SHORT ANSWER.  Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

1)  The gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline toward the deep ocean is termed the __________.



2)  Flat-topped volcanic structures located on the floor of the deep ocean basin are termed __________.



3)  List two sources for the salts in seawater.



4)  The proportion of dissolved salts to pure water is referred to as __________.



5)  A prominent feature of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a very deep linear valley known as a __________ valley.



6)  The area where the land and ocean meet and overlap is called the  __________ zone.



7)  The most extensive mountain range on Earth extends for about 65,000 kilometers on the ocean floor and is known as the __________.



8)  The ocean floors are dotted with isolated volcanic peaks called __________.



9)  The correct theory of atoll formation was proposed by __________.



10)  The continental shelf, slope, and rise make up a unit called the __________.



11)  The layer in the ocean that is characterized by a rapid temperature change is known as the __________ and marks the transition between the warm surface layer and the deep zone of cold water.



12)  The removal of salts and other chemicals to extract fresh water from seawater is called __________.



13)  The __________ zone refers to the area where the land and ocean meet and overlap.



14)  __________ refers to the total amount of dissolved materials in water.



15)  __________ level refers to each of the feeding stages in the food chain.



16)  __________ include all organisms that drift with ocean currents.



17)  __________ refers to the mass of all living organisms on Earth.



18)  Among plankton, animals that drift on ocean currents are specifically known as __________.



19)  The __________ zone refers to areas of the ocean, regardless of depth, where animals swim or float freely.



20)  The emission of water vapor and other gases from volcanoes is called __________.



21)  Marine organisms are influenced by a variety of physical oceanographic factors including __________, __________, and __________.



22)  Clams, sponges, and crabs are all examples of __________ organisms.



23)  The __________ effect causes ocean currents to be deflected to the right of their path of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.



24)  The low-lying zones that are alternately covered by water during flood tide and exposed following ebb tide are referred to as __________.



25)  When a wave breaks it changes from being a wave of oscillation to being a wave of __________.



26)  Global air temperatures may be rising because the amount of __________ in the atmosphere has been rising at an ever-increasing rate.



27)  When caves on opposite sides of a headland unite, a(n) __________ results.



28)  As waves approach the shoreline they often bend and become nearly parallel to the shore. This bending of waves is called __________.



29)  The rising of cold water from deeper layers to replace warmer surface water is called __________.



30)  The removal of salts and other chemicals from seawater to produce "fresh" water is known as __________.



31)  __________ refers to the change in temperature with depth in the ocean.



32)  The pycnocline is a rapid change in __________ with depth in the ocean.



33)  A sand bar that completely crosses a bay, sealing it off from the open ocean, is termed a(n) __________.



34)  A barrier built at a right angle to the beach for the purpose of trapping sand that is moving parallel to the shore is referred to as a(n) __________.



35)  Currents within the surf zone that flow parallel to the shore are known as __________ currents.



36)  Because deep ocean circulation is driven largely by variations in water temperature and salinity, it is also called __________ circulation.



37)  Structures called __________ are built parallel to the shoreline to protect boats from the force of large breaking waves.



38)  List three factors that determine the height, length, and period of a wave.



39)  Low and narrow offshore ridges of sand that parallel the coast are called __________.



40)  The opposite of ebb tide is __________ tide.



41)  The __________ is the distance the wind has traveled across open water.



42)  The zones affected by alternating tidal currents are __________.



43)  __________ is the term used to denote the horizontal flow of water accompanying the rise and fall of the tide.



44)  A ridge of sand that connects an island to the mainland or to another island is a(n) __________.





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