# GW-BASIC

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```This is the second of two files concerning PC-CALC.  You know, i wonder
if this is the original source of Jim Button's PC-CALC?  same name?

1
PC-CALC

by

John L. Vandegrift
and
Guy C. Gordon

2
Preface

Welcome  to PC-Calc, the electronic spreadsheet designed
for use with the IBM-PC or  VICTOR  9000  personal  computer.
This user's manual will serve as your guide.

The  PC-Calc  user's  manual  is intended to accommodate
a large number of people with a wide range of computer exper-
ience.  It is organized into three main sections.

Section  l  is  an  introduction to PC-Calc and includes
information about starting PC-Calc and  what  the  user  will
see.   You  should  read  this section before trying anything
with the PC-Calc program.

Section 2 is an instructional section,  containing  les-
sons  which  have been structured to foresee some of problems
and questions that  will  arise.   These  lessons  will  lead
you  from  initiating a PC-Calc session through various exer-
cises which illustrate how  PC-Calc  can  assist  in  solving
problems  and  increasing  your  efficiency.   The  exercises
should be run with the terminal in  front  of  you,  as  they
are  designed  to  lead  you through the features of PC-Calc.
With usage, you will become familiar with some  of  the  more
advanced features of PC-Calc.

Section  3  is the command reference.  This section con-
tains a description of each  of  the  commands  available  to
the  user.   As  you  use  the  advanced features of PC-Calc,
and become more familiar with them, you  will  find  yourself
spending  more  time  in this section.  The best way to learn
PC-Calc is to use it.  Do not be afraid  of  making  mistakes
and  experimenting.  No matter what you type at the keyboard,
you cannot hurt the computer or the PC-Calc program, although
it is always a good idea to have a backup of all programs.

PC-Calc  is  laid  out  similarly to classic spreadsheet
programs.  It is not intended  to  completely  replace  these
programs,  but  will  allow  you  to learn what a spreadsheet
is all about.  Written in BASIC,  PC-Calc  has  many  limita-
tions.   First,  interpretive Basic is slow.  Second, it must
pause once in a while  to  free  more  space  for  variables.
(When  this  happens  PC-Calc  will  not  respond for up to 2
minutes.)  If you are running the compiled version of PC-Calc
these  may  not  be problems.  Third, Basic limits your space
to about 1000 cells.  If you start  using  PC-Calc  and  find
that  it  serves  a  useful  purpose in your home or at work,
then it may be time to  start  looking  at  the  full  priced
spreadsheets,  which  are bigger, faster, have more features,
(and cost a whole lot more).  Your  experience  with  PC-Calc
will  be  of  great  value to you in evaluating the many com-
mercially available spreadsheets.

3
1.  Overview

Spreadsheet  application  programs,  of  which   PC-Calc
is  one,  were born out of the observation that many problems
are commonly solved using a pencil, paper and  a  calculator.
Calculating sales projections, departmental budgets, engineer-
ing estimates, etc. are all done in this manner.

PC-Calc  combines  the  familiarity  and  convenience of
a pocket calculator with the powerful memory  and  electronic
screen  capabilities of the personal computer.  With PC-Calc,
the screen becomes a window that shows  part  of  the  larger
worksheet.   You  can  access  different  parts  of the sheet
at will, displaying any 22 by 8  section  of  the  50  by  20
sheet.

The  screen  is  divided into a 22 by 8 grid of rows and
columns.  The intersection  of  these  rows  and  columns  is
called a cell.  At each cell you can enter a number, a label,
or an equation.  In this  fashion  you  can  quickly  set  up
your own tables, charts, and records

Formatting  commands  allow you to customize the appear-
ance of the data in the  worksheet,  both  on  a  global  and
local  level.  Global formatting applies to all of the cells,
while local formatting applies to only to  individual  cells.
(Local  formatting  takes precedence over global formatting.)
In this manner, you  can  make  your  spreadsheet  look  like
your  bank  statement,  your  income tax form, or your ledger
book.

The real power of PC-Calc lies in its ability to  remem-
ber  the equations and numbers used as you defined your prob-
lem.  If you need to change a number on  the  worksheet,  you
need  merely  change that number and PC-Calc will recalculate
all the numbers  that  relate  to  it.   Recalculation  makes
PC-Calc  a  powerful  tool.   This  allows the user to easily
correct mistakes, as well as examine "whatif" situations.

Imagine, for example, that you are doing a sales projec-
tion.   You  may  want  to know the impact on your company if
a specific product does not  sell  as  well  as  anticipated.
What  if  you  sell  only  100  cogs instead of 150?  What if
you sell 500?  What if you lose one of your  sales  personnel
and  you  know  that his 35% share of your sales will go with
him?  These are all  examples  of  "whatif"  situations  that
PC-Calc  makes  easy  to  analyze.  Whereas it would take the
you several hours of erasing and  recalculating  to  do  this
on  paper,  once  the model was set up, PC-Calc will make the
calculations in a matter of seconds.

4

Perhaps you keep a household  budget,  and  you  know
that  next  month there will be an additional 5% tax on gaso-
line.  With PC-Calc you could look up  last  month's  budget,
and  with  one  command  multiply all the gasoline charges by
1.05 and use the  result  as  an  estimate  of  next  month's
budget.

To  set  up  these  models,  you  must decide what items
you want to show and where you want them on the  spreadsheet.
After  you  have  decided  on a layout, you can enter titles,
labels and other textual information to show where  the  data
is  to go.  Next you enter the raw data such as prices, rates
or any other numbers, into  the  cells  you  have  designated
for  them.   Finally,  you  enter the equations which will be
used to calculate intermediate values and the  final  numbers
you are interested in (i.e. the bottom line).

Once  you establish the format for a particular applica-
tion, you can change  the  numbers  at  will.   PC-Calc  will
take  care of calculating new answers for the equations based
on the new values you  just  entered,  as  well  as  handling
the  formatting  of  those  cells  so that they are displayed
in a pleasing and useful manner.  PC-Calc is unique in allow-
ing  you  to display numbers either as decimals or fractions.
You can save the entire worksheet to a  file  and  recall  it
later,  print  the  worksheet on the printer to obtain a hard
copy, or print a copy to a disk  file  which  you  may  enter
into your word processor as a table.

