to defend the Philippines if they are ever unprovokedly attacked, and many have a problem with even that. The only exception to this general isolationist trend is in economic matters where the US has came out of its protectivist shell and is beginning to seek a greater free trading environment. Civil Rights become primarily a Republican cause due to Dixiecrat dominance among the Democrats. It takes some effort but by the end of the decade African-Americans can vote throughout all the South and a number of anti-discrimination measures are on the book. The US has the largest economy on the planet, but Russia is closer than any other country has been since the 1900’s. Immigration is still restricted quite heavily, although increasingly Mexicans are beginning to sneak in and have a blind eye turned to them. Hawaii, Alaska becomes states.

Germany is small, and likely to remain that way. There is some talk of trying to get a Union with Austria, but *Fascist Russia says such a move would be a violation of the treaty and would be an act of war, and no Germany politician is willing to risk it. Germans from Russian occupied East Prussia continue to flock to the German Republic. Relations with France and Britain greatly improve as both are beginning to get more and more worried about Russia. By the end, The Western Alliance is formed.

France is regarded as the most powerful country in Europe (increasingly Russia is judged to be non-European. This is an insult.) It watched as Britain gave up the Jewel in the Crown, but it has no intention of doing any such thing in regards to Algeria. Algeria is FRENCH FRENCH FRENCH. Or at least the French in Algeria are. The natives are still treated pretty bad, but the idea that they are people to and should have more rights is just beginning to grow. Especially as more of them emigrate to France.

Italy has a rather shaky democracy after the Death of Mussolini in a palace coup, and weather it will keep it remains to be seen. It is holding talks to join the Western Alliance.

China is divided between Russia and Japan. The Nationalists has been defeated but there are tons of warlords, bandits, Anarcho-Syndicalists, Communists, Anarchists, Fuchowtungists, and NeoNationalists, contesting those occupations. Neither the Japanese, nor the Russians have enough troops to occupy all of China, so large areas of it are pretty much under local control. It's a time of changing alliances, schemes, plots, and dreams of grandeur.

Africa and Asia are largely quietly under European rule, except for Ethiopia and Thailand which are doing so-so (but better than OTL). They are also both neutral in an increasingly polarized world. The South Africans are still in the Empire, although they are making a number of noises. Independent movements grow throughout the 50’s and by the end are something that have to be taken into account in Korea, Indonesia, and Vietnam.

The Philippines are shining example of Independence. They have been a successful democracy for over a decade now and are showing brisk economic growth. Manila is still the US’s main pacific base and spends large amounts of dollars, as well as giving away large numbers of venereal diseases in Angel City.

Spain is under Anarcho-Syndicalist rule! It had been a thin window when the Western Powers had regarded them as less of a threat than a *Fascist Spain, and Franco had made one to many mistakes, and of course the tide of history _was_ on their side, but in the 50’s they had a chance to show what they could do. It wasn't pretty, and would be this worlds best display of Totalitarian-Anarchism (Yes, I know). By the end of the 1950’s the A-S regime is tottering like a drunk on a tightrope.

South America is more openly *Fascist than OTL and the US is less inclined to care. Russia cares nothing for South America so the US doesn’t really feel threatened in the slightest. The increase isolationism also translated into a less desire for the US to intervene.

Middle Europe is mixed. Some of the more reactionary autocracies are allied with Russia in the hopes of getting land from their neighbors. Other reactionary autocracies are allied with the West in the hope of getting land from their neighbors.

The Middle East is largely independent but under heavy European influence. It was never officially colonized by Europe but the League of Nations trusteeships came to end during this decade and the European countries made sure that their replacements would be compliant. The map looks pretty similar to OTL's Middle east, save that there is no Israel. France continued to restrict Jewish immigration to Palestine up until its independence. The new Syrian-Palestinian government is unlikely to change this policy.

The Russo-Japanese Alliance actually includes other countries besides Russia and Japan, but those are the two biggest and most important. It is an alliance of connivance between the Militarists in Moscow and Tokyo brought about largely through their joint occupation of China. Some small Middle European countries also join.

The Western Alliance is a fairly strong. It was brought about largely through the growing Russian threat after the Invasion of Persia. Originally between France and Russia, it spread to include Germany after fear of a Russian take over of all of Europe looked to be a possible threat. It is entirely military in nature however, and includes nothing like OTL's EU. By the end of the 1950’s India joins it as an independent country due to the Russian and Japanese threat.

The Atomic Bomb is a scary invention that most people wished had never came about. Russia was the first to produce one, but any dreams of world conquest her ruler may have had were shattered when the joint Franco-British-German project bore fruit a month later. By the end of the decade both sides had dozens of bombs with more planned on the way. The US, Japan, and India are all working furious to produce their own bombs.

Space is greating man for the first time. The Russians succeed in putting "The Czarina" into orbit, thus setting off the Space Race. The US shows little to no interest, but the Western Alliance tries to pull its resources together, but there are a number of problems to this. The Russians have the advantage of economy of scale.

NON SPELL CHECKED AND EDITED VERSION:

POD: Germany never stops unrestricted submarine warfare in 1915. Relations between the US and Germany deteriate worse than OTL. Germany looks for a way to keep the US busy in case of war, and does something similar to the Zimmerman Telegram. This pisses off the US, but still no war, but the US institutes convoying to protect it’s ships. Germany begins attacking the convoys and this is the last straw. Near the end of 1915 the US delcares war.

Basic Outline of TL:

The US spends the last bit of 1915, and most of 1916 just mobilizing it's army. It's Navy joins the Allies campaign against the Germans. The submarines are a real menance, but with political pressure convoying is introduced and the submarines are no longer a major threat in 1916. The Allies offensives go a little better in 1916 thanks to more US goods and the US service men. It's still not enough to make that much of a significant difference. However, Germany tries to win the war in the west before the US can intervene in significant numbers. It doesn't go as nearly as well as OTL's Michelle offensive because the Germans are busy in Russia as well, and aren't as inovative (no Stormtroopers) as they were in OTL 1918.

Come 1917 the US, British, and French Army vastly outnumbers the Germans on the western front. The US economy has been fully mobelized for war at this point, and artillery and aircraft are in astonishingly large numbers. (and the fist tanks but only a few) The Russian front is going only OK for the Germans, but not nearly as well as OTL. Too many troops must be kept to face the Allies in the West.

The 1917 offensive is large and unstoppable. The Germans are spread to thin, and the Allies are too packed. The Americans have the largest Army at this point, but the British is in good shapes, and the French have one last large offensive left in them.

The losses to Germany are stagering. For the fist time large numbers of German troops are surrendering. The rolling offensive's main problem is logistics, but this is being worked on and improved (but it's no WWII). The German economcy was squeezed harder than in OTL, and facing the horendous losses of 1917 is too much. The high comand finally admits that Germany has no hope of winning. The end comes in mid 1917 when the Germans ask for an armistance and the Kaiser is overthrown and a republic proclaimed.

Astria-Hungary is obviously on the ropes and asks for an armistance too. The Ottoman realizes that she can't face the Allies alone and also asks for an armistance as well.

The peace treaty is like OTL's Versailles but harsher as the Russians side with the French to punish Germany more. East Prussia comes under Russian control, Poland is slightly larger than OTL at Germanys expense (and a Russian puppet), Reparations are higher too. The French don't get a protectorate over the Rhineland, but get something pretty damned close. Russia also supports Italy against A-H and Italy gets more than she did in OTL.

The Ottoman Empire is very rickety as it negotiates the peace treaty, and has to admit to the independence (under French and British control) of large parts of her empire. The Americans have a protectorate over Armenia. The Russian annexations are the worst though. Russia doesn't get Constanople, but she gets a lot and this breaks the back of the Ottoman Empire. Soon after the peace treaty is signed Ataturk takes over, and the Ottoman Empire becomes Turkey.

The League of Nations is also set up. The Democrats have enough of a majority (gained in 1916 as a "don't change horses in mid-stream" type thing and patriotism for our brave boys fighting over there) that dispite a number of really stupid moves on Wilson's part (like not brining any Republicans to Europe) the US joins the League. Barely.

The Czar is shaky, but holding on. Winning the war big time has helped him, but the cost was pretty damned high. Russia, like France, and to a lesser extent Britain, is in debt to the US and these debts are semi-tied to Germanys reparations.

Germany's payment of reparations are little better in this TL due to the more emidiate fear of Russian and French intervention if she doesn't, and some measures to insure payment that didn't happen in OTL. The Republic is even more shakey as a result.

Japan is doing better than OTL. With no Siberian adventure things are a little more stable, and without the Soviet threat the militarist aren't as prominent as OTL. The last of the Genro are dying off, and people are unsure of what the future will bring.

The Democrats get hit bad in the Recession of 1918, and while things improve (the general economy of the world is better in this TL thanks to the war ending sooner, and no Russian default on debts and withdrawing from the world economy, but the US economy is worse because it got more involved in a total war economy and transfering back was more of bitch) they still lose the Presidency in 1920. The US has lost vastly more men than in OTL. Deaths are around .75 million, and cassualties eaqual to that. There is a large growing sense of isolationism, and that the millions of casualties weren't worth it. The US culture isn't as vibrant with many more casulaties. Immigration hasn't been as restricted nearly as much as in OTL. The War was less worse in Europe, and the US wasn't as untouched, so the flood that happened in OTL at the end is less. The US also needs more people to replace all the lost bodies (something similar happened after the Civil War in the North).

Britain never made any promises to a Zionist state, or to an independent India. There is no Amister in this TL, but things in India aren't exactly peaceful in India either. The troubles in Ireland still happen pretty similar to OTL.

And that's how the world stands in 1920. Anything I miss? Thoughts on the future of this world?

Er, how? By 1916 Turklish Armenia (unless you define it _very_ broadly) is

virtually all in Russian hands. Is the Tsar going to hand it over? And even if

he were, will even a Democratic Senate agree to accept ti?

To tell the truth, I just threw that in there at the last minute because it sounded interesting, and with greater US participation I figured they would do something more than just go home once it was over, but now that I think about it the Tsar probably wouldn't just give it up. So yea, let's leave it in Russian hands.

If she doesn't get Constantinople or Armenia, what exactly _does_ she get?

Hmm . . . Armenia, like you point above . . and . . . uh . . special rights in the Ottoman Empire? A neutralized Constantinople that isn't annexed by Russia, but maybe has Russian garisons and has to be kept open? How does that sound?

Does this mean that Wilson accepts the Lodge Reservations or similar?

Something a little similar, but not as great as the Lodge reservations. This US has just lost a million men in this war. It feverently wants something to justify that loss. It's not like Britain or France who can pick up some territory, and Germany wasn't ever really a threat to the US like it was to Britain and France, so the beleif that SOMETHING has to be done to prevent this from happening again is stronger. Wilson is allso a different person from OTL. After declaring war in OTL's 1917, he said something to the effect of "I've just ask them to kill Americans, how strange to applaud that," and then he started crying. How is he going to feel with a million US dead at his hands? He's more somber, and less jubulent when he goes to Europe. He's also interacted with the British and French more than in OTL so he's a little more savy in that regard.

The US looses a million men in WWI. What is it going to want at the peace treatry?

The final attempt at ratification - which came within seven votes of success -

was on the Treaty _with_ the Reservations

Assume something like that with the reservations, but not as great of reservations as OTL.

But looking at the biggest casualties: (Trenches on the Web)

325,000 . . . . . . . . .Turkish military killed in the Great War

460,000 . . . . . . . . .Italian military killed in the Great War

584,996 . . . . . . . . British and Commonwealth military killed:

1,200,000 . . . Austro-Hungarian military killed in the Great War

1,385,000 . . . . . . . . French military killed in the Great War

1,700,000 . . . . . . . .Russian military killed in the Great War

1,808,000 . . . . . . . . German military killed in the Great War

and the US propencity to never send a body when a shell could do the job, I'm going to revise it to between to your suggestion of 750,000 dead. Casualties are in the millions though.

One thought. Is it possible that the WW1 victory gives rise to a far _right_

nationalist movement in Russia - something like the Black Hundreds but

organised into a political party?

Tsar Paul I, son of Catherine the Great and (well officially at least) of her husband and predecessor Tsar Peter III, had never got on with his mother, whom he

seems to have regarded as having usurped a throne rightfully his. So he issued

a ukase setting out a succession law for Russia . Between Peter the Great and

Peter III Tsars had simply nominated their successors - or else had seized

power by coup d'etat. This followed the Salic Law pracised in Germany (the

Romanov family was by now almost entirely German by descent) and excluded women

from the succession.

Of course, any future Tsar could in theory have changed this rule - after all,

in March 1917 Nicholas II arbitrarily disinherited his own son - but whether

any _would_ have done is another matter.

