BHAMALA
The ancient site of Bhamala has been inscribed in 1980 upon the World Heritage List of the conventions concerning the protection of the World cultural and natural Heritage.  Inscription on the List confirms the exceptional universal value of a cultural site, which deserves protection for the benefit of all humanity.

Bhamala not only marked with a unique cruciform shaped Buddhist Stupa and a monastic establishment of 4th 5th century but also marked as the first halting place for trade caravans embarking on the northeastern route from Taxila. It is evident from the number of votive Stupas constructed on the bank of the rivet Haro that sweeps the site at its base on three sides in sharp bends before entering the open valley.

Bhamala was excavated in 1930-31.  The main Stupa with tall square base is built on cruciform plan with offset projection for flight of steps on all four sides.  The core of the Stupa is built with heavy blocks of limestone, laid in regular courses.  A frieze in stucco depicting the Death of the Buddha found here is now in the Museum.  Inside the relic chamber of the Stupa, at foundation level, 119 unidentified copper coins were found.

The monastery having an entrance on the west is of a usual style and located cast of the Stupa, on a lower level, with assembly hall, kitchen and stores in the eastern end.  A flight of step is located in the kitchen.  Opposite Bhamala, On the other side of the river remains of another Stupa and a monastery are lying buried under the river silt.

Towards the end of 5th century, Kidara Kushanas lost their empire to the White Huns.  This not only disrupted most of trade and trade routes but also left such distantly located Buddhist establishments without any royal patronage.  Perhaps it was due to economic strains that the custodians of Bhamala abandoned it and left it to decay under the sun.

These Buddhist Stupa and monastic remains at Bhamala for their historic and architectural importance have been declared as “Protected Antiquity” under the Antiquities act-1975. And who so ever will destroy, break, damage, alter, injure, deface or mutilate or scribble, write or engage any inscription or sign on any antiquity shall be punishable under Section 19 of the said Act with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years or with fine or Rupees 200,000/- or with both
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