In  an  hour or two, you can learn enough of the elemen-
tary features of PC-Calc to enable you to solve simple  prob-
lems.   As  you  use  PC-Calc  and  become more familiar with
it, you will learn the more advance commands  and  techniques
such as how to have PC-Calc draw a graph of your results.

5

Matrix Introduction

1.1  Screen  Format.   The  PC-Calc  matrix  is  made up
of one thousand cells divided  into  fifty  rows  and  twenty
columns.   Each cell is displayed as a maximum of eight posi-
tions.  As a result, only twenty-two rows and  eight  columns
are  displayed  on  the screen.  The rows are labeled numeri-
cally and the columns are  labeled  alphabetically,  starting
at  the  upper  left  corner  of  the matrix.  Thus the first
cell in the upper left corner would be A1.  When the  program
starts  up,  it will show cells A1 through H22 on the screen.
See the Goto command for information on displaying  the  rest
of the matrix.

1.2   Cursor and Status Line.  The current cell is indi-
cated by an inverse video  cursor.   When  PC-Calc  is  first
run  the current cell will be A1.  The top line of the screen
is the status line.  This line is used to give more  informa-
tion  about  the  current cell, as well as to prompt the user
for  more  information  when  executing  a  Special  Command.
Values  will  be  shown  unformatted in full precision on the
status line, although they  will  have  either  a  global  or
local  format  applied  to  them  when  displayed in the cell
of the matrix on the screen.  The global  and  local  formats
control  how  the  value is displayed and  printed.  For more
information on the  formatting  of  values,  see  the  Format
command.

1.3   Cursor  Manipulation.   The  cursor  can  be moved
to any cell on the screen through  the  user  of  the  cursor
keys  to  the  right  of  the keyboard.  Each time one of the
cursor arrow keys is pressed, the current cell changes appro-
priately, as indicated by the inverse video  cursor.  Through
these keys, the user is allowed to move the  cursor  anywhere
on  the  screen.   The  status  line at the top of the screen
will change to indicate  the  contents  of  the  new  current
cell.

The Goto command can be used to move the cursor directly
to any cell in the matrix.  This command  takes  a  few  more
keystrokes  than  the  cursor  movement  keys,  but will save
keystrokes when moving to a location more than  a  few  cells
away.   Also,  the  Goto command allows you to move to a cell
that is off the screen.  If the  cell  is  off  the   screen,
and  the  Goto  command  is  used to access it, then the cell
will be put at the top left corner of the screen.   For  more
information about the Goto command, see section 2.

6

You  may  also  move  the  screen  window by a full page
(screen).  On the IBM-PC the  PageUp  and  PageDn  keys  move
the  screen  22 lines, while Control left & right cursor move
the screen 8 columns.  On the  Victor  9000  these  functions
are  performed  by  the  SCRL up & down and WORD right & left
keys

1.4  Entering Data.  The  user  can  enter  three  types
of  data  into  the  current cell.  The first type of data is
a numerical value.  To tell PC-Calc that a  value  is  to  be
entered  into  the  current  cell,  press the = key.  PC-Calc
will respond by clearing the status line  and  prompting  you
for  the  value  to  be entered.  You enter a value and press
return when done.  The status  line  will  again  be  cleared
and  PC-Calc  will  display  the  new contents of the current
cell.

The second type of data that can be entered is a  label.
This  is  useful  for  labeling  columns or rows of data.  To
tell PC-Calc that a label is to be entered into  the  current
cell,  press  the  '  key.   PC-Calc will respond by clearing
the status line and prompting the  user  for  a  label.   The
user  enters  a label and presses return.  PC-Calc will enter
the label and display  the  contents  of  the  current  cell.
Labels can have up to eight characters per cell.  If a longer
label is desired, more characters  can  be  entered  and  the
label will be automatically continued into the next cell.

The  third  type  of  data  that can be entered into the
current cell is an equation.  This is done through the  Spec-
ial  Commands  section.   For  more  information  on entering
equations, see the Equation command in the  Special  Commands
section.

1.5  Clearing   the  Screen.   Occasionally  the  screen
may become cluttered with  unwanted  material.   Or  you  may
wish  to  clear  any highlighted cells back to normal bright-
ness.  Pressing the HOME key causes  PC-Calc  to  redraw  the
display.   It  does  not  alter the information in any of the
cells.

1.6  Cancel.  There will  be  times  when  you  want  to
stop  PC-Calc  from  updating the screen (which can be slow).
For instance, PC-Calc is drawing the screen and  you  realize
that  you  have  another  change  to make, and then will need
to update the screen again.  You may press the END key  (IBM-
PC)  or  REQuest  CANcel  key  (Victor 9000) and PC-Calc will
immediately return control  to  you.   After  you  make  your
change  you  can  press  the HOME key and PC-Calc will redraw
the entire display.

1.7  Quit.  To exit PC-Calc enter /Q.

7
Lessons

2.1  Lesson 1.  To run the compiled version  of  PC-Calc
(file  PC-CALC.EXE)  type  in  PC-CALC  .   To run the
interpreted BASIC version (PC-CALC.BAS) enter BASIC  PC-CALC.
The  compiled  version  will  run faster but may require more
memory.  With the interpreted  version  you  can  adjust  the
number  of  rows  and  columns  to fit you memory size.  When
you have PC-Calc running, you should see the PC-Calc  outline
on  the  screen  with rows 1 through 22 displayed on the left
and columns A through H  displayed  across  the  top  of  the
screen.   At  the intersection of a row and column is a cell.
In each cell, you can enter a label  (text),  a  value  (con-
stant) or an equation (formula).

The  top  line  of  the screen is the status line, which
gives the contents of the current  cell.   The  current  cell
is  indicated  on  the  screen by inverse video cursor.  When
the program is first run, the  cursor  will  be  in  cell  A1
and  the  status  line will show "A01 = (blank)", which indi-
cates that nothing has  been  entered  into  cell  A1.   This
status  line is used to display the cell contents and receive
user interaction.  When  PC-Calc  is  waiting  for  the  user
to  issue  a  command,  this  line  will show the contents of
the current cell.