Nicky did consider arranging for Olga to succeed him (Tsarina Olga I) so its possible.

I have a problem with this Poland. Not this satellitized autonomy, but

it's greater size. A Poland that gains German territory--Upper

Silesia, and the whole of Poznan and West Prussia--makes sense, but I

can't see east Galicia or most of Belarus being Polish. Perhaps not

even Bialystok.

> [deletia]

>

> The Ottoman Empire is very rickety as it negotiates the peace treaty,

> and has to admit to the independence (under French and British control)

> of large parts of her empire.

Which parts? The Arabian provinces?

> The Americans have a protectorate over

> Armenia. The Russian annexations are the worst though. Russia doesn't

> get Constanople, but she gets a lot and this breaks the back of the

> Ottoman Empire.

Um, if Armenia--both Russian and Turkish--is an American protectorate,

where can Russia acquire territory at Turkey's expense? A Black Sea

protectorate, perhaps centered on the Pontic Greeks?

Yes. The British and French encouraged revolts in the Arabian provinces, and forced the Ottoman Empire to recognize their indipendence. They also took Palestine, but there was no Balfore proclomation in this TL.

US Declares War on Germany in 1915 Pt 2: President Pershing

-------------------

President Pershing is not happy in office. [1] He hadn’t wanted this job, and looking back allowing himself to be talked into it was a mistake. He had done it almost holy out of a sense of duty, but now he was beginning to think that duty had been misplaced. He knew that he was a strict disciplinarian, cold, distant, and often demanding, but he also knew that was required for a general. But apparently not for a President. It just didn’t seem to fit the mood of the country anymore. The mood had changed so fast in the years following the war.

The War. Hard to believe it had been over for seven years now. And yet, so much of his first term seemed to be dealing with the aftereffects of the war. The GI Bill for instance. He was glad he managed to get that passed. His boys, and he thought of them as his boys, needed all the help they could get after. All of them. But other’s didn’t see it that way.

His Negro Education Reform bill had gone down to a crushing defeat. He should have known it would, but he had thought that by sheer force of will, and the moral necessity of it, he could do it. And, in his inner heart, he knew he was also inspired and driven by his own experience at teaching a Negro school. He felt he did a good job, but he also knew what hamstrings those who taught Negroes worked under. At least the veterans would get some leg up, even if there brothers and sisters wouldn’t.

Hopefully they would be able to find jobs. More and more of them were moving North. At least the economy was doing well. And

The Philippines Independence Bill was also rather controversial. Even thought Independence wouldn’t be formally granted for another 15 years, it was now clearly on the table, and the US government was committed to a firm schedule for Philippinoization. In Pershing’s mind it was only fair. Philippinos had served the US valiantly in the War, and they deserved a payback. He was quite popular in the Philippines now, and it wasn’t the first time. Back in 1911 a serious outbreak arose on the island of Jolo and Pershing led a campaign which resulted in the final pacification of the tribes. Afterwards, he went about among the recent rebels, showing them that there was no animosity on the part of the Americans and that so long as they were peaceable they could count on friendliness and justice. He won the hearts of the various chieftains and their followers and was made a "datto," a native ruler, in recognition of their respect and confidence. Sometimes he wished he could go over there and take up the mantle of “datto” over that of the President. Because as soon as one problem was solved here, ten more arose to take it’s place.

Like Japan. Relations with Japan were pretty touchy. He had moved tooth and nail to try to get California to not pass the Japanese – Exclusion Act. The Gentleman’s Agreement was working fine, but even one new Japanese was too much for the citizens of California, so they passed it anyway. And the Japanese screamed and howled over it and there was nothing he could do. Oh well. It would be his successors problem.

His successor. And when would his successor be? 1925 or 1929? He had to decide. Did he want a second term? No. Did he really think the country needed him? No. Then did he actually have a compelling reason to seek a second term?

In the end the decision was no decision at all.

[1] In OTL Pershing decided to bring his family with him to Fort Blis. The arrangements were almost complete when a tremendous tragedy occurred at the Presidio on 27 August 1915: the quarters were destroyed by fire and Mrs. Pershing and the three little girls died in the holocaust. Only his son Warren survived. In this TL Pershing is pulled away to Washington and his family comes with him and are spared. This creates a significant difference in Pershing’s personality from OTL, and is the main reason why he runs for office in this TL while he refused in ours. He also has greater experience in politics, dealing with coalitions and other nations longer and more intensely in this TL.

--

Thoughts?

Who do you think will be contenders for the 1924 race?

US in WWI 1915: Part 3: Fall of the Republic

As the war years passed further into memory, more and more of Europe tried to put the whole affair behind them. But it was proving especially hard to awake from the nightmare of the past. The massive new cemeteries, the millions of crippled men, the deep trench line running through a continent, all helped remind people and politicians of what had gone before.

In the west, Germany was in the worst shape. Inflation was running rampant, and had sunk to 400 marks to the dollar in 1921. The German government asked for a postponement of payments. With inflation so far out of control, it was unreasonable for the victorious powers to expect Germany to keep paying out hard gold and other valuable commodities in currency. There simply wouldn’t be any left in all of Germany soon. The US and Britain were sympathetic to these please, both just wanting to put the whole affair behind them, but the French and the Russians flatly refused.

The winter of 1922 was a cold and dark one for Germany. The German government was in a difficult decision. If they continued trying to pay the reparations there would almost certainly be civil unrest. The coalition government was hanging together by a thread, and the socialists were screaming how if _they_ were in power the Russians and French would never dare treat fellow workers in such a way. And more and more Germans were abandoning the mainstream candidates and going over to extreme fringe groups who were becoming not so fringe. Yet, if the Government DID refuse to pay reparations, what they? What would the French and the Russians do? In the end they decided to roll the dice and hope for the best.

The announcement hit Paris and Moscow like a bomb shell. Both France and Russia had begun to depend on reparations for a number of budgetary maters (the Russians needed all the money they could get), and there was the principle of the thing. France and Russia were right on the border of Germany. The scars of war were on their land. And now, Germany didn’t want to help them heal those scars because it was too tough? Well, tough.

In May of 1922, the French Army occupied the industrial part of Germany known as the Ruhr, the Russians though decided to do one better. The German Army was a shell of it’s former self, the Czar and his advisors were sure that it couldn’t withstand the mighty force of the Russian Army. They would march too, only they would have a different target, Berlin.

Soon after the ultimatum was received in Berlin (basically “pay the money or else”) a furious debate broke out in the cabinet. If the government were to reverse it’s position now, before anything happened, it would look incredibly weak and beholden to the Russians. But again that pesky other side of the coin popped up. There was that whole, “Russian Army Marching to Berlin” thing to consider.

International opinion was largely against the French and Russians. The American loudly chastised their former allies for planning another attack on a defeated foe and acting with such unilateralism. They said that all such problems should be worked out through the League of Nations, not through independent military actions. The French and Russian response to this was that Germany was breaking the treaty the League had agreed to, and thereby no permission from the League of Nations was needed. This was not the interpretation the Americans had and the whole affair was regarded as pure self-interest justification on the part of the Europeans.

But the Czar did not care two sniffs of used snuff about the opinion of the United States. Russian needed money. Germany owed Russia money. Germany has a very small army. Russia had a very large army. Germany would pay Russia.

But according to the Republic, Germany would not pay Russia. The German Government was sick and tired of being pushed around. It was ready to grasp at any straw, and grasp it did. The French occupation of the Ruhr (which was currently be dealt with by non-violent resistance) was remarkably quick compared with the Russians. Many hoped that it meant the Czar was just bluffing and some sort of deal would be worked out.

Unfortunately for Germany it was no bluff. The Russians took a while to get ready, but when they were they came like a steamroller. Making remarkable progress, the Russian forces looked like they would easily take Berlin without a struggle. And then the German government caved. The Reichswehr was pressuring it considerably to fight. To support non-violent resistance in the Ruhr was hard enough to stomach, but to let the Russians barbarians take Berlin without a fight was intolerable. But even more intolerable to the government was to fight a war it knew that it would lose. The Russian ambassador received a rather urgent meeting. And while the Russian forces were mere days away from Berlin, a deal was worked out. Germany would restart reparations. To grind salt into the wound the Czar demanded that the cost of mobilization and invading Germany be added to it’s bill. With gritted teeth, the Germans accepted. Payments resumed and within a month of entering, the French and the Russians left.

The German economy continued to sink lower and lower, and after this humiliation many began to speak of it as only being a matter of time before the government was overthrown. There was a widespread feeling of discontent in the air. The German people had rallied to their government when it had defied the French and Russians, only to have all their hopes and inspirations crushed when it caved in. To many, the worst part was that it all happened without a fight.

It was a particularly hot summer afternoon when a bread riot broke out. It began small, but perhaps it was the heat, or the lingering frustration, or just bad timing, but it grew and grew. Soon various extremist groups of every type were fighting each other in the street. The police tried there best to stop it, but they were not powerful enough. Mobs attacked many government buildings, and both left and right extremists began kidnapping or assassinating politicians they didn’t like. The government was very nervous as report after report of anarchy came in. It soon decided it would be best to take flight. Better to control things from outside a riot than from within one.

While escaping, it ordered the Reichswehr to march into Berlin and restore order. This was the final straw. The Republic Government was leading Germany into disaster. It was caving to Germanys enemies too readily, and had shown itself unwilling to fight too often. If things continued as they were, who knew what type of regime could take over.

Phone calls were made. Quick deals were struck, and the civilian government was quietly placed under protective custody by the Reichswehr. An announcement was made that Germany was now under temporary marshal law.

The Germans troops who marched into Berlin were professional and knew what they were doing. Block by block, street by street, they took over the city, hitting the leftist-controlled neighborhoods particularly hard. General Erich Ludendorff, the de facto leader of the Junta was pleased with the progress. Berlin was under the control of the right people again. And from Berlin, Germany.

US in WWI 1915: Part 4: Imperium et libertas

It’s ten years after the Great War ended, and two Empires dominate the globe. The United States, who was arguably the most powerful country in the world in 1917 has withdrawn almost entirely in her shell. Increasingly the Americans wish they had just let Europe settle its own quarrel, and in doing so saved hundreds of thousands of American lives. But the dead are dead and all America can do now is try to insure that she never enters such a morass again.

The Great Republic has withdrawn from the world stage, perhaps never to return, and instead, two empires glower against each other across the vast distances that separate them. Distances in the mind, and in the land.

For increasingly the British and the Russian Empires are seen as the premier powers of the day. In the past people talked of the Great Powers, but that phrase has fallen out of usage and a new one has arisen to take it’s place: The Preeminent Powers.

No one who reads history can not help but to be struck by the similarities to past ages. One dominant on land, the other ruler of the seas. One far flung, one contiguous. One ruled by a Czar, the other moving steadily towards universal suffrage. One growing more and more weary of it’s power and rule, the other embracing it. To witch will the future belong to?

In 1927, none can say. The Russian Empire’s economy was certainly growing at an vast rate, but it was also wracked with internal problems. The Depression of 1924 was now mostly over, and growth had resumed, but the memories lasted. Bread riots in St. Petersburg, the guards being called out, the blood on the street, and once again the Czar had had to make token acquiescence to a legitimate Duma. But just like before it was a sham, and everyone knew that real power was quickly returning back to the throne.

For Nicholas, even though advancing in years, still viewed the fate of the Romonov family as inseparable from the fate of Russia. The two were interlinked, and in giving up power he was failing in his duty to God and country.

And God was so trying his country at the moment. Everywhere he looked he saw problems. West Prussia was a continued sore. Even after ten years the people of Prussia had not yet accepted being under Russian rule. There were constant squabbles, and when there weren’t squabbles there were plots, and when the plots hatched their were riots, and when there were riots he had to dispatch troops, which always seemed to upset the western powers for some reason.

Not that they could do much about it. It wasn’t mentioned much in polite international circles, but he felt Russia was undoubtedly the strongest country in Europe, and would remain so as long as he could keep the French interested in keeping the Germans down. Which France was increasingly disinterested in doing. The French just wanted to till their gardens now. The Double Occupation was the last spurt of the war years, and after that they had become increasingly lackluster willing to do what it took to keep Germany downs. They’d even agreed to a conference with the German Junta to discus the possibility of revisions of various parts of the treaties. Nicholas could only shake his head, such was the folly of democracy, and such would his country be if he allowed it.

Enemies had to be kept down. He saw that, why couldn’t they? Yes, all this industrial growth and railroads Russia was building were very nice, but they would only turn into booty for Russia’s enemies, both foreign and domestic, if he let his guard down. The Mensheviks had created a disturbingly large amount of trouble during the Panic of ’24. They had been stomped on, and stomped on hard, yet like rats they seemed to flourish and grow. Nicholas had few ideas how he could destroy them, save stopping harder.