Movement of the cursor is done through the  cursor  con-
trol  keys.   To  move  to  cell  A2 you would press the down
arrow key.  To access a cell that  is  off  the  screen,  use
the  Goto  command.   The Goto command is entered by pressing
the "." key.  PC-Calc will respond  by  clearing  the  status
line  and  asking  for  the cell to which to go.  This can be
a cell on or off the screen.  If it is off  the  screen,  PC-
Calc  will  clear  the  screen  and  display a new section of
the matrix with the requested cell in  the  top  left  corner
of  the  screen,  if  appropriate.   Even for movement on the
screen, the Goto command can be easier than the  cursor  keys
if the user has to move more than a few cells.  In addressing
cells you may specify either A01 or A1 as you please.

* * * Practice moving the cursor * * *

Moving the cursor and window around are fairly  straight
forward  as  you  have  seen, but so far the worksheet should
be empty.  Writing on the worksheet is just as easy.   Before
going  further,  press  the  HOME key to clear the screen and
rebuild the window on the screen.  Now  move  the  cursor  to
cell  A1,  press  the  quote key ('), enter "SALES" and press
return.  Upon pressing the quote  key,  PC-Calc  responds  by
clearing  the  status  line  and  prompting you for the label
to go into cell A1.  As you enter "SALES",  PC-Calc  displays
it  on  the  status  line.   The BACKSPACE key can be used to

8

correct any errors before you press  the  return  key,  which
tells  PC-Calc  to  enter the label in the current cell (A1).

Each cell can normally  hold  up  to  eight  characters.
If the label you desire to enter is longer than eight charac-
ters, PC-Calc will allow you  to  enter  nine  characters  in
the  cell  and  automatically  continue the label in the next
cell.  (The ninth  character  goes  into  the  space  between
the  cells.)  In this way you can have long titles and labels
in the PC-Calc matrix.  At this point the status line  should
read A01=SALES.

Now  move  the cursor to B1 by pressing the right cursor
key. When the status line  reads  B01=(b[=s-%b kke..

Joe6PackNotes:

here the file looked like it contained a virus as a string of high
order ascii and low order was present.  deleted all of it (about a
half line of stuff. So watch out if you find the original.

This  key  may  be  used with or without the shift key
being pressed.  PC-Calc will prompt  the  user  for  a  value
to  go in B1.  You can then enter a number up to eight digits
long.  When you have the number, press return to tell PC-Calc
to  enter the number in the matrix.  Fractions may be entered
with a space between the integer  and  the  fractional  parts
(e.g. 12 3/8).

* * * Practice entering Labels and Values * * *

To  enter  an equation, you must go to the Equation com-
mand in the Special Command section by pressing  the  /  key.
PC-Calc will respond by displaying all the commands available
to you in this section.   To  execute  the  Equation  command
press  the  E key.  PC-Calc will then prompt for the Equation
to go in the current cell.  Equations can have cell referenc-
es, numbers, the four math operators (+,-,*,/) and ten levels
of parentheses.  From  cell  C1  enter  the  equation  B1+100
and  press  return.   The  status line will show the equation
you have just entered and its current evaluation.   The  cell
will display this value.

If  we  change  the  value  of B1 we must ask PC-Calc to
re-compute the value of the  equation  in  C1.   To  do  this
you  enter  /C  which  tells PC-Calc to go through the matrix
and calculate all of the equations, placing  the  new  values
in  the  cells.   In  this fashion, the user can make several
changes and, when finished with  the  changes,  tell  PC-Calc
to  compute  the new values.  Since this may take the longest
of any of the commands,  you  should  make  as  many  changes
as  possible  before  re-computing.   At  this  point, change
the value of B1 and press /C.  PC-Calc will  respond  by  re-
calculating  the  value  of  C1  and displaying the new value
highlighted so that you can  see  what  happened.   You  will
notice  that  the  cursor  disappears  while  PC-Calc is busy
executing your command.   It's  reappearance  is  the  signal
that you may enter your next command.

9
* * * Practice entering equations * * *

After  entering  values,  labels  and equations into the
matrix and computing the results, we  can  save  the  PC-Calc
matrix  as  a  file  so  that  it can be recalled later.  The
command to do this is the SAVE  command,  /S.   PC-Calc  will
respond  by  prompting  for a filespec or name to give to the
matrix you are saving.   (You  are  also  shown  the  default
file  name  which  will  be  used  if you press enter.)  This
follows the DOS conventions for naming  files  and  can  have
the  drive  prefix  as  well  as  the filetype extension.  If
you do not provide an extension, PC-Calc will use  the  file-
type  .CAL  to  indicate  that  this is a PC-Calc spreadsheet
file.  After entering the  filespec,  PC-Calc  will  ask  you
to  insert the correct disk for the file, giving you a chance
to swap diskettes if needed.

After you have saved the  matrix  to  a  file,  use  the
LOAD  command  (/L)  to  load  the file back into the PC-Calc
matrix.  To indicate clearly that  it  has  worked,  we  will
obtain  a  new  empty  matrix first.  Execute the NEW command
by typing /N.   PC-Calc  will  respond  by  re-starting  from
the  beginning,  with  a  new, empty matrix.  Now execute the
LOAD command by typing /L.  PC-Calc  will  ask  you  for  the
name  of  the  file  to be loaded, just as with the SAVE com-
mand.  PC-Calc will display the matrix as it is  loaded  into
memory.   If  you give PC-Calc the name of a nonexistent file
an error message will  appear  on  the  status  line.   Press
return to recover.  The name you give becomes the new default
file name.

* * * Practice Saving and Loading files * * *

The one last command we will  cover  in  lesson  one  is
the  QUIT  command,  which  terminates  the  PC-Calc program.
You should make note of the fact that PC-Calc does NOT  auto-
matically  save  the  data  in  the matrix when you Quit.  It
is up to you to save any matrix that  you  believe  is  worth
keeping.   To  exit  the  PC-Calc  program type /Q which will
return you to the MS-DOS operating  system  after  displaying
the credits.

10

2.2  Lesson  2  -  In  this  lesson, you will learn more
about the power of Calc, building  on  the  basic  principles
you  have  seen  so far.  We will set up an example and build
from there.

----A-------B-------C-------D-------E-------F-------G----
100     500    1000    2000    3000    5000
A/L RATE   50.00   49.50   45.00   43.00   40.00   39.00
INCL TAX   52.50   51.98   47.25   45.15   42.00   40.95
GP PCT      0.30    0.30    0.30    0.30    0.30    0.30
RATE       75.00   74.25   67.50   64.50   60.00   58.50
GP/100     22.50   22.28   20.25   19.35   18.00   17.55
GP \$       22.50  111.38  202.50  387.00  540.00  877.50

Figure 2.1

Figure 2.1 shows the matrix that we will use  to  demon-
strate  the  capabilities  of  Calc.   In  column A, there is
a series of labels for the  corresponding  rows  of  informa-
tion.   In  row  1 there is a series of values that label the
corresponding columns.   First,  we  will  enter  the  labels
in  column  A.   If  you do not have a clear screen, press /N
to get a New matrix.  Move the cursor to  A2  and  press  the
quote  key  to enter a label.  Now enter "A/L RATE" and press
return.  Do the same thing for cells A3 through  A7  so  that
they  look  like  the cells in Figure 2.1.  Now use the = key
to enter the corresponding values for  cells  B1  through  G1
and cells B2 through G2.

At  this  point  all  the  values  in the first two rows
are being displayed with  two  decimal  places,  even  though
you  entered  the  top  row  as simple integers.  To get your
matrix to look like the one  in  Figure  2.1  we'll  have  to
use  the  Format  command.   In the Format command, there are
two options--Global and Local.   The  Global  format  applies
to  all  cells  which  have  not yet been assigned a specific
Local format.  When you assign a cell a  Local  format,  that
takes  precedence over the Global format.  When PC-Calc first
starts up the Global Format is two decimal places.

In Figure 2.1, row 1 is formatted  Locally  to  Integer.
To  set  the  local format for row 1, press /F to execute the
Format command, then press L to set a Local format.   PC-Calc
will  now  ask  if  you  want the cells displayed as Integer,
0-7 decimal places,  or  fractions.   Enter  I  for  Integer.
Now  tell  PC-Calc  that you want this format to apply to the
top row of cells by entering  B1,  press  return,  enter  G1,
and  press  return.   At  this  point your matrix should look
like rows 1 and 2 of Figure 2.1 as  well  as  column  A.   If
not,  trace  back  through  the  first  part of the lesson to
pick up anything you might have missed.

11

Row 3 of Figure 2.1 is 105% of row  2,  (row  2  plus  a
5%  tax).   For  this,  we  will need to enter an equation in
B3 to relate this formula to Calc.  Move the cursor  to  cell
B3  and  enter  /E to enter the Equation.  Now enter  B2*1.05
and press return.  B3 now has  the  correct  formula  in  it,
but  there  are  five  more cells to fill.  Rather than enter
the same equation five  times,  we  will  use  the  Replicate
command.

The  Replicate command is used in PC-Calc to copy formu-
las, values and labels into a series of cells.  In  the  case
of formulas you have the option of copying the formula exact-
ly, or relative to where it is placed.  To execute the Repli-
cate  command,  enter  /R.  PC-Calc will then ask you for the
source cell.  In this case, enter B3  and  press  return.  If
your  cursor is at B3 you may simply press return and PC-Calc
will enter the value  of  the  current  cell.   PC-Calc  will
next  ask  if  there  is  to be a multiple number of cells in
the source.  Press N for No.  If we were going to  copy  part
of  a  whole  row  or column we would enter Yes.  PC-Calc now
asks if the replicate is Absolute or Relative. If  we  picked
Absolute,  all  of  the cells would have the equation B2*1.05
in them, which would be a bit redundant  to  say  the  least,
thus  we  want  to  replicate Relative to the location of the
equation.  Press R  for  Relative.   Next  PC-Calc  wants  to
know  where  to replicate the equation.  You will be prompted
for the first and last cells  in  the  target  range.   Enter
C3,  return,  G3,  and  return.   PC-Calc  will now replicate
the equation into the cells that we want, and the  new  equa-
tions  will  reference  the cell directly above them, not B2.

At this point you should  be  able  to  finish  off  the
matrix  in  Figure  2.1  with the following information.  Row
4 is simply the value .30, row 5 is row  3  divided  by  (one
minus  row  4),  row 6 is row 5 minus row 3, and row 7 is row
6 times row 1 divided by 100.  Do not read the next paragraph
until you have tried to use the commands we have just covered
to duplicate Figure 2.1.  If  you  need  a  little  help,  go
on to the next paragraph.

* * * Enter the rest of Figure 2.1 * * *

If  you  are  having  problems,  here  are the equations
for column B:
B4 = .30
B5 = B3/(1-B4)
B6 = B5-B3
B7 = B6*B1/100

* * * SAVE, then practice on this matrix * * *

12

2.3  Lesson 3 - In  this  lesson,  we  will  learn  some
of  the  more  advanced features that make entering data into
the matrix a bit easier.  Load the file back into the  matrix
that  we  created in lesson 2.  First, we will blank a series
of locations with the Blank command.  Enter  /B  and  PC-Calc
will  ask  for  the series of cells to be blanked.  Enter B2,
press return, enter G2 and press return.  PC-Calc will erases
the contents of locations B2 through G2.  Now move the cursor
to B2.  Before re-entering the values we  will  tell  PC-Calc
to  automatically  jump  across  the row for us.  To do this,
enter /J and select R for  Row.   Now  whenever  a  label  or
value  is  entered in a cell, PC-Calc will automatically jump
to the cell to the right of the  current  cell.   To  skip  a
cell  in  the  row  you  may simply press return.  Try it out
by re-entering the values that were in row 2.