Which quite a few members of the Duma were perfectly willing to go along with. The Russian Patriot Party of the Common Man was proving a particularly useful ally. The whole idea of having Parties as allies was strange and bizarre to Nicholas, but his advisors mainly took care of the messy details.

Not all his enemies where within his borders of course. The Japanese were increasingly becoming interested in Manchuria. Since the Russo-Japanese war Manchuria had largely been their sphere of influence, but the war had changed a great deal. More and more Russia’s development was being done in the East and the South. To allow the Japanese to build a strong foothold in which to strike at Russia could not be allowed.

But the Japanese were allied with the British. The British. At least the Americans had had the good sense to go home and mind there own damned business after the war, but not the British. Still they thought of themselves as the rulers of the world. What would they do?

Nicholas didn’t know, but he wondered how far he could push. He wondered a great deal.

Thoughts? Comments?

Nicholas is probably going to die in the next ten years. Any idea of who replaces him?

--

Mike Ralls

US in WWI 1915: Part 5: Don’t Trust Them in the Dark

What the British would do would be to desperatly try to keep the peace at almost any cost. The British were tired. They had lost many men in the war, and unlike the Czar, the British rulers had to at least make some shows of support for what the common man wanted, and what the common man wanted was to ignore all that illrelevant geo-political bull and get to work on really creating a land fit for herors.

The Depreshion of ’24 had been bad in Britain, but managable. Labour and the Socialists had picked up a bunch of seats, and some progesive measures had been passed, but nothing as dramatic as the American’s “Rebirth of Fairness” had come about. Yet, recovery was now here all the same, and Britain chugged on while her empire chugged on with her.

Not that most Britains cared about the Empire. The local papers devoted five times as much space to the local sports news as they did to what happened far away to a bunch of people only a few desk jockeys at collonial affairs office actually knew anything about, and even they didn’t know that much.

Yet, numberous politcians clambored about the empire. It was a nifty and grand stage to act on, but I’m sure the real reason they cared about it was that it was only through the Empire that Britains saftey, and security, and prosperity were guaranteed, eh wot? Take for instance this riot in India. Now, now doubt it was a regretable trategdy that those protesters had been shot last year, but what would have happened if that rot had been allowed to spread? The whole of India would have gone into chaos, and that would have been a lot worse, wouldn’t it? I mean, sure Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi’s death poem that he wrote from his hospital bead was moving and all, but the man had only just last year been a beleiver in constitutional change, and as soon as he switched to agitation he ends up dead. Surely there is a lesson to be learned there?

And most of the rest of the Empire was at peace. Even the newly created Anglo-Arabs seemed to be getting used to their new lifestyle. The thrill of the bedoin seemed to fit the British style to a T. The British were kind, just, boyish masters there. I mean, they were certainly better than the alternative, right? What would it be like if the Jews had been allowed to flood into Palestine like they were before the war? Why, it would be nothing but agitation, turmoil and strife. The Local Landlords let the Jews buy land with no regard for civil harmony, but the British had put a stop to that once it was obvious what problems that created. Instead, the Jews had gone to America. Or at least they had before the Crash of ’24 when America practically closed off immigration. Now . . . well, they’d get by in Europe, surely?

And the Dominions had just sighened the Treaty of York, showing the glofious future of self-government within the empire that awaited all British collonies. You know, in a century or two. Or possibly three. Let’s see how things go, shall we?

Traveling around the world one could not help but be struck by how much worse things would be if Britain was not the top dog. But as Winston Churchill never failed to remind people, if Britain wasn’t careful, Britain would not be top dog much loner. Germany had grown powerful enough to pose a threat to Britain in 1914, and there was every indication that Russia was growing even more powerful still. Her army was the largest the world had ever known, and if you completely ignored logistics she could use that army to take India! Horrors.

But more and more people were talking economics. GNP was why Germany had been crushed. To be a world power you needed the largest amount of world production as possible, and the figures were not looking good for Britain.

% Of World Total GP

UK , 1913 13.6%, 1928 10.3%

US , 1913 32.0%, 1928 36.1%

Gr. ,1913 14.8%, 1928 10.1%

Fr., 1913 6.1%, 1928 6.7%

Ru., 1913 8.2%, 1928 10.9%

AH., 1913 4.4%

It., 1913 2.4%, 1928 2.8% [1]

The Russian Empire was .6% higher than Britain. That didn’t seem like much, but combined with her growth rate it produced some scary prospects for the future. The Russian fleet was no match for Britain, . . . yet. But who knew what would happen to it in the future. Already Britain heard rumours of plans to build a fleet that would be able to travel the world, and cause those in far off lands to respect the glorious Russians and their Czar.

And their were all the progoms and represhions of various minorities in the Russian empire. Those made sensational press, especially when they were good white people like the Prussians. Just one more log of fule on the fire.

It all just added up. The bullying of Turkey, the Bulling of Japan, the Bullying of German, it was fast becoming clear that Russia was no longer willing to confine herself to herself, but instead was trying to become suprme in the world. But Britain was tired A direct fight was impossible, but Britain could not stand idely by while some other power tried to assume world dominace. Likewise, Russia could not accept a power who would deny her proper place in the sun. And so, with a heavy heart over a period of months, what everyone had been dreading became a reality, the entente was over. And people began asking, “How long until the second Great Game begins?”

[1] OTL’s numbers where:

UK , 1913 13.6%, 1928 9.9%, 1938 10.7%

US , 1913 32.0%, 1928 39.3%, 1938 31.4%

Gr. ,1913 14.8%, 1928 11.6%,1938 12.7%

Fr., 1913 6.1%, 1928 6.0%, 1938 10.7%

Ru., 1913 8.2%, 1928 5.3%, 1938 9.0%

AH., 1913 4.4%

It., 1913 2.4%, 1928 2.7%, 1938 2.8%

Thoughts? Comments?

--

Mike Ralls

US in WWI 1915: Part 6: 1927 - 1932: Brief Biographies

GEORGE S. PATTON JR. winces in pain as he walks out of his door and looks at the long distance that separates him from his morning paper. Absolutely it's only a couple of yards, but relatively it looks like a marathon run to George. A little over ten years ago he wouldn't have thought about it. A little over ten years ago, George was at the highlight of his life; leading his men in a time war. He still remembered the sounds and sight of all the glorious battles he had lived through. And then, two months before the end of the war, a shell fragment hit his hip, shattering the bones as well as piercing his bowels. He had been taught to walk (in a fashion) in the long painful years of recovery, but despite a number of surgery operations his digestive system had never fully recovered and his health had suffered for it. He was constantly sick and over time so much of his energy had been drained out of him just fighting off illness after illness that he was frequently a depressed man. It had been all he could manage just to write his memoirs. "War as I Knew It," sold well enough for him to afford this modest home, with some help from his disability pension, but sales had been dropping steadily. The book was old, and styles had changed. Does anybody want to read about the glories of war anymore? Maybe. The only way George will find out will be if he finally gets around to re-starting that novel he's toyed with. But could he do that if he didn't even have the energy to get a paper? Probably not. He doesn't want to give in. He'd doesn't want to be constantly sick. He wants to be back in the army, but that road is now denied to him. This one is open to him. Does he have the strength to walk down it? There is only one way to find out.

HENRY FORD looks around the snow covered city of St. Petersburg and smiles to himself. Now truly this is a land made for industry. None of that "Rebirth of Fairness" crap here. The Czar has personally invited him to set up a new plant in Russia, and show just what Yankee-ingenuity could do. And Ford has big ideas. He'd got a lot of promises before he had came over to set up shop. None of that Union crap, none of that worker disability crap, just good old honest days work for an honest days pay. Except during the worst of the slump, Russia had been growing at pretty impressive rates. Plant after plant, factory after factory, all had seemed to have sprouted up on the fertile soil Russia. The only troubling thing was that when he had told his Russian workers how many cars they were supposed to produce a month, they had thought he'd meant in a year. Well, Henry Ford is going to prove the wrong. If he can't get mass-production capitalism to flourish in Russia, were can he?

VLADIMIR ILICH LENIN is back in Switzerland. He was so sure that the time was right, but he had misjudged. During the worst of the Worldwide Slump, there was rioting in the streets against a dictatorial government, and unrest in the countryside. Everything Marx had predicted was coming to be. But it had ended so bloodily. The soldiers fired on the protesters, the police arrested his closest allies, and he had to flee the country as fast as he could. It looked like Revolution would not come to Germany in the immediate future. He flipped through the pages of his newspaper. Perhaps back in Russia though . . .

ALFRIED KRUPP stares at the news article. His business hasn't been doing well lately, but this was probably good news. He had thanked his God when the Junta had come to power. Surely a good military regime was just what could set the Fatherland back on track. And surely they would need lots of good Krupp steel to do so. But they had been strangely reluctant to order too many goods from Krupp. With so much of the wealth of the Fatherland was going to pay those bastards in Paris and St. Petersburg there wasn't that much to pay for new weapons. And during the worst of the Great Slump the Regime had been very reluctant to spend money on anything but keeping the people from rioting. Things had gotten very bad for a while. The Rhineland Riot hadn't been a civil war, but it hadn't exactly been only a riot either. Alfred Krupp had friends in high places and knew just how worried the regime was. But now the French had finally cracked in their solidarity with the Russians. They were just now coming around to the belief that beggaring their neighbor just wasn't cost effective. So they were willing to talk about reforming the reparation system, but only with a democratic regime. Elections had been promised to happen a year from now, and now Krupp was actually beginning to wonder if that might not be a good thing?

ADOLF HITLER is sure that it will be a good thing. When the Military Regime had first come to power he had thrown the National Socialists behind it and it had paid off handsomely. He had a nice cushy government job, and had been allowed to make a number of speeches, all of which tactfully blamed all the problems Germany was going through on the Republic. The Nazi Party wasn't officially in operation of course. No party was officially in operation. But for something that didn't exist the Nazi party had a surprisingly large staff. If, (when his mind shouted), the elections came about he was sure he would be able to grab maybe as many as 20 or even 30 seats.

JAWAHALA NEHRU is languishing in a jail cell. It's not the first time he's been in one, but he is worried that it might be his last. Oh, he doesn't actually think the British will put a bullet in his brain. They are bastards, but he understands what type of bastards they are. But this cell is damp, and he hasn't been feeling well since he caught that nasty bug in '30. His moral doesn't help him much either. The cause wasn't going where he wanted it to go. Oh sure, the elites were behind him but the masses remained silent. If every Indian pissed on a Britain, the English would be swept to the sea in a yellow tidal wave. But instead the masses cared little for politics and toiled their earth. There were protests in colleges, but the British ignored these as much as they did many others. Nehru was sure that eventually the Indian masses would awake. They just had to be shown the way by their betters. Perhaps another article and the socio-economic problems inherit in the imperialist framework would be the way to go?

CECIL B. DeMILLE is putting together the biggest motion picture of all time. It's going to be great! It'll be swell! It'll have them on the edge of their seat until they get tired of that and start cheering in the aisles. The extra he's using are incredibly expensive, but never have so many stars been assembled for one show. The Gimmick? The Somme. What better topic to make a movie about than the biggest battle in military history? He's even thrown in a few Brits in the hope of getting a bit of the foreign market. The biggest problem he has is how to work in the anti-war theme while still making the movie a glorious extravaganza? But Cecil is confident. If anyone can do it, he can.

ISHIWARA KANJI is aware that he stands on trial. He is aware of the gravity of the situation. He is aware of the consequences of his actions. He is aware that he has a number of behind the scene supporters. He is also aware that they might not be able to do anything for him. He acted against orders. He invaded a sovereign country. But he had come to the grip of victory. And then the Russians came. Japan and Russia had made agreements about Manchuria, and the Czar really didn't care much that Ishiwara was acting against orders from Tokyo. Perhaps he didn't even believe it. Whatever he thought, he had moved troops in to defend the government of Manchuria. Ishiwara's army had a hard enough time just dealing with the Manchurians, with the Russians in the mix he hadn't had a chance. So Russia and Japan stood on the brink of war, and in the end Japan had to cave. The government fell, the army was discredited, and he knew that the emperor was personally furious at the shame his actions had brought to Japan. He wondered if the tribunal would allow him to take care of things in a way that could save his country any further dishonor.