Next we will examine the print command.  When  printing,
only  8  columns  of  information will fit on an 80 character
wide printer, or 14 columns of information on a 132 character
wide  printer.   PC-Calc will prompt you for the column where
you wish to start printing.   If  your  matrix  is  too  wide
to  print  at  one  time  you will have to print it in two or
more parts.  To print  the  matrix  from  the  lesson,  ready
the  printer,  execute  the  Print command by entering /P and
tell PC-Calc to start  with  column  A.   PC-Calc  will  then
print  the  first 8 or 14 columns depending upon your printer
width.

To change the printer width we must use the  /Z  command
which  changes a number of the PC-Calc default values.  These
are the maximum number of rows, the maximum  number  of  col-
umns,  your  printer  width, print output file or device, and
the Bold flag.  In each case, PC-Calc shows you  the  current
default  and  prompts  you for a new value.  To leave a value
as defined you may  simply  press  return.   Telling  PC-Calc
to  use  fewer  rows  and  columns  will greatly increase the
speed of operation as PC-Calc will  not  try  to  process  or
display  any  of  the  information  in  the  remaining cells.
However the cells are still there for you to use by  increas-
ing  the  the  default  values  whenever needed.  The maximum
size of the PC-Calc matrix is set in  the  program  and  will
appear the first time you enter /Z.  These values are usually
50 rows by 20 columns  and  are  limited  by  the  addressing
ability  of  MS  Basic.   At  this time, enter /Z and set the
number of rows and columns to 8 each.

If you have an 80 column printer  you  should  enter  80
when  prompted  for  printer width. This will prevent PC-Calc
from trying to print past the end of your  paper.   When  PC-
Calc  asks  for  the  name of the print output file or device
press return to keep the default device LST  (your  printer).
You  could enter a filename and PC-Calc would store the print

13

output for you to print later, or to enter into a  word  pro-
cessor.

If  you  elect  to  leave the Bold feature ON, values in
the matrix which PC-Calc has just computed will be highlight-
ed  on  the  screen.  For the Total and Average commands, the
cells just Totaled will be highlighted.   Any  command  which
rewrites  the screen (e.g. HOME) will erase the highlighting,
as will running the cursor over the cells.   If  you  do  not
find this feature helpful, use /Z to turn Bold OFF.

The  next  command  we  will  review is the Modify Value
command, /M.  This command will allow you to perform a calcu-
lation  on  a  series of values (not equations) and leave the
new value in the cells.  It has no  effect  on  equations  or
labels.   For  an  example,  we  will  increase the values in
row 2 by 11% using the Modify Value  command.   To  do  this,
enter  /M,  to  which  PC-Calc  will respond "Finish equation
:".  PC-Calc assumes the value in the  cell  to  be  modified
to  be  the  first  term of the equation, so just enter *1.11
and press return.  PC-Calc will then ask  for  the  range  of
cells  to  be modified.  Tell PC-Calc to use cells B2 through
G2.  PC-Calc will then  modify  these  values  for  you.   To
see  the  entire  results  on  the whole matrix, enter /C and
PC-Calc will use the new values as  input  to  the  equations
which  reference  those   cells.   The  Modify  Value command
can use all of the facilities available in the regular  equa-
tion  mode:   cell  references, numbers, the four math opera-
tors, and ten levels of parentheses.

There are two PC-Calc  commands  which  write  equations
for  you.   These  are  the  Total  and Average commands.  To
use these commands, move the cursor to  the  cell  where  you
wish  the  resulting  equation to be placed, then execute the
appropriate command, /T for Total or /A for Average.  PC-Calc
then prompts for the source range for the cells to be totaled
or averaged, and places  both  the  equation  and  the  value
of  the  total  or  average in the current cell.  If the Bold
feature is ON the source  range  for  the  total  or  average
will be highlighted.

Two  of  the  most  powerful  commands  at your disposal
are the Insert and Delete  commands.   These  commands  allow
you  to  make  room  in  the matrix for new data by Inserting
a blank row or column or to Delete a row  or  column  without
leaving  a  blank  space.   When these commands are executed,
PC-Calc automatically modifies all equations  in  the  matrix
so  that  they  reference  the  same data, even though it has
been moved to a new location.

For example, suppose we wanted to add a  column  labeled
200  between  columns  B  and  C of our lesson matrix.  To do

14

so, move to column C and execute the Insert command by typing
/I  and  selecting  C  for  column insert.  PC-Calc will move
all of the columns from C through T one column to the  right,
losing the data in column T, and creating a new, blank column
C.  Finally all equations will  be  altered,  such  that  any
reference  to  (for  instance)  C5,  will  now  reference D5.

The Delete command does just the  opposite.   To  Delete
column  C,  move  the cursor to any cell in the column, enter
/D and select C to delete a Column.  This will cause  columns
D  through  T  to  be  moved  one column to the left, placing
a blank column in column T and deleting  column  C.   Finally
all  equations  which  referenced  any  cell  which was moved
will be updated to reference the same data in its  new  loca-
tion.

Words of caution:  be careful when deleting or inserting
columns and rows.  PC-Calc  can  easily  wipe  out  a  series
of values in an instant.

The  Window  command  allows  the user to display either
the row 1 or column A on the screen at all  times.   For  ex-
ample,  go  to  cell  A50 and execute the Window command, /W,
and select the row option by entering R.  You  will  now  see
row  1 where the top row is.  This allows you to place labels
for data in row 1 or column A  and  see  them  from  anywhere
in the matrix.

The  END  key  (IBM-PC)  or  REQuest  CANcel key (Victor
9000) can be used to save time  using  PC-Calc  by  canceling
unwanted  screen  rewrites.   Any  time  PC-Calc is redrawing
the entire screen (for example after a GOTO  to  a  cell  off
the  screen,  at the end of the /Z command or after you press
HOME) you may press the END or REQ CAN key and  PC-Calc  will
immediately  stop  drawing  the screen and be ready to accept
a new command.  You may also Cancel a Print (/P) or a Compute
(/C)  command.   In  the  latter case any cells that were not
redrawn will still retain their old values.