QUENTIN ROOSEVELT is going over the last few notes before he goes up to the podium. He is more nervous for this debate than for any other event in his political career. As well he should, for he is the youngest candidate for the Vice-Presidency in US history. His age would have killed him for the top spot, (or probably would have he thinks after remembering Bryant), but things that would kill a chance at the top spot are often overlooked for a VP. He knew he had a couple of spots that were overlooked, not least of which was his liberal tendencies. He was chosen more for a sop to the liberal wing of the GOP than for much else, and to help insure his state's vote of course. That's just one more reason he has to do good tonight. He has a fair amount of experience in his own right, but he can't help wanting to strive. Ever since WWI he's always been on a quest to prove himself. After leaving Harvard in order to learn how to fly so he could join the war effort he went into the army air force. He assumed he would be sent into battle right away. But it had taken precious months, and four days (FOUR DAYS!) before he was set to take his first action against the enemy the war ended. He was blameless, but in his own mind it was a failure. Since then he'd graduated and had quickly gone into politics. It had been a quick ride, and now here he was running for VP. Just like Dad. Quentin takes a deep breath and goes out to meet his opponent. Commentators have been talking about the coincidence for a while now, might as well give them a show.

FRANKLINE ROOSEVELT jauntily walks off the stage in a trot. He's in a pretty good spirit tonight. In his mind at least he was the clear winner in tonight's debate. And it had been played on the radio live, a first. FDR was glad of that. He knew he had a good voice, and had used it to good effect tonight. If he was honest with himself he knew that he could have had the top spot, but just hadn't pushed himself hard enough. But hey, being VP wouldn't be too bad would it?

CZAR NICHOLAS II lies down in his bed and takes a heavy breath of air. All the air has been heavy lately. His lungs seem to take a great deal of effort to fill. He feels weighted to the bed. It's like he can't move. And then there is a sharp stabbing pain in his chest. He eyes fly open one last time as he lets out a quite gasp. His eyes will remain open until the maid finds him in the morning. She lets out a scream and a doctor is called in. The Czar is dead. Long live the Czarina!

Thoughts? Comments?

US in WWI 1915: 1933 Man of The Year

From Time Magazine:

On the last day of 1933, who loomed calm, masterful and popular as Man of the Year?

"It hasn’t been as lean a year as in the recent past, but we’ve still got a long way to go," said Prime Minister James Ramsay MacDonald with suppressed emotion.

The year 1933 sent Jawaharlal Nehru disgruntled back to India; faced Czarina Olga with an unsteady assumption of power as the first Czarina since Catherine the Great; failed to produce a Fascist government under Adolf Hitler (potential Man of 1934) in the recent semi-free election in Germany. But who rose from obscurity to world prominence, steered a Great Power safely through 1933, closed the year on a peak of popularity among his countrymen?

Only one man did these things and at the height of his sudden greatness wagged an explanatory finger at President Ludendorff. The keynote of 1933 was sounded by Man-of-the-Year Pierre Laval as he went to Berlin: "The severe correctional and disciplinary period is under consideration."

Twelve months ago Pierre Laval was as obscure--even in France. But what a year it’s been.

On the morning of Jan. 24, 1933 there was yet another French crisis. The Cabinet had fallen following charges that the Minister of Finance had misappropriated Germany’s reparation funds, thus paving the way for the new Laval Cabinet.

February: Just getting into his stride, Premier Laval pledged France to observe the One-year Naval Holiday proposed by Britain. It is widely regarded that only France’s compliance convinced Russia to go along as well, thus heading off a potentially dangerous naval race between the Pre-Eminent Powers.

March: Faced by Anarcho-Syndicalists riots in French Indo-China, the Premier convened the High Colonial Council in Paris for the first time in three years and studied critically the results of guillotining 700 native Anarchists in the past two years--with the result that the Minister of Colonies is now in the Far East "sympathetically examining native grievances."

April: The conciliatory policy toward Germany that has been gaining speed first kicked into high gear, with the first conference that produced definite (but minor revisions) of the reparations. The revision was tied to Germany setting a firm date for elections, and more were promised depending on how fair the elections were.

May: France won it’s bid for the 1944 Olympics, thanks in a large part to Laval’s strong campaigning. 1944 promises to be a memorable year for France.

June: Premier Laval showed his tough mettle by hammering out a trade deal with the US. The Trade Wars of the 20’s are now regarded as having been very detrimental and a major cause of the World Slump, but fixing them will not come automaticaly, but Laval and others like him have taken the first steps.

July: M. Laval signed the Middle East Accord after tense negotiations in Moscow. Czarina Olga is showing herself more accommodating than Czar Nicholas ever did

August: The Premier in his character of Worker, Driver, Leader recuperated in the grand manner by taking the cure at Vichy where go so many Frenchmen.

September: Premier Laval junketed to Berlin, where he conferred with Ludendorff about the semi-free election. Ludendorff claimed the new revision of reparation didn’t go far enough, and Laval claimed that the elections weren’t free enough. The meeting achieved little or nothing, but boosted his fame enormously.

October: Pierre Laval made the journey to Washington. D.C. that stamped his name upon millions of U.S. minds and swelled his fame throughout the world. The President challenged the French thesis of "Security before Disarmament," insisting on "real disarmament" when the Disarmament Conference meets.

November: The French Unemployment Rate hit a high not seen since 1924, at the beginning of the Great Slump.

December: Chamber and Senate passed not only numerous routine Budget bills and the like but also approved several highly controversial steps involving the tightening up of security in France’s colonies. He also squashed any further immediate plans for revision of reparations saying, “We have given Germany a lifeline. That is enough collaboration for now.”

"Tenez bon! Hold tight!" shouted a delighted auditor.

"I always do!" cried the Man-of-the-Year

US in WWI 1915: Part 8: 1937 Honored Dead

SNIP

I decided this would work better as part of the last post, so I moved it there.

US in WWI 1915: Part 9: 1939 Suruna

The Royal Palace, St. Petersburg. December 25, 1939

“So this is Christmas,” thought Czarina Olga. “And what has it brought?” The view from her elegant window is not a pleasant one. It is the exact same view she has always looked out of, but the mood is different. This is no longer her city. Or at least not entirely.

It is said that the most dangerous time in any regimes life is when it tries to reform. Was that her mistake? Did she try to push to fast? Or is it democracy? Is that the problem? Is life just too complex to be left in the hands of the people. Many thought so. The decades since the war had certainly not been kind to democracy. But all the richest and most powerful countries, France, the UK, and the US, are democratic, and to her it seemed the way to go. And yet, one of the most popular Russian parties is one that promised to take away those advances.

So why had the people pressed for democracy so much? Did they really just desire a new modern dictatorship, instead of the familiar autocracy? She didn’t think so, but their were plenty who did. And plenty who didn’t, thank God, or she might not be . . . here right now.

Her old nemesis, the aging Nikolai Maklakov is still a big force at the back of the League of the Russian People (Soyuz Russkogo Naroda or Soruna as it is called in the West). He is approaching 70 now, but still heavily in the game. It was odd, how much she had worked to kick him out of government service, and now he was her greatest ally.

It was common knowledge to her now that there was a split in the Suruna party. Half of them, mainly old Black Hundreds, still regard the Tsar as all important, and all powerful. The other half, the newer tougher breed that had been baptized in war, do not put so much faith in her. For now, Maklakov’s faction have their way. But Olga knows it is a thin line.

Tsar, Faith, Motherland. That is the official slogan of Suruna after all. It was what attracted so many voters. Industrialization had hit Russia hard. And her social modernization had not gone down as well as she had once hoped. What was a peasant to do when he moved to the big city, and had everything he knew turned around? He’d turn to someone promising something familiar, and yet newly glorified and modernized at the same time. And the Suruna gave him that.

Of course, the peasants are not their only support. Suruna’s glorification of power sucked in too many of the young cadets. Too many who are sure that the Czarina was being deceived by false ministers, and that they, THEY, could save mother Russia. She should have seen it coming.

She _did_ see it coming, damnit. If only they hadn’t done so well in the last election. If only so many of them hadn’t been in the Okhrana. If only the recession hadn’t hit Russia so hard. If, if, if, if. She has to concentrate on the now.

She has a . . . meeting with Ivan Dimitrov, that fish-monger who some how rides his party like a horse and is the leader behind the coup. She had a choice. She could work with him . . . or face the consequences.

She doesn’t think they would kill her. That would be too despicable, even for them. But confinement, even forced abdication is not out of the question. And what then? Civil War? What would that do to the country? What would Russia’s enemies do to her while she was distracted?

In the ends she decides that she has to make herself useful, necessary even, to the Suruna. She is young, only 45. She could outlast these bastards. She will play them like a fiddle, and when the time was ripe they would pay for their assumption of her perogitavies.

The door opens.

"Dimitrov, what a pleasure to finally meet you.” She says with a smile. “I believe we can accomplish a great many things for Russia . . . together.”

US in WWI 1915: Part 10: 1940 The Rising Stars

As 1940 drew to a close these were them . . .

WINSTON SPENCER CHURCHILL had just arrived in India and would soon assume the post of Viceroy, making him the head honcho of a sub-continent. Nice job if you could get it. And it seemed to him to be a fitting end to a long and distinguished career. He also had plans to write a grand muti-volume history of Anglo-India, and it wouldn’t hurt to get some first hand experience at ruling it, his editors would apreciate that. Not only that, but he was getting old and feared this would be his last significant post. The last few years had been a rather strange trip for him through the political rollercoaster. People had finally begun to wake up to the Russian threat that he had talked about for so long. Sometimes he wondered if he hadn’t been given this job just to get him out of the way. But whatever the reason; He was here and Winston was determined to make his mark on India. This was his canvas. It was time to paint.

NETAJI SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE looked around the conference room in triumph. It had taken time, it had taken effort, but right then he knew that these were his men. He was the leader, and they would follow him where he took them. The time for action was now. Nehru had been too patient with the British, but now it was his turn. The Indian Congress had issued a demand for _Poorna Swaraj_ (complete freedom). It gave the British six months to hand India over to the Indians, failing which there would be a revolt. That was three months ago. It didn’t look like it was going to be met, especially with that new bafoon of a Viceroy they were sending. Instead of caving in, the British were striking back at India’s leaders. Bose himself was on the arrest-on-sight list for treasonous activities, and he was far from being alone on that list. But that was all right, for they had planned for this. The Indian Congress was dissipated across the country and many top leaders were in hiding. The British didn’t want to do things the easy way, fine. It was only through violent strugle that the masses of India would finally awaken. In their hearts, Bose knew they yearned for that, and he would give it to them. In three months.

ENRICO FERMI was pleased as punch (an expression he wouldn’t have understood) after the publication of his on the capture of neutrons by carbon. It’s sure to be a ground breaking work that will be read by every important nuclear physicist in the world. He’ll be going to Germany soon for a meeting with Albert Einstein. Perhaps the trip will turn into a permanent vacation. He has . . . issues with the new regime in his home land.

BENITO MUSULINI didn’t think he was getting enough credit. Franco was practically worshiping at the alter of that fish monger in Saint Petersburg, while forgetting Rome. Hell, that was true of the whole world. It wasn’t fair. His Party had seized power months before Demitrov, but the entire world was talking about _cobmecthoe_ and then only mentioning fascism only as an appendage. Well he would show them. They had laughed at the first March on Rome when he was throne in jail, and they had laughed when he tried to rebuild his party over the next decade. But he had played the parliamentary game, and finally after a particularly juicy government scandal during the worst days of the Second Great Slump he and his allies in the Army had taken Rome. It had been a damned close thing. But now he had his hands on the weal of state, and it was time to take the lady out for a spin.

FRANSISCO FRANCO was fighting on the outskirts of his provisional capital city. He knew that he would have been fighting on the _inskirts_ of it, if it hadn’t been for the timely arrival of the Italian “volunteers.” The forces of Anarcho-Syndicalism had gained such an upper hand, but finally the forces of order had a big tough friend to back them.

TOJO HIDEKI was worried for his country when he assumed the position of Prime Minister. In 1931, following the humiliation of the Manchurian adventure in which Russia forced the Japanese to back down and apologize, over a thousand fiery young soldiers had tried to institute a military coup in Tokyo. They murdered several politicians and occupied most of Tokyo’s government buildings before Emperor Hirohito ordered the army to crush the rebellion. At the time Tojo was in command of the First Infantry Regiment in Tokyo. This Regiment bore some of the toughest of the street fighting and Tojo frequently put himself in dangerous positions. His quick mind, and descisivness actions earned him the nickname of “The Razor” as well as a promotion. Over the years he had advanced further and futher in the ranks until now when relations with Russia were detoriorating fast, the army had turned to him for the highest political post in Japan. Russia had managed to force Japan out of Manchuria when Japan invaded, but what could Japan do if the situation was reversed?

PETER GOLDMARK was pleased to anounce that CBS had a marketable color technology, consisting of a part electronic, part mechanical spinning color wheel system. With approximately 40,000 television sets operating in America (And over 200,000 in Britain the world’s leader in Telivision technology), he had great hopes that his new improvement would help expand the market.

And the new American President-Elect was very busy getting his cabinet ready . . .