Finally, a word  about  series.   A  number  of  PC-Calc
commands  (/B,  /F,  /T, etc.) ask you to enter the first and
last cells of a series.  Normally  these  cells  will  be  in
a  straight  line  on  a  row or column.  However you may, if
you like, enter a block  series.   For  instance,  you  could
use  /B  to  blank  out  the block of cells C2-C5, D2-D5, and
E2-E5 by entering the  series  C2-E5.   PC-Calc  considers  a
block  series  to  be  all  cells from the starting column to
the ending column on each row  from  the  start  to  the  end
of  the  series.   In effect, you are entering the upper left
and lower right corners of a rectangle.

15

2.4 Lesson 4 - This final lesson  will  cover  a  single
feature--plotting  Bar  Graphs.   PC-Calc  can  offer  such a
feature only with limitations.  For one, you  can  only  draw
horizontal  Bar  Graphs.   Second,  you  must scale the graph
yourself (i.e.  PC-Calc  will  not  automatically  scale  the
graph  to  fit  within a window).  Third, if you wish to make
the graph smaller, you must  manually  erase  the  bars  with
the  Blank  command  (/B).  Fourth, you cannot graph negative
numbers.  And fifth, the resolution is limited to 1/2 charac-
ter  width.   Despite  these  limitations, the Bar Graphs you
can draw provide  a  pleasing  visual  presentation  of  your
results.

To  draw  a Bar Graph, arrange the results to be plotted
in a column.  In the example shown  in  Figure  2.2  we  have
put  labels  in  column A and results in column B.  Next, put
a single scale factor in column C  next  to  each  result  to
be  plotted.   This is most easily done by entering the scale
factor in the top cell  of  the  column  and  Replicating  it
through  the  rest  of  the  column.  The value of this scale
factor will depend upon the magnitude of  the  data  and  the
desired  size  of the graph.  You cannot see the scale factor
in Figure 2.2 because the  Bar  graph  is  displayed  in  its
place, but the value used in is 15.  Also, the bars in Figure
2.2 are drawn with X's.  This  is  not  how  it  will  appear
on  your  screen  where the bars will be drawn as solid bars.
What character you see when you print a bar graph will depend
on  what  printer  you  own  and  how it interprets the eight
bit code it is sent.

----A--------B--------C--------D--------E--------F--------G--
Putnum Health Fund, Stock Price  INCREASE
Sun.    Increase   ----------------------------------------
MAY 1982     0.00
Feb. 27      3.27    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Mar.  5      3.72    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Mar. 13      3.89    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Mar. 20      3.75    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Mar. 27      4.27    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Apr.  3      4.20    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Apr. 10      3.92    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Apr. 17      4.67    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Apr. 24      5.06    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
May   8      5.44    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
May  15      5.42    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
0May  22     5.24    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
May  29      5.50    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
June  5      5.54    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

AVERAGE      4.56    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Figure 2.2
16

After  you  have entered the labels shown in Figure 2.2,
and the values in column B and the scale factor 15 in  column
C,  draw  the  graph by Formatting the scale factors as Bars.
To do this, enter /F for Format,  L  for  Local,  B  for  Bar
Graph  and  then  the  first  and  last cell addresses of the
column of scale factors (C4-C20).  PC-Calc  will  redraw  the
entire screen, showing the Bar Graph.

PC-Calc  draws the graph by multiplying the scale factor
in the cell formatted as a B by the value in the cell immedi-
ately  to  the  left,  and  then  creating a label consisting
of that many half-characters wide bars.  This  label  is  ex-
tended  into  the  cells  to  the right, as far as the screen
permits.  The scale factor is  retained  in  the  first  cell
of  the  Bar  graph but is not displayed.  (You can, however,
see it on the status line.)  If the  last  character  in  the
bar  is  only  a  half-character it will be brighter than the
rest of the bar.  If the graph is not as wide  as  you  wish,
you  can  modify  the  scale factor in the entire column with
the /M command,  followed  by  HOME  to  redraw  the  screen.
If  the  graph  is TOO wide, first erase the labels extending
beyond the scale factors with the /B command and then proceed
to  modify  the  scale  factors (otherwise parts of the first
bar graph will remain in the cells).

With a little practice you  will  find  the  Bar  Graphs
very  easy to work with and very clear at presenting results.
For example, if the cells to  be  plotted  contain  equations
which  are  the  results  of a simulation, you can change the
input data, Compute the values of the  equations,  and  Clear
the  screen to see the results plotted, all in a few seconds.

Accompanying this program you will  find  a  file  named
STOCKS.CAL.   Load  this  file to see an example of using PC-
Calc to follow the price  of  a  stock.   Press  the  Control
right  arrow  key  (WORD  right  arrow on the Victor 9000) to
move to cell I1 and see a second graph (Figure 2.2),  showing
the  price  increase  of  the same stock.  This shows how the
Bar graph need not be right next to the part of  the  spread-
sheet  that  generated  the data.  You can Replicate the data
you want to graph in another section of the matrix and  graph
it  there,  or  you can graph a column of cells each of which
contains the equation making it equal  to  a  cell  elsewhere
in  the  matrix.  In the latter case you can see the new data
graphed whenever you change the old  data  simply  by  enter-
ing  /C  to  Compute  the  equations  and  HOME to redraw the
screen.

17
3. Special Commands

INTRODUCTION.   The  Special  Commands  allow  the  user
to  manipulate  the  contents  of  the PC-Calc matrix.  These
commands are accessed by pressing the / key and then  select-
ing  the  appropriate  command.   Any  commands that use cell
references for source ranges or target ranges apply to  cells
off  the  screen  as well as on the  screen.  So you can, for
example, replicate to locations off the screen.

/A   AVERAGE   This command allows the user  to  average
a  series  of  cells  and put the result in the current cell,
as indicated by the inverse  video  cursor.   Thus  the  user
should  position  the  cursor  to the cell where he wants the
average to appear and  type  /A.   PC-Calc  will  prompt  for
the  first  and last cells you want included in the equation.
You should enter each  cell  when  asked  and  press  return.
PC-Calc  will  then  write  the  equation  for the average of
that series of cells and  its  value  in  the  current  cell.
If  the BOLD option is on the cells of the series being aver-
aged will be highlighted.  You may notice  that  the  Average
command  first  displays the total of the range, then changes
it to the average.