US in WWI 1915: Part 11: 11 Short Scenes from the 1940’s

Well, I pulled this out of the closet again. I just felt like I wanted to bring it to some sort of “end” but I knew I didn’t have the time or energy to write it long style. So you’re just going to get the quick and dirty version.

Now, in Chronological order.

ADOLF HITLER closed his eyes as the mask was placed over his head. Curse them. Curse them all. It was their fault that this was happening. Fascism had come about in Russia. It had happened in Italy and Spain too, so why not Germany? Because of them. They had thwarted him and ruined his coup. Someday Germany would realize what a threat they were and then they would pay. Oh how they would pay. And he, Adolf Hitler, would be remembered as the hero that he was. This thought comforted him and he felt the rope go over his neck.

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QUENTIN ROOSEVELT listened intently to the radio broadcast and then it was finally over. He was now President-Elect of the United states. Quentin could hardly believe he had made it this far. His nomination for President singled a major shift for the Republicans. Ever since a few years after the war, the country had moved more and more leftward. The Democrats managed to seize this opportunity and had been in primary control for the last 16 years. But finally the GOP old guard realized that the change wasn’t going away, and the Republicans had shifted to match the times. It was now time to see if the Party of Lincoln could return to the spirit of Lincoln. His outreach to the northern Negro vote had cost him the South, but Republicans would never be big in the South anyway, so it was probably worth it. Time would tell.

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CHIANG KAI SHEK looked at his map one last time and said, “Commence the operation.” For too long he had allowed their to be two Chinas. No more. He had defeated all of his internal enemies and united China. It had been long and hard struggle, especially against those elusive Anarcho-syndicalists, but it was now over. Every warlord, every province China was his, except those in Manchuria. Still the Russians, and to a certain extent the Japanese, ruled their puppets and refused to even consider the idea of Manchuria resuming it’s rightful place as part of Mother China. They could not deny the right of national self-determination! This was the 1940’s, and it was not only his right, but his duty to reclaim land stolen from China. He would set things right.

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THE JAPANESE AMBASADOR convened with his Russian counterpart. This was unacceptable. Russia and Japan had issues with each other’s presence in Manchuria, but neither had any wish to allow it to fall to Chiang. This was a complete breach of numerous treaties. This aggression would not stand. That was the easy part. The hard part was determining what exactly to do about it. The Russians had far more resources than the Japanese, and they could counterattack and retake all of Manchuria a lot faster than the Japanese. The Japanese didn’t like this at all. If only Russian forces were in Manchuria it wasn’t too hard to see which country would control it after the peace. There wasn’t nothing that Japan could do about it, it’s army in Manchuria was small and under funded, because after the debacle in ’31 the Japanese government didn’t trust it to be anything else. It had suffered severe losses to Chiang initial invasion. Troops were being built up now, but Russia would beat Japan to the punch. Japan would have to be compensated in other areas.

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NETAJI SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE dogged a bullet that rang past his room. New Delhi was a battleground of immense proportions. The War of Revolution had begun! His forces already controlled Delhi and the surrounding areas, and soon they would spread to all of India. That fool of a Viceroy Churchill had slipped out of his grasp and ran south. Let him run, all the way back to England. For soon the British would be out, and India would be for the Indians.

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KURT SCHUMACHER sat down in the Prime Minister’s chair. It was his after all. There was a lot of worry that the Army would not actually allow him to assume the office, but in the end they did. It would be a tricky next few years, trying to liberalize the country without threatening the army too much, but Schumacher was always willing to fight for his beliefs.

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NIKOLAI MALAKOV enjoyed the new map that had been presented to him. Manchuria was now shown as part of Russia, and occupied Northern China was shown in a special color code. Southern China was shown as occupied by Japan, but he knew that was misleading. It was actually areas where Japanese armies could quickly bolt from their cities strongholds, make quick forays into the countryside, and then return as quickly as possible. But northern China was ruled by Soruna (*Fascist) Russia pretty firmly. He was wise to push for limited gains, and his faction would gain power for it. He was getting old. Some of the younger members would have to be taking on more responsibility from now on. This may have been his last major policy decision.

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WINSTON CHURCHILL tried to resist smiling but couldn’t. He knew it wouldn’t do well for others to see him gloating over the deaths of so many Indians but he couldn’t help it. He had won! He had stopped the Second Mutiny and crushed his foes. His adventurous escape from New Delhi was a heroic journey that would live on forever. He would go down in history as one of India’s greatest viceroys. He knew this would be so, because he was going to write the history. How could he not gloat! The only rain cloud on his horizon were these disturbing reports he was getting to treat the Indians with leniency.

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CHARLES DE GAULLE wondered around waste deep in the fetid jungles of Northern Vietnam. He was on his way to the new local HQ and his car broke down so he had to continue on foot. It was frustrating, but not nearly so much as looking for the ever elusive Anarcho-Syndicalists. They kept infiltrating from the safe havens that Japan gave them in Southern China. Would the French government ever get off their ass and allow it’s soldiers to attack Japan?

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QUENTIN ROOSEVELT watched as his successor took the oath of the Presidency. It had been a long eight years. Full of some successes and some defeats. But that was true of every presidency. On the whole, he thought he had done a good job. The Philippines were now an independent country, a shiny example to the Europeans and the Japanese to decolorize. The economy had been bad for the first two years of his term, but was going quite well now. Maybe it was a good thing that Social Security, the Federal Reserve, and the International World Bank still existed. It was also weird to think that when he took office Televisions were a rarity, but by the end of it about half the families in America had one. His desegregation campaign hadn’t gone as far as he would have liked, but his successor was going to push for it too. Indeed, that was probably a major reason his successor had got the job. When the Dixiecrats bolted it had split the democrats, with the inevitable result. There was now ferrous infighting and it looked like the Democrat Racial Reactionaries were going to win. That probably helped his party, but he was sad to see it happen anyway. If both parties could combine to push for it, racial improvement would happen a lot faster. But that was not to be. It was going to have to be a partisan effort. He hoped his successor was up for the job. Time would tell.

IVAN DIMITROV cried crocodile tears over the death of Nikolai Malakov. He was a great man and had certainly helped Russia become strong, but his time has passed. He was living not in the late 40’s but in the time when Russia was weak and led by corrupt ministers. Now that Russia had grown strong it was time to reach out. Poland and Prussia were under tight control, as was Manchuria. The Czarina was kept quite. The rebels within the motherland were in jail or dead, and his party now reigned supreme. It was time for action. For centuries, Russia had been denied a warm water port. But no more. The clashes on the border had proved to infuriating, and he was finally going to get rid the running sore of Persia. He didn’t fear the Persians, but he did have some doubts about the British. No matter. It was time to roll the dice and see what happened. The invasion of Persia was about to begin.

US in WWI 1915: Part 12: The Quick and Dirty 50’s.

Russia: The Russian invasion of Persia (never called Iran in the West in this TL) created a huge scare of a second great war. The British Empire, which still held India was terrified by it. The Russians quickly occupied most of the northern half in a way very similar to WWII, but then their logistical structure began to faultier and the advance petered out. The *Fascist running Russia picked army leaders more for loyalty than talent and this had predictable results. The Raj funneled literally tons of weapons and supplies to the beleaguered Iranians. This helped, but in the end the Russian forces were too big and the entire country was occupied. The Czarina worked behind the scenes to convince a number of influential people that the cost had been too high, and combined with the growing complaints over corruption, *Ivan Dimitrov’s (the leader of the *Fascists) kudos from victory were largely negated by this. By this time the Russian economy is the second largest in the world with a bullet. The second closest is the combined economies of the British Empire and Dominions. The end of the 50’s saw a slowly down of the hot house economic growth though. Many blamed this on the institutional corruption, the increasingly closed economic policies of the Russian government, and the large costs of occupying Northern China, Persia, Prussia, and other areas of the Empire.

Japan has grown increasingly militarized over the last few decades. Even though the world economic situation had stabilized, the intense fluctuations of the last couple of decades had radicalized a number of officers. When combined with the ongoing war in Southern China the end result was a split civilian-military rule, with the military in the dominant position. The economy is by far the biggest in Asia, but increasingly has been faltering. The costs of the China occupation is very draining on the small Japanese economy.

The British Empire is on it’s last legs and knows it. Despite the brief radicalization of the imperialists after the Second Mutiny/War of Independence/Great Rebellion/Whatever, they were going out of power and knew. Britain’s economy and society has grown increasingly democratic over the years, and the people were just no longer willing to hold India against India’s will. Near the end of the 1950’s India was given Dominion status and de facto independence. Pakistan never exists in this TL and India keeps stronger ties with Britain in this TL due to the combined Russian/Japanese threat. In Europe, Britain increases it’s ties to France and Germany to counter the Russian colossus. Outside of India the first large scale independence movements begin to shape up.

India is more nationalistic, and less socialistic than OTL. The insurrection against Britain in the 1940’s left it’s mark. It only joined the Western Alliance after furious debate, but it’s PM pushed hard after his experience talking with the Persian government in exile. Better to be allied with a former enemy who used a whip, than to be conquered by one who used a sword.

The Dominion: Canada, Australia, and South Africa are all more closely allied to Britain and Europe, and not at all to the US in comparison to OTL.

The US is an economic giant but a diplomatic and military pygmy. The US is completely isolationists and there is precisely zero interest in being anything else. The cost of the war still haunts the US and most war movies are anti-war. TV shows largely ignore the Great War as too depressing, and instead focus on Westerns. The US takes a look at the world and ignores it. The only alliance it has is a commitment to defend the Philippines if they are ever unprovokedly attacked, and many have a problem with even that. The only exception to this general isolationist trend is in economic matters where the US has came out of it’s protectionist shell and is beginning to seek a greater free trading environment. Civil Rights become primarily a Republican cause due to Dixiecrat dominance among the Democrats. It takes some effort but by the end of the decade African-Americans can vote throughout all the South and a number of anti-discrimination measures are on the book. The US has the largest economy on the planet, but Russia is closer than any other country has been since the 1900’s. Immigration is still restricted quite heavily, although increasingly Mexicans are beginning to sneak in and have a blind eye turned to them. Hawaii, Alaska becomes states.

Germany is small, and likely to remain that way. There is some talk of trying to get a Union with Austria, but *Fascist Russia says such a move would be a violation of the treaty and would be an act of war, and no Germany politician is willing to risk it. Germans from Russian occupied East Prussia continue to flock to the German Republic. Relations with France and Britain greatly improve as both are beginning to get more and more worried about Russia. By the end, The Western Alliance is formed.

France is regarded as the most powerful country in Europe (increasingly Russia is judged to be non-European. This is an insult.) It watched as Britain gave up the Jewel in the Crown, but it has no intention of doing any such thing in regards to Algeria. Algeria is FRENCH FRENCH FRENCH. Or at least the French in Algeria are. The natives are still treated pretty bad, but the idea that they are people to and should have more rights is just beginning to grow. Especially as more of them emigrate to France.

Italy has a rather shaky democracy after the Death of Mussolini in a palace coup, and weather it will keep it remains to be seen. It is holding talks to join the Western Alliance.

China is divided between Russia and Japan. The Nationalists has been defeated but there are tons of warlords, bandits, Anarcho-Syndicalists, Communists, Anarchists, Fuchowtungists, and NeoNationalists, contesting those occupations. Neither the Japanese, nor the Russians have enough troops to occupy all of China, so large areas of it are pretty much under local control. It’s a time of changing alliances, schemes, plots, and dreams of grandeur.

Africa and Asia are largely quietly under European rule, except for Ethiopia and Thailand which are doing so-so (but better than OTL). They are also both neutral in an increasingly polarized world. The South Africans are still in the Empire, although they are making a number of noises. Independent movements grow throughout the 50’s and by the end are something that have to be taken into account in Korea, Indonesia, and Vietnam.

The Philippines are shining example of Independence. They have been a successful democracy for over a decade now and are showing brisk economic growth. Manila is still the US’s main pacific base and spends large amounts of dollars, as well as giving away large numbers of venereal diseases in Angel City.

Spain is under Anarcho-Syndicalist rule! It had been a thin window when the Western Powers had regarded them as less of a threat than a *Fascist Spain, and Franco had made one to many mistakes, and of course the tide of history _was_ on their side, but in the 50’s they had a chance to show what they could do. It wasn’t pretty, and would be this worlds best display of Totalitarian-Anarchism (Yes, I know). By the end of the 1950’s the A-S regime is tottering like a drunk on a tightrope.

South America is more openly *Fascist than OTL and the US is less inclined to care. Russia cares nothing for South America so the US doesn’t really feel threatened in the slightest. The increase isolationism also translated into a less desire for the US to intervene.

Middle Europe is mixed. Some of the more reactionary autocracies are allied with Russia in the hopes of getting land from their neighbors. Other reactionary autocracies are allied with the West in the hope of getting land from their neighbors.