/B   BLANK     This command allows  the  user  to  blank
out  (erase)  a  series  of cells, either in a row or column.
To erase a series of cells press  /B  and  give  PC-Calc  the
starting  and ending cells of the series.  PC-Calc will erase
everything from the cells  in  the  series  (values,  labels,
equations  and  local  formatting).   In this as in all other
commands, when PC-Calc  prompts  you  for  a  cell,  pressing
Return  defaults  to  the  current  cell.   Thus to blank the
current cell you could type /B [CR] [CR].

/C   COMPUTE   PC-Calc will go through  the  matrix  row
by  row  from  the  top  computing and displaying the current
values of all equations in the matrix.  If  the  BOLD  option
is  on,  each  computed  value  will be highlighted.  You may
Cancel the Compute command by pressing the  END  or  REQ  CAN
key.

/D   DELETE    Deletes either an entire row or an entire
column.  When a column  or  row  is  deleted,  the  following
columns  or  rows  are  all moved up one location and the new
last column or row is left blank.  PC-Calc  then  alters  the
equations  in  the  matrix  to reference the new locations of
the cells.  To use the Delete  command  move  the  cursor  to
the  column  or  row  to  be  deleted and press /D, then tell
PC-Calc whether you want to delete a column  or  a  row.   Be
careful  with  this command as you cannot recover the deleted
results unless you have previously Saved the matrix.

18

/E   EQUATION  This command allows  the  user  to  enter
an  equation into the current cell.  The user may use numbers
with decimals or fractions, cell references,  the  four  main
math  operators  (+,-,*,/)  and  ten  levels  of parentheses.
To enter an equation type /E, the desired equation  for  that
cell,  and  return.  There are no priorities among the opera-
tors.  Each is evaluated as it is  encountered  reading  left
to  right  (except  for  division  of one constant by another
(e.g. 1/3) which is interpreted as the fraction "one third")
Thus 3-1*2 equals 4, not 1, and 5-1/3 is 4 2/3 not (5-1)/3.

/F   FORMAT    This command allow  the  user  to  Format
the  displayed  and  printed  values of the cells.  There are
two main options to this command--Global  formats  and  Local
formats.   The Global Format applies to all cells not locally
formatted.  A Local Format overrides the  Global  format  for
that  cell.   Each  cell  may  be  formatted as an Integer, a
decimal number with 0  to  7  decimal  places  displayed,  or
a  fraction  rounded  to  a  Half,  Fourth, Eighth, Sixteenth
or Thirtysecond.  To use  the  Format  command  type  /F  and
either  G  for  Global  for  L  for Local.  Next enter any of
the following:  I for Integer, 0 thru 7 for that many decimal
places,  H  for  Halves,  F  for Fourths, E for Eights, S for
Sixteenths, or T for Thiryseconds.  If you chose Local format-
ting, PC-Calc will prompt for a series of cells to be format-
ted.   As usual, you may press return to indicate the current
cell.

There are  several  special  formatting  commands  which
may  be  used  but  which  are  not  mentioned  in the Format
prompt.  If you enter G, PC-Calc will change a locally format-
ted cell back to the Global format.  If you enter D,  PC-Calc
will  display  the  current system date.  If you enter @, PC-
Calc will display the current system  time  (T  is  used  for
fractions).   The  date  and  time  will always be current up
to the last time the  cell  was  displayed.   Thus  when  you
re-Load  the  matrix  tomorrow,  you will get tomorrow's date
and time.  If you enter !,  PC-Calc  will  change  the  value
of that cell into a label (i.e. it will no longer be a number
or an equation and will not change with  /C).   This  may  be
used to "freeze" the date and time.
A  format  of  type B will cause a Bar Graph to be drawn
by multiplying those cells by the  values  in  the  cells  to
the  left,  and drawing a solid bar of that many half-charac-
ters in the current cell and extending to the right.

/G   GOTO      This command  allows  the  user  to  move
the  cursor  to any cell in the matrix, whether on the screen
or off.  If the target cell is off  the  screen,  the  screen
will  be  cleared  and  the target cell will be placed in the
top left corner, if appropriate.  The  Goto  command  can  be
accessed  either  as  a Special Command (/G) or as a one key-
stroke command by pressing ".".

19

/H   HELP      This  command  displays  a  page  of  one
line  instructions  covering  each  of  the Special Commands.
When you are done reading Help press any  key  to  return  to
your place in the matrix.

/I   INSERT    This  command  is  the  compliment of the
Delete command.  It allows  the  user  to  insert  either  an
entire  row  or  an  entire column.  To execute this command,
move the cursor to a cell before which you want a new  column
or  row.   Press /I and select either Row or Column.  PC-Calc
will insert a blank row  or  column,  moving  all  subsequent
rows  or  columns  down  one,  with the last one dropping off
the matrix.  Finally, all equations  are  updated  such  that
all  references to cells that were moved are altered to point
to the same data.

/J   JUMP      This command  sets  the  Jump  mode  flag
such  that  whenever  the user enters a value with the = key,
a label with the ' key, or simply  presses  the  return  key,
the  cursor  is  moved  one cell along the row or column.  To
use this option type /J, then enter either R  to  move  along
the  Row,  C  to move down the Column, or a space to turn off
the Jump option.

/L   LOAD      Used  to  load  PC-Calc  files  saved  on
disk  with  the SAVE command.  PC-Calc will prompt for a file
name.  You may enter then entire DOS filespec.  If  you  omit
the  drive  name  PC-Calc will use the default drive.  If you
omit the filetype PC-Calc will append .CAL to the file  name.
Simply  pressing  return will load the default filename shown
on the status line, which is the  last  file  you  Loaded  or
Saved.

/M   MODIFY    This  command  allows  the user to modify
the values of a series of  cells.   In  doing  this,  PC-Calc
will  ask  you to finish the equation used to modify the val-
ues, assuming the value of the cells to be  modified  as  the
first  term  of  the  equation.  Thus to increase a series of
cells by 50% and then  subtract  10  from  them,  finish  the
equation  with  *1.50-10.  Beware of equations such as A1-1/3
which  will  be  interpreted  as  A1  minus  one  third,  not
(A1-1)/3.   If  the  Bold  option  is  ON the modified series
will be highlighted

/N   NEW       This command  re-runs  PC-Calc  from  the
start, clearing all cells and resetting all default values.

20

/P   PRINT     Prints  a  section  of  the matrix on the
printer.  PC-Calc will print as  many  columns  as  will  fit
in  the  width  of  your  printer  (which you set with the /Z
command).  An 80 character wide  printer  will  hold  columns
A-H,  a  132  character  wide printer will print columns A-N.
PC-Calc will prompt  for  the  column  with  which  to  start
printing.   As  usual pressing return defaults to the current
cursor position.  You may also print a copy  of  your  matrix
to  a  disk  file,  which may then be used as input to a word
processor.  For this you must change the default  file/device
name  with  the  /Z  command.  The /P command will then write
an ASCII file which you  can  display  on  the  screen,  copy
to  your  printer,  or  use as input to another program.  You
may Cancel the Print command  by  pressing  the  END  or  REQ
CAN key.

/Q   QUIT      This  is  how  to  exit  Calc.  Make sure
that all data has been saved before Quitting.   If  you  exit
PC-Calc  in  any  other manner (i.e. by error or ^C) you will
find that your cursor is turned off.  To  regain  the  cursor
run PC-Calc and type /Q.

/R   REPLICATE This  command allow the user to replicate
information from one part of  the  matrix  to  another.   For
values  or  formulas,  this  is  a regular copy function, but
for equations PC-Calc can  replicate  the  equation  Relative
to  its  position so that it will reference the correct cells
from the row or column of its  new  position.   To  use  this
command  type  /R.  PC-Calc  will  prompt  for the cell to be
replicated.  You may press return  to  indicate  the  current
cell.   PC-Calc  will  then  ask  if there is to be more than
one cell used as the source.  If you respond with  a  Y,  PC-
Calc  will  increment  the  source cell replicated from as it
steps through  the  target  range.   Otherwise  PC-Calc  will
copy  only  the  one  cell  to all of the cells in the target
range.  Next PC-Calc will ask if the  replication  is  to  be
Absolute  or  Relative.   Use Absolute for labels, values and
equations that you want to be copied  exactly  as  they  are.
Use  Relative  replication for equations which must reference
cell in the same position relative  to  their  new  location.
Finally  PC-Calc  will  prompt  for  the  target range of the
replication.

/S   SAVE      This is the compliment of the  LOAD  com-
mand.   This  command  Saves  the  PC-Calc Matrix as a binary
disk file.  The user is prompted for a  filespec,  which  can
include  the  drive  name  and file extension.  If you do not
specify a file extension PC-Calc  will  append  .CAL  to  the
file  name.  Pressing  return will Save the default file name
show on the status line, which is  the  last  file  Saved  or
Loaded.

21

/T   TOTAL     This   command   generates  the  equation
for the total of a series of  cells  and  puts  the  equation
and  the  value  in  the  current cell.  Works similar to the
Average command.  If the Bold feature is ON then  the  series
totaled will be highlighted.

/W   WINDOW    This  sets  an internal flag which causes
PC-Calc to display Row 1 or Column A on  the  screen  at  all
times.   This  is  used  if  you have labels in the first Row
or Column that you wish to see even  if  you  are  displaying
a  part  of  the  matrix  beyond  what originally fits on the
screen.  After typing /W enter either R for row, C for Column
or  a  space  to turn off the Window option.  You will notice
that this option adds some extra time to  all  commands  that
change any cell being displayed.

/Z             This  command  allow  the  user to change
certain default values used by  Calc.   PC-Calc  will  prompt
you  to  enter  the  Maximum  Row and Column you wish to use.
Making these numbers as small as needed will greatly increase
the  speed  of  Calc,  since PC-Calc will not have to display
as many cells or calculate  the  values  of  unneeded  cells.
Next  PC-Calc  will  prompt  for  the  width of your printer.
Enter the number of characters your printer can handle across
the  page.   PC-Calc  will  then  ask  for the name of a file
for printed output.  For this to go to  your  printer,  leave
the  default  value,  LST,  by  pressing return.  To print to
a disk file, enter any valid MS-DOS filename such as  B:BUDG-
ET.TXT. Finally PC-Calc will ask if you want the Bold feature
ON or OFF.  When Bold is ON PC-Calc will  highlight  the  re-
sults  of  its  calculations  to  distinguish  them  from con
stants.   In the Total and Average  commands,  PC-Calc  high-
lights  the  range  which was just Totaled or Averaged.  This
can help avoid mistakes.  Clearing  the  screen  returns  all
cells  to  normal brightness, as does any other command which
rewrites the screen.  For all of the above prompts,  pressing
return will retain the current value.

22

HELP SCREEN

/A  AVERAGE  -generates the equation for averaging a series of cells
/B  BLANK    -erases a series of cells leaving them blank
/C  COMPUTE  -computes all equations
/D  DELETE   -deletes the current Row or Column
/E  EQUATION -Enters an equation into the current cell
/F  FORMAT   -sets the number of decimal places to be displayed
/G  GOTO     -allows you to goto any cell including those off screen
/H  HELP     -displays these helpful messages
/I  INSERT   -inserts an entire blank row or column before the current cell
/J  JUMP     -causes the cursor to auto. jump across the Row or Column
/L  LOAD     -loads a previously SAVEd PC-Calc file
/M  MODIFY   -modifies a series of cells by an equation you enter
/N  NEW      -reruns PC-Calc from the start
/P  PRINT    -prints as much of the matrix as possible from a given column
/Q  QUIT     -returns you to MS-DOS
/R  REPLICATE's cells.  Equations can be copied Relative to their position
/S  SAVE     -saves the current matrix on disk
/T  TOTAL    -generates the equation for the total of a series
/W  WINDOW   -places Row 1 or Col A on screen at all times (for labels)
/Z -changes the maximum Row and Column, and the printer defaults
Special Keys:  HOME Clr screen; END Cancel; = enter value; ' enter label

A>
Special Keys:  HOME Clr screen; END Cancel; = ent

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