The Middle East is largely independent but under heavy European influence. It was never officially colonized by Europe but the League of Nations trusteeships came to end during this decade and the European countries made sure that their replacements would be compliant. The map looks pretty similar to OTL’s Middle east, save that there is no Israel. France continued to restrict Jewish immigration to Palestine up until it’s independence. The new Syrian-Palestinian government is unlikely to change this policy.

The Russo-Japanese Alliance actually includes other countries besides Russia and Japan, but those are the two biggest and most important. It is an alliance of connivance between the Militarists in Moscow and Tokyo brought about largely through their joint occupation of China. Some small Middle European countries also join.

The Western Alliance is a fairly strong. It was brought about largely through the growing Russian threat after the Invasion of Persia. Originally between France and Russia, it spread to include Germany after fear of a Russian take over of all of Europe looked to be a possible threat. It is entirely military in nature however, and includes nothing like OTL’s EU. By the end of the 1950’s India joins it as an independent country due to the Russian and Japanese threat.

The Atomic Bomb is a scary invention that most people wished had never came about. Russia was the first to produce one, but any dreams of world conquest her ruler may have had were shattered when the joint Franco-British-German project bore fruit a month later. By the end of the decade both sides had dozens of bombs with more planned on the way. The US, Japan, and India are all working furious to produce their own bombs.

Space is greeting man for the first time. The Russians succeed in putting *The Czarina* into orbit, thus setting off the Space Race. The US shows little to no interest, but the Western Alliance tries to pull it’s resources together, but there are a number of problems to this. The Russians have the advantage of economy of scale.

US in WWI 1915: Parts the Last: For Your Tomorrows . . .

Armistice Day, 1977.

It has been 60 years since the ending of the Great War. 750,000 Americans died in that war, as compared to the slightly over 100,000 of OTL. 650 thousand extra Americans died so that the Great War would end a year earlier. This saved many French, British, Italian, and Russian lives. Instead of moldering in a grave, or crying in pain in a hospital for the next sixty years, many men of those countries went on to marry, have children, live productive lives, and influence their countries in small or great ways. [The German, Austro-Hungarian, and Turkish losses were about even with OTL, although different people lived and died due to alternate battles.] The war ending a year earlier also decreased the amount of damage to Europe, physical, psychological, and institutional.

So now, sixty Years after the end of that war, how stands the world?

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RUSSIA:

Armistice Day celebrations in Moscow are usually a big event, the past regime having turned it into a day of celebration for all the military. That regime liked the subjects of the Motherland to celebrate Protection Day with gusto. But today, observances are rather sparsely attended if not just plain canceled. Everyone is busy with another great event.

The Czarina is dead. LONG LIVE THE CZAR!

Czarina Olga saw her country through tumultuous times and now her people honor and respect her as much in death as they did in life. She lived a rich full reign, and many of her obituaries use the title, "Olga the Great". Not only did her reign see much improvement in the Motherland, but she is credited with being the person most responsible for the end of the *Fascist dictatorship and the return of democracy to Russia.

The 60's and early 70's were not kind decades for the Motherland. The cost of the Great Game, occupying Persia and Northern China, the Nuclear Race, the Space Race, and propping up Russia's weak allies, were all very draining on the coffers of the state. It might have been possible to keep spending all that money, if only the economy hadn't stagnated. In the 40's and 50's Russia seemed to be growing so fast that everyone assumed it would never stop. And then . . . it did. Some famous economist kept talking about how Russia's growth was based on an increase in inputs, and not an increase in efficiency, but that meant nothing to the workers and peasants who were still such a large part of the Empire. All they knew was that the jobs they had thought would always be there for them, now weren't. They also knew that their sons were being sent far away from home, to be slowly but steadily killed in lands that few cared about.

Dissatisfaction grew and grew. Suruna (The *Fascist Party) was no longer viewed as exciting, new, and connected with the roots of the people. It had grown corrupt and everybody had a story to tell about a local party member who needed a bribe to get you a telephone or a visa permit. When the virtual dictator of Russia died, there was a scramble for power. No one had a clear claim to leadership, as Ivan Dimitrov apparently thought he would live forever and had made no plans for a successor. Indeed, he had sent those who possessed the most drive, ambition, and skill, that is to say those most likely to replace him, to Siberia.

Everything was up in flux and no one knew who was in charge. And that was when Czarina Olga acted, declaring an end to the national emergency and a restoration of open government. She dared Suruna to challenge her and in the end - they blinked.

Afterwards she had presided over the transition to democratic rule and a withdrawal from Persia. Overtures were made with the Western Alliance and tensions decreased. There were still some problems of course, the Russian economy is better but not great, the settlers in Manchuria show no sign of wanting to give their land up, the various political parties in the Diet have trouble cooperating, corruption is high, and many of the border provinces desire independence. But by the time of Czarina Olga's death, things seem to be on the right track. Russia's fledgling democracy looks less fledgling.

Her funeral is a grand occasion. Her coffin is pulled through the center of Moscow where crowds of millions take off their hats in respect. Many tears are shed for this popular monarch. Olga is greatly missed. And as she is buried in a rather modest church, the same church where all the Czars and Czarinas of Russia have been buried since Peter the Great, the people look toward their new Czar, their first true constitutional monarch, and wonder what his reign will bring.

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WESTERN EUROPE:

The remembrance day celebrations in Europe are a mixture of sobriety and something that is almost nostalgic. So many were lost in that war but now . . . now it just seems so far away. The only people who lost children are over a 100. The only veterans are in their 80's. The only orphans in their 60's. The connection is not as strong as it was when everyone knew somebody who had died.

The war was a different era. A different place. A time when Western Europeans killed each other in the millions. A war fought in the muck and the slime and the cold. A war where two yards of land cost a thousand men their lives. With such a war, how could this day be anything but sober?

Still . . it did bring a peace to Europe, of a sorts. There has been nothing like it for the last sixty years and the wounds have mostly healed. The worry over a nuclear "Great War II" was strong for a while, but now that Russia has democratized there is a feeling of fresh air about the content. Things are . . . safe. Things are stable. Things are back to the way they were before the war. Better in fact, as war between the western European countries is, while not completely impossible, at least highly unlikely. They are allies after all. For the moment anyways.

While the alliance still holds, it is beginning to show great strains now that the main opponent no longer wants to be an opponent. The Alliance had it's roots in the 1920’s when Britain and Russia were the two dominant powers of the planet. But as Russia grew and grew it became obvious that Britain could not handle her alone. Alliances were formed, deals made, and in the end Britain had united a coalition of much of Europe to face up to the Russian bear. The invention of nuclear weapons had added a new and highly dangerous element to this tense situation, but the basic structure remained the same.

Some push for the alliance to be moved beyond an alliance and into the economic or political sphere, but that is a pipe dream. The west was far too nationalistic to give up any sovereignty to any extra-national body. The borders between countries are patrolled and while trade barriers are down, it is still not all that easy to do business between different countries. The various governments all pursue their own independent financial and social policies, which are frequently at odds with each other. Politicians can still get votes by screaming how they are going to make _our country_ the strongest in Europe and that no one had better forget it - especially our "allies".

Some say that the only thing that kept everyone bonded together was fear of Russia, and now that Russia looks like just another democratic-empire, those bonds are beginning to loosen. Especially among the French, who regards the growing power of Germany with great trepidation.

But here on Armistice Day, most politicians at least pay some lip service to the alliance. How former enemies found common ground in peace. How the bonds of friendship are still strong. How Europe must always remain united and thus never allow herself to succumb to such madness again.

These speeches are listened to with respect by the almost exclusively Caucasian audiences. There was a brief time when some of the colonies or ex-colonies started sending significant number of immigrants to the motherland, but that was put to a stop without much debate. Most Europeans thought that having any a significant amount of non-white Christians would be dangerous to the country, as well as being just plain icky. After _those_ people were stopped from coming, cheap labor was still needed so guest workers from Eastern Europe or Russia began to be imported. They were considered better then anyone else Europe could get to do the scud work, but many aren't happy about having any foreigners at all. Strong nationalism and belief in a "volk" are still the norm. Open racism and xenophobia are acceptable throughout Europe, if considered a bit old fashioned.

Another bigotry that is quite strong in Europe is Anti-Semitism, especially in countries with strong *Fascist parties. It seems like anytime the *Fascist join a coalition, they slip in _something_ to hurt the Jews. Now that the US has started taking in large numbers of immigrants again, many Jews to pack their bags and head to the New World.

But for most people, Western Europe is a great free and peaceful place to live. Of course, there are exceptions. . .

SPAIN:

Today in Madrid politicians don't even mention Armistice day. Spain didn't fight after all, and the Junta decided that it didn't need to be mentioned, so it isn't mentioned. Spain, the bad boy of Europe, is still under Anarcho-Syndicalist control, but it looks and acts about as Anarcho-Syndicalist as a Roosevelt Republican. The world's only example of Totalitarian-Anarchist state has succeeded in killing many of it's people and driving its economy not just into, but straight through, the ground. Once that happened, things got very bad and the government didn't look like it could hold onto power. But then the government began to try "_Hispanic_ Anarchco-Sydicalism" which mainly consisted of scrapping most of A-S ideology.

Now Spain operates on a mixed economy with a bit extortion to help things out. Countries which don't give Spain aid find out that the Anarcho-Syndicalist liberation movements operating in their colonies are getting help and advisors from _somewhere_. However, if a country begins to give Spain some financial aid, then suddenly it turns out that those liberation movements aren't _true_ Anarcho-Syndicalists at all, and _somebody_ no longer helps them. This policy has begun to break down with the end of the Second Great Game as well as all the decolonization that has happened in the 70's. But Spain still gets a decent chunk of money from the White Africans. Those guys are very anxious to cut off any possible base for their insurgents...

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Japan And China

JAPAN:

The various Japanese observances of Armistice Day are full of conflict. There is a large rift between those pacifistic activists who are embittered against all war and hate to see it celebrated or even commemorated, and those fervent nationalists who see WWI as the time when Japan really began to grow into the Great Power status that she holds today.

In a consensus based culture like Japan, many people are unused to direct and irresolvable conflict. As a result of this inexperience combined with strong beliefs, many ceremonies go badly with yelling, arrests, or fist-fights.

For those who actually listen to the ceremonies, they hear many many comments on how much Japan has changed since 1917. From being a poor nation still trying to industrialize to being the second or (depending on who's figures you used) third biggest economy on the planet. From being ruled by an aging Genro, to being a functioning democracy. From being a nation of homogenous peasants to being a nation of huge cities that swarm with Korean, Chinese, and a few other minorities.

This last change worries a great many Japanese and much time, effort, and money is spent to Japanize both the immigrants as well as the provinces of Korea and Formosa. Formosa is considered to be pretty well Japanized and the first representatives from that island were given seats in the Diet during the late 60's. They are mainly of ethnic Japanese immigrant stock, but there are some token Han as well. No aborigines though. They are regarded to have done pretty well so far, and that is big reason for the next step now taking place.

The first representatives from Korea have arrived just in time to make speeches about the Glorious Part Koreans Played in The Great War. But that isn't all they say. Some talk about how Koreans had been used and abused during the war and it was just another example of Japanese exploitation.

The elections in Korea had been reasonably honest, by Japanese standards. The more pro-Japanese a Korean candidate was, the more government money and support he got. But all candidates were allowed to run and all the money in the world couldn't stop _some_ Separatists from being elected. Allowing them to take office was a sop to try and get the violence and rebellion in Korea to lessen. It was hoped that if they were allowed to throw political bombshells, they would stop throwing actual bombs.

Korea is the third rail of Japanese politics. The Army had accepted giving up China, but to give up Korea would be a different matter. Not wanting to risk a coup, the civilians governments are doing their best to keep the Koreans quite and happy, rather than give it up. They needed too make the Koreans happy for other reasons as well. Koreans are a significant voting block in the Home Islands, and they could sometimes be the crucial swing vote in elections.

Elections are vital to how Japan is governed. Even in the darkest days of military rule, Japan never lost the trappings of parliaments and elections, even if the Military was mostly running the show. However, since the late 60's the civilians have been in the drivers seat. The Militarists seemed to be unable to do anything but send Japanese boys to die, year after year, decade after decade. People grew more and more dissatisfied with the China quagmire and during an economic crisis in the 60's there was a showdown.

If the Army still possessed the passionate drive that it had during the 30's or 40's things might have gone differently. But time and social change had effected even the army. The peasant soldier who burned with fire and was willing to make any sacrifice for Japan to get her place in the sun just wasn't as numerous anymore. Now not only did recruits mostly come from the urban cities, but they thought Japan _was_ a Great Power already and that was enough for them. They asked why should a world power, armed with nuclear weapons and the latest technology, in control of a vast dominion stretching thousands of miles, need to fear pathetic, war-torn, divided China? They thought that Japan did not need to keep wasting so many lives on a war that even the high command believed could not truly be won.

When the Army lost faith in even itself, it could not resist the Emperors request to let the Civilians take the lead again. A "Chinaization" program was instituted, and those pro-Japanese warlords were given some advisors and money, but not Japanese cannon-fodder. Those Chinese warlords would have to live or die on their own as the Japanese are now mainly focused on buying cars, watching movies, sending their kids to college, and on those other simple pleasures of life.

CHINA:

The Chinese were involved in the Great War, but almost nobody cares or remembers about it on this the 60th anniversary. Their participation was small and too many catastrophes in China have overshadowed a war that was so far away. There are a few mentions of the Great War made at various history lectures at colleges, mainly focusing in on how it gave the Japanese a chance to further their exploit China, but that is about it. And there aren't that many colleges in China either. The decades of chaos and destruction have made the state of higher education a very precarious one.

The Russians and the Japanese occupations were not nice, but the resumption and continuation of the Civil War they spawned was even worse. Both Russia and Japan desired a weak China, and during the occupation they had not only held some of the most valuable parts of the country, but had also supported weak rulers against strong rulers, and when that didn't work they just went out and directly smashed any movement or army that looked like it could unify the country.

They were not so blatant about it now, but even though the Japanese had departed from the eastern cities their money and training still helped prop up pro-Japanese warlords along the coast. Still . . . both Russia and China didn't seem to be spending as much energy in keeping China down. At least in comparison to the past.

But the country still remains divided. There has been no real center of power since the Nationalists under Chiang Kai Shek briefly ruled, and he was quickly destroyed by the Japanese and the Russians. Now his name is spoken of with reverence and wistfulness and people morn that he never got to achieve his potential. Instead of one united China under his strong but just hand, for sixty-five years China has been in pieces. For sixty-five years Chinese has fought Chinese for supremacy, and the land has suffered.

But that may be coming to an end. One warlord, who comes from the far west of the land, now has power over virtually all of central China - far away from the influences of Russia or Japan. He has consolidated his rule absolutely. He is powerful, in control of much of the heartland, has the best trained and equipped army of any warlord, and has been steadily extending his domain for almost two decades now.

In his late 50's he is very healthy, wise, and charismatic. He knows his countrymen well, and has been using that knowledge to make sure his rule is stable and absolute. Those who meet him often say they feel like they had met a man of destiny. Most observers think that within five or ten years at most, this man will surely rule all of China. But he does not say this. When asked if he is going to unify China his answer is always the same.

"Insha' Allah."

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BRITAIN, FRANCE, & GERMANY

BRITAIN:

The ceremony in Britain are sober ones. Old old men, and very elderly ladies, morn for their lost friends and brothers. The rest of the nation watches them in wonder. Only those above 70 have any real memories of people who died in the war, but the national scars still remain. The war cut a swathe through Britain that divides the era. Britain lost much in the Great War, and often people wonder what for. To allow Russia to dominate the continent for two generations instead of Germany? What difference would that make?

Imperial decline has hit some people hard. Some people are so wrapped up in their love of country and lust for national power that to see it weaken hurts them. Britain is arguably the fifth most powerful of the Big Six, a far cry from the start of the century. Many a jingoist politician tells of a time before the war, when the British flag flew over a quarter of the globe and commanded respect. But for many, that era is beginning to seem so far away, even if the African colonies haven't been given independence yet. There is a general mood in Britain that the time of being a Great Power is past.

But things in Britain itself are not bad at all. It has a rather sound economy (especially since the late 60's when various free-market reforms started to have positive effects) and with the economy booming thanks to the recently signed Free-Trade Agreements (as well as the timing of the business cycle), things are good. So who cares about the Empire anyway? Only a bunch of old fogies, still re-fighting the Second Mutiny. Everybody else is more interested in Cool Britannia. There are tons of dance halls to go to, movies to watch, and books to read. Popular among the younger crowd is the last chapter in that grand adventure which Professor Tolkien finished right before he died. A great finale, and it's so nice that all the heroes had a happy ending.

FRANCE:

France deliberated the 100th anniversary of the Third Republic a few years ago with great joy and festivities. On that anniversary many people talked about a new La Belle Époque, but Armistice day is a sober occasion. As many a speech on this day reminds everyone, no country lost as high a percentage of men as France (Serbia is of course, never mentioned). And those wounds are still with the French. Many a speech unfavorably compares the sacrifice that the French were willing to make back them, with the protests against a much smaller sacrifice now.

The Algerian War has been a constant drain on the French for a long time now. The burning and destruction of towns and sometimes the massacres of Algerians (hushed up, but widely known about to those who care), are leaving a rather bad taste in many a French citizen's mouth. It wasn't as if the Algerians were European, of course, but still . . . Perhaps something could be done to alleviate things other than more "butcher and bolt" raids.

Extending the Algerians more civil rights was greatly debated, but has just barely passed. It is hoped that it will bring peace. The natives can't vote or move to France unless they are fully assimilated and Christian of course, but perhaps more local control will keep them satisfied. If not . . . there are intense arguments about what to do then.

Algeria is not France's only worry though. More than anyone else, they look on the growing power of Germany with great trepidation. France was never very much into the Western Alliance. Germany and Britain had more direct quarrels with the Russian bear and France had been tempted to just go her own way.

In the end, she had joined, but it was a close thing and she always resisted making the alliance too strong. Now that the Bear doesn't look so bad, Germany does. Quick to exploit that fear, the French *Fascist Party has grown steadily since the end of the Second Great Game. It has never been in power, but it has been playing a part in many a coalition government, and was largely responsible for ensuring that only those immigrants of "good stalk" would be allowed in France. A brief surge of Muslim Algerians into France proper was put a stop too quite quickly.

GERMANY:

There is no national holiday in Germany. This day of defeat is not celebrated or commemorated. It gets mentioned in a few editorials, but it is mostly ignored. That is how it has always been in Germany. This day was a horrible one for the Reich, so why would one wish to think of it and all the pain it caused?

Though, that pain seems to be behind Germany now. The losses encored in the war seem to have been overcome. Indeed, Germany is larger than it had ever been. The German union with Austria and the purchase of Eastern Prussia from a cash strapped Russia has greatly increased her size and their is a new confidence is all over Germany. With the largest economy and army in the region, many say that Germany is doing in peace what she couldn't do in war, dominating Europe.

Some prominent politicians are even saying that Germany should pull out from the Western Alliance, as she can protect herself and the alliance now gives her nothing in return but the risk of getting dragged into a war half-way around the world in one of Britain's and France's trouble spots. The motto, "Germany - Alone and Secure" is everywhere for the upcoming election. There is also talk that additional territory should be given back to Germany. No serious politician is talking about conquest, but the idea that some pressure should be applied to the smaller countries to sell Germany land that has German majorities is at least semi-popular. France, Britain and Germany's smaller neighbors look upon this talk with great unease.

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THE BRITISH EMPIRE AND COMMMONWEALTH:

THE HOME COUNTRY

Older and more imperial Britons celebrate Armistice day with particular glum. Many blame the war for the loss of the Empire which, besides a few small specks, now only consists of a few African possessions, all of which are scheduled for independence within five to ten years. Whitehall is practically empty and Colonial Affairs will be moved to a small office as soon as the government gets over the inertia.

There is still Hong Kong and Singapore of course, both of which look to stay British for a long time to come, the former thanks to a deal worked out with a "Central Chinese Government" in the 1940's that extended the lease for an additional 50 years and the latter due to fear of invasion. They offer lots of exciting opportunities for young businessmen, but that's just not the same as going off to rule India. Oh well. The old Tories will get over it, or they'll just grow old and die and then no one will be left who cares over a vanished Empire.

THE COMMONWEALTH:

While the Empire is on it's last legs, the Commonwealth is reasonably strong and in Britain is seen as the only way to keep Britain as one of the higher Great Powers. There is a mutual defense alliance, and recently a common trade policy was worked out between all the White Dominions (a phrase going out of style). Diplomatic coordination is sketchy, but better than any other group of nations in the world. The Commonwealth is seen as a real factor in world affairs, but it is beginning to show strains of fraying, especially over the growing unease over South Africa.

AUSTRALIA

Armistice day is one of the biggest holidays in Australia. Began as a remembrance for the war dead, it has turned into a celebration of the country coming into its own. After the Great War things were never the same again. A greater sense of unity arose and nationalism flourished. No longer would it merely be an extension of Britain, it would now do and act as it pleased.

In light of this it is rather ironic that Australia is now the staunchest supporter of the Commonwealth and the mutual alliances between Britain and it's various Dominions. When Japan was in full out militarized mode, the Commonwealth was seen as the only way that Australia could insure that it wouldn't get invaded and taken over. And even with a reformed Japan, Australians are still a little uneasy about the Colossus to the North. Without the Commonwealth, many Aussies wonder how they could protect themselves. Britain has nuclear weapons after all, and Australia just doesn't. Comments on how Australia would like to build some have been met with quite but firm hostility from Britain. The Big Six are united in wanting to keep the nuclear monopoly, and Britain will not be the country who lets that genie out of the bottle.

Australia thinks it needs nukes because relations with the rest of Asia are not in general very friendly. Unselfconsciously still practicing a White Australia policy, the Aussies can't figure out why so much of Asia seems to have a problem with them. Indonesia, for example, has recently kicked out all Aussie businessmen (along with most Westerners).

Six years ago, the Dutch were unceremoniously kicked out of the No-Longer-Dutch-East-Indies after a long and bloody war. This war made the Indonesians heavily militarized and fanatical. They are now ruled by a very brutal, but unstable, Islamic dictatorship. The War for Independence was essentially a multi-struggle fight of the Dutch vs. the Anarcho-Syndicalists, the *Fascists, and the Islamists. An add hoc alliance was formed between the rebels while they were fighting the Dutch, sometimes it held, sometimes it didn't. But when the Dutch were gone the struggle turned into an internal one, and the Isamists came out on top, as much due to luck as anything else. Islamic Law is being imposed upon the country and all troubles are blamed on either the pagan Chinese minority, or on the horrible Westerners/Christians, none of which can be trusted! This is quite a shock to a world that thought that Religion was a dead factor in world affairs.

Given the huge population of Indonesia, this is just one more reason why Australia is trying to get the Commonwealth to become not just a defensive alliance, but also something stronger and deeper. The Aussies want interconnectedness, through education, culture, and trade to be increased. "Ever Increasing Union" is the phrase they keep trying to throw out, but it doesn't seem to be resonating very well with the other members.

Australia's colony, Nauru, is being governed almost unbelievably bad and Australia regularly gets some advice from Britain about that, which it just as regularly ignores. There are no plans for its independence.

NEW ZEALAND

The Kiwis morn/celebrate much as the Aussies are, perhaps more so as their Dominion suffered the highest losses of any nation, in per capita terms.

CANADA

Canada remembers it's sacrifices deeply, but it probably feels the least connected of any of the White Dominions to the Commonwealth. It has seen it's soldiers going off to fight far from its shores for generation after generation, but after the Great War Canada began to have doubts. No one seriously worries about invasion from the Americans any more, that peaceful sleeping colossus only presents a cultural threat. So many Canadians wonder why they should bother sending their troops to far off troubles that don't seem to concern them. When an operation against a "Non-Progressive Country" (a common phrase that most people use when they would like to say "Wog Country" but don't want to be crude) comes up, Canada is always the one calling for moderation. Also, next to India, Canada is the one who coughs the loudest when matters with South Africa come up. The Cultural Revolution has also effected Canada more than any other White Dominion. When they go oversees many comment on how old fashion things seem in the other commonwealth countries. More and more Canadians are feeling a deeper and deeper connection to the more pacifist and liberal United States, than to the old mother country.

INDIA

On Armistice day India is a country divided against itself. Indian troops provided over a million troops to the Great War, but Anglophiles and Anglophobes bitterly clash over weather that was a good thing or not. The Anglophiles see it as the an honorable contribution to the Commonwealth that has served them well. The Anglophobes see it as just another time when the British squeezed India for her own ends.

Approaching her 20th year of independence, India is vigorously debating what her connection to the Commonwealth should be. Many say that only the threat presented by *Fascist Russia's occupation of Persia allowed India to remain in the commonwealth at all. Now that the Russian threat has been withdrawn what is in the Commonwealth for India? Especially given the odious nature of fellow member South Africa.

Other's reply that the just because the bear is silent now, does not mean it always will be. India still needs a nuclear umbrella and Britain is the only country that will provide it, and that requires being in the Commonwealth which also gives trade and cultural benefits. The debates are tight and heated.

Of course, India's identity crisis extends far beyond relations with Britain. The scars of the Great Struggle (aka The War of Independence, the Second Great Mutiny, and many others) run deep. Besides British suppression, many areas experienced intense communal violence when Muslim and Hindu attacked each other, and that split remains in the country. Though intensely secular in theory, India's Hindu majority provides Hinduism with a special status that the Muslims resent, and there are more Muslims in India than in any other two countries combined. India's democracy helps relieve some of this resentment, as Muslims are often the crucial swing coalition and have managed to pass a number of affirmative action laws. But for some that is not enough.

Separatists in western India have taken hope and inspiration from Indonesia and seek to secede and create their own Muslim state. They are opposed not just by the Hindus, but also by many of their more secular and (Indian) nationalist neighbors.

The ruling classes hope they can keep things from getting out of hand if they can further the development of a nationalist train of thought among all groups. So far things are manageable, but many worry how India will fair if some crisis, economical or social or military, presents itself. Will it fray or will it unite? So far, no one can know which way India will go.

And of course, then there is the bad boy of the Commonwealth, South Africa . . .

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THE MIDDLE EAST

Armistice day is remembered as the day when Arabs threw off their Turkish oppressors _completely by themselves_ and then due to tricky and deceit got taken over by the British and French. There are anti-Europe speeches a plenty and many a dictator, and a few Kings, make some cheap shots as well as glorifying the part that they had done to "get those Imperialist Powers out of our beloved country." Most of them have even gotten their oil companies out too.

The US companies not only offered better deals, but they also didn't have the stigma and worry of European influence. The US has practically zero political influence in the region, and in a strange way that gives them legitimacy. American movies are very popular with the masses, except for the religious who consider them decadent.

This day is especially marked in Syria-Palestinian and Egypt. Both countries go out their way to talk about how they had to fight so hard to liberate themselves from the Turk/British/French and that they MUST fight even harder NOW! Egypt and Syria-Palestine are both fighting a very long and very bloody war against each other.

It was looking like Britain and France would intervene because of perceived danger to the canal, like they did in '57, but they haven't. So far. Perhaps they are waiting for the right time, perhaps it just isn't as important now, perhaps they think the canal is safe, or perhaps they just aren't as confident now as they were 20 years ago. The 70's aren't the 50's after all. So far France and Britain seem willing to just letting both sides duke it out.

Which they have been doing for many years. If the war goes on much longer, it may get the glorious honor of being the longest declared war between states in the 20th century. Cairo and Jerusalem also have share with the Paris, London and New York of 1916 the honor of having many one legged or one armed men walking or rolling around. The trenches here pose more than a passing similarity to those of the war being remembered today.

Both governments want to be GREAT ARAB COUNTRY THAT WILL UNIFY ALL ARABS. It is a popular theme in both countries, why in Syria-Palestine even the Jews believe in this cause. But neither can do it while the other is strong and powerful. The border flared and tempers rose, and then men marched. So far, it looks like nether will win and both will lose. On this day, more than one observer compares it to the war of 60 years past.

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AFRICA

AFRICA:

A full third of Africa has been decolorized! They are free and independent states! Well . . . some them aren't _exactly_ free if you want to get technical. In fact, some of them, like the Congo, are down right tyrannical. But they are independent! And another third will be independent within ten years! Fifteen at the most! And the rest . . . .uh . . . not so much.

White settler rule extends over a goodly portion of Africa. While governments back in Europe are preparing to hand over Africa to the Africans, whites who live in Africa don't see much reason to do such silly a thing. Especially the colossus of the continent.

But for Independent Africa, and Soon-To-Be Independent Africa, the anniversary of the ending of the war is not remembered very much. Some African troops fought, but not many. The War did not greatly change the lives of their nations. If there was such a turning point, it was in the 1950's when the colonial powers first began to imagine that the Africa colonies wouldn't always be theirs.

Spurned on by a desire to have a developed Empire that could compete with the (at the time) seemingly unstoppable growth of Russia and Japan, the Europeans began to build universities and foster a more marketwise economy. And now . . . now the first graduates from those universities were demanding that the Europeans leave. And when they didn't leave fast enough, different men began picking up guns and began trying to make them leave.

Sometimes it worked, sometimes it didn't. The French and the Portuguese appear to be more willing to fight, and the Brits seem to want a more orderly transfer of power to elites who will remain sympathetic and allied to the commonwealth, like in India. But everyone knows that the direct colonies will eventually get self-rule. The Colossus to the South on the other hand . . .

SOUTH AFRICA

South Africa celebrates today with great gusto, like Japan or Australia, World War I is seen as the time when South Africans really came into their own. The War help firmly tie South Africa to the Empire while confirming that it was it's own power as well as signaling that great things were to come. The expansion of South Africa in the post-War world was amazingly fast. After Southern Rhodesia voted to join the Union in 1922, it seemed as if the dominos kept falling. The "Rhodesian Vote" was seen as crucial to keeping the Nationalists out of power, thus allowing Britain to trust the Union enough to transfer Swaziland, Bechuanaland, and Basutoland to it in the following years.

Prime Minister Smuts did not stop their however, and thanks to him and the United Party Tanganyika and then Kenya followed suit in the coming decades. The expansionists didn't get everything they wanted of course, their efforts to extort and cajole the Portuguese into selling their positions ended in dismal failure, and caused a big rift with Britain as well.

Of course, today South Africa has good relations with Portugal and they both work together to keep insurgents under control. Portugal has no intention of letting go of its colonies anytime soon, so both governments are eager to reach agreements with each other and both have made an effort to forget the jingoists of the past.

After expanding their territory in such a quick time, the South Africans have spent the forty years absorbing and dealing with their gains. Constant fights between the Liberals (who wanted to discreetly oppress the Africans) and the Conservatives (who wanted to openly oppress the Africans) have pretty much been won by the liberal side and now any African who can pass the barrage of tests and qualifications can go to the voting booth and vote right alongside their white counterparts. Last year there was much celebration as the grand total of African voters passed the one thousand mark.

There was a story recently printed in a popular South African paper of an African who took a voter law literacy test. After being given a very long and complex paragraph on the minutia of the tax code he was asked to explain what it meant. He wrote, "This means that no African will be allowed to vote in South Africa." This story was printed in the humor section.

There are some tut-tuts about this policy from the Commonwealth, and more than a bit of angry yelling from India, especially when Indians are effected. During the Second Great Game it was felt necessary to have South Africa as an ally, but more and more people are asking if perhaps _something_ might be done?

South Africa dominates the continent so much that it feels it can ignore these coughs from the mother country, and has said multiple times that if the Commonwealth will not support her, she is happy to go it alone. So far she has remained inside the tent rather than outside of it. In Britain they hope that the calming influence of other members will help reform to grow in South Africa. In South Africa they think that working from within the commonwealth is a better method of advancing their interests than working from without.

For now, neither side wants to risk a showdown just to appease their radicals, and the bonds of union are much remarked upon during today's ceremonies.

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1915: US enters WWI due to continued German unrestricted submarine warfare, which set off a downward spiral of further actions by Germany that angered the US.

1917: Germany defeated. Treaty harsher than OTL's Versailles (Large Russian demands in addition to OTL's). US joins League of Nations (with some reservations).

1918: Ottoman Empire fully collapses. French formally take over Palestine and rest of Arabia is divided. No Balfor declaration though.

1919: No Amasser Massacre. (India Calmer, less broken promises.) Gandhi believes in working with the Raj for an extra 5 years or so.

1917-1921: German Republic fragile. Economic collapse in Germany.

1922: Germany refuses to pay reparations. Joint Franco-Russian expedition to convince Germany to pay. Germany caves. Military Junta takes over Germany with Ludendorff as its head.

1924: Worldwide Slump. (Think Great Depression Light). Democrats come to power in US and implement "Rebirth of Freedom." (Think New Deal Light).

1925: Attempted Communist Revolution in Germany. Quickly suppressed. Lenin Flees back to Switzerland.

1926: Gandhi killed in suppression of Indian Riot.

1927: Modest worldwide economic recovery (the world is now in a recession instead of depression). US largely isolationist. Britain and Russia only real world powers.

1931: Russia industrialization begins increasing.

1931: Japan-Russia war scare over Manchuria. Japan backs down. Russia gains greater control over Manchuria.

1932: Germany promises elections sometime in indefinite future. World economy futher improving.

1932: Czar Nicholas dies. Olga becomes Czarina (Alexei had died years ago)

1933: Beginning of negotiations for German reparation reform. Germany holds semi-free election. Nazi Party does better than expected, but doesn’t come close to taking power.

1934: German Debt Reschedualment Plan Passed.

1935: Czarina Olga agrees to further decreases on German Payment Plan, for the good of the European Economy. Economic prosperity has fully returned. Financial system more rickety than OTL though.

1936: Al Smith wins re-election in the US.

1938: Large scale riots in India over nationalist agitation. Congress Party collapses in various factions. Bose’s faction quickly becomes strongest. British bloodily suppress riots. Criticism in Britain and abroad over force used. Czarina Olga’s political liberalization program speeded up. Pushes for social liberalization as well.

1939: Another World Recession. Russia hit especially hard. Financial system more rickety than most. Beginning of major financial reform. SEC formed in US, but too late to stop current recession. The idea of creating IMF/World Bank institutions gained popularity in League of Nations. Successful *Fascist coup in Russia and Italy.

1940: Attempted Nazi coup in Germany fails. Hitler executed. Indian troubles growing greatly.

1941: Republicans win white house for first time since 1924. Quentin Roosevelt President. The various alliances that make up both the Republican & Democratic parties are different than in OTL.

1941: Chiang Kai Shek tries to out Russian & Japanese puppets governments in Manchuria. Russia and Japan form quick alliance to deal with China.

1942: China suffers many defeats at the hands of Ruso-Japanese forces.

1943: Democracy returns to Germany as Kurt Schumacher is elected Prime Minsiter in a reasonably fair and open election.

1944. Chinese war over. Russia getscomplete annexation of Manchuria and bits of northern China and Japan gets large spheres of influence and puppets along the coast. Philipines given indipendence.

1945: The Second Mutiny in India is crushed. Led by the *Facist Bose, their was much bloodshed and ruin as well as lots of Hindu-Muslim violence. British recoil from the violence that was required to put down the rebellion.

1946: Anarcho-Syndicalists gurillas are beginning to be be a real problem in Vietnam.

1947. Desegregation campaign in the US splits the Democratic party. Racist Democrats come out on top of an internal power struggle within the Party. The Dems will remain the party of the South.

1948. Eight years the major Republican reform are validated when the win re-election.

1949: Hard liner *Facist Ivan Dimitrov because virtually absolute dictator of Russia after the former head of the party, Nikolai Malakov, dies.

1950: Russian invasion of Persia. It bogs down due to logistics and help from the Raj. The Russians win in the end, but the cost is considered to have been too high for their gains. Russia appears to dominate Eurasia, and is beginning to be regarded as a real threat for the West.

1951: Cost of occupying China disheartening to Japanese. Showdown between Military and Civilian government. Military ends up in the dominant position.

1952: Foreign affairs given almost no attention in US election. US remains an economic collosus and an international pygmy. Isolationism very dominant. Democrats gain power, but their attempt to push back civil rights failed. Much of South America openly *Facist, but they don't have any conection or alliance to Russia, so the US doesn't really care.

1953: Germany attempts to merge with Austria, but back downs after Russia threatens retaliation for breaking peace treaty. Germany's relations with France and Britain improve. Western Alliance (France, Germany, UK) formed in fear of Russia. Russia forms alliance with Japan and some Small Central European states. Tensions mount between the two groups.

1954: The Philipines have been indipendent for a decade now and have done rather well. They are a shining example to decolonization. Much of the Middle East begins to push the boundaries of their "independence" under the League's mandates. Some Western leaning rulers are allowed much power, anti-Western are taken care of, one way or another. No Israel.

1955: Time of Troubles in China continues as it suffers from competing warlords, anarchy, and Russian-Japanese occupation.

1956. Mussolini dies and a shaky democracy forms in Italy. Anarcho-Sydicalists come to power in Spain. First time A-S's have actually gained power. Internation A-S movement goes nuts.

1957: Atomic Bomb race won by Russia, but only by 1 month. Russia made some comments during that one month that were awfully scary to the Western Alliance, but didn't try anything.

1958: Indian given Dominion Status and defacto indipendence. Remains united (No Pakistan) India keeps stronger ties with Britain in this TL due to fear of Russian threat from Persia. Also, less socialist than OTL as is much of the world.

1959: Large scale indipendence movements in the collonial word begin to gain more and more power. Hawaii, Alsaka, become US states. US gets it's own A-bombs. Russians put man in Space. Western Alliance - Russia Space Race begins.

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