Jon Risch's Web Site


Annotated Cable Bibliography
Updated 2-24-2003

Hardcopy Books & magazines

Duncan, Ben & Harrison, Andrew; The Great Cable Test (part 1), Hi-Fi News and Record Review, July 1999, p.30-33, Vol. 44, #7

Duncan, Ben & Harrison, Andrew; The Great Cable Test (part 2), Hi-Fi News and Record Review, August 1999, p.32-41,  Vol. 44, #8

Duncan, Ben & Harrison, Andrew; The Great Cable Test (part 2), Hi-Fi News and Record Review, September 1999, p.40-53,  Vol. 44, #9

Comments:
The above three part article is a landmark series, as Duncan and Harrison show that Speaker Cables have a dynamic phase shift with a change in signal level.  Phase shift is nothing new, and many have supposed that phase shifts might be a portion of the reason cables sound different from one another.  However, the measurement results given in these articles is noteworthy because it shows that speaker cables are definitely non-linear components.  A given loudspeaker cable's total amount of phase shift changes as the signal level changes.
This means that FM is present, and an effect sonically akin to digital jitter is occuring within speaker cables.

The fact that this is occuring in speaker cables means that it also must occur, albeit at a reduced level, in interconnects as well.

The article also contains listening test of all the cables tested using the new measurements, which also include a high resolution transient test measurement, using the leading edge of a square wave.

Morrison, Ralph: Grounding and Shielding Techniques for Instrumentation, 3rd ed.  John Wiley & Sons
Comments:  The definitive tome on grounding and shielding.

Heyser, Richard C.; "A View Through Different Windows", Audio magazine 1998
Comments:  A great example of how measurements are limited to a one dimension aspect.

Lloyd, Jim and Overhauser, David; "Electromigration wreaks havoc on IC design.", EDN magazine (Electroninc Design News), march 25, 1998, p. 145-148
Comment: Electromigration is the mass transportation of a metal resulting from the momentum transfer between conducting electrons and diffusing metal atoms, and exists where ever current flows through metal wires.  This provides another scientific and physical basis for cable conductor break-in effects.

Wangsness, Ronald K.; "Electromagnetic Fields", 2nd ed. LC 85 - 24642 (0-471-81186-6), John Wiley & Sons Publisher

Duncan, Ben; "Loudspeaker cables, Case Proven", Proc. The Institute of Acoustics, UK, Nov '95.
Also published in Studio Sound & Broadcast Engineering (UK); and Stereophile (USA) - both Dec 95.

Skoff, Roger; "Wires, Insulators, Conductors,& Audio Signals", Stereophile Sept. 1995, p.96

Duncan, Ben; "Modelling cable", Electronics World (UK), Feb 96.

Duncan, Ben; "Measuring speaker cable differences", Electronics World (UK), June/July '96.

Hawksford, Malcolm Omar; "The Essex Echo", Hi-Fi News, Aug '85; Aug & Oct '86 & Feb '87. reprinted in revised form in Stereophile, Vol.18 No.10, October 1995

Duncan, Ben; Black Box (column), Hi-Fi News & Record Review (UK), June & July '96.

McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Physics, often available at local Libraries.
Comment:  This is an excellent physics reference and contains information on many of the more esoteric parameters related to cables, as well as the basics.

Deletraz, Herve: "Reflections, Echos & Music", Stereophile magazine, Nov. 2001, p. 59
Comments:  While there is much to criticize with this piece, I feel that it has two bits of information that should not go unnoticed, they are: at HF's, impedance matching is very much a requirement, and that the 'echos" of unterminated cable reflections may go on for a lot longer than we ever thought.
Given the unterminated example in his article, we can only see what is occuring for about 40 dB down from nominal level, everything below this is lost in the trace display.  If we look at how long the unterminated reflections may continue on down to a -90 dB level, then it become apparent that the window for signal disturbance is much wider than the 5-6uS we can see in the display window he provides in the published article.

C&M Corporation Wire & Cable Enginering Design Guide, c1988

Belden Cable Company Master Catalog

"Cable Design: Theory vs. Empirical Reality, 1998"  AudioQuest

Hayward, James H.; "Making The Connection: A Closer Look At The Role Of Interconnect Cables", Audio Ideas Guide, Summer/Fall 1994

Hayward, James H.; "Making The Connection, Part Deux: A Closer Look At The Role Of Loudspeaker Cables", Audio Ideas Guide, Winter 1995

Marsh, Richard N.; "Dielectric Absorption In Capacitors", Audio Amatuer, #4, 1980
Comment:  Since audio cables have capacitance, signal distortions due to that capacitance can afect the signal in the cable.  This article shows how typical series signal caps can distort due to DA, the shunt capacitance of a cable will have related distortions too.

Otala, Matti & Huttenen, P.; "Peak Current Requirements Of Commercial Loudspeaker Systems"
Comment:  Shows how an 8 ohm nominal loudspeaker load can draw current as if it were a 1.6 ohm load, and in general, that loudspeakers are more difficult loads than a resistor the same as their rated nominal impedance.

Lipshitz, Stanley P. & Vanderkooey, J.; "Computing Peak Currents Into Loudspeakers", AES preprint #2411, 81st Convention, 1986

Jung, Walt & Marsh, Richard N.; "Picking Capacitors", Audio, Feb./Mar. 1980
Comment:  More good info on capacitor related distortions.

Johnson, Howard W., PhD. & Martin, Graham, PhD.;"High-Speed Digital Design: A Handbook of Black Magic", Prentice Hall

Davis, Fred E.; "Effects of cable, Loudspeaker and Amplifier Interactions", JAES, Vol39, #6 Jun 91

Meyer, E. Brad.; "The Amp/Speaker Interface", Stereo Review, vol. 56, pp. 53-56 (1991, June)
Comment:  Shows how the speaker cable impedance interacting with the loudspeaker impedance can cause frequency response variations.

"Fundamentals of energy transfer" by Ivor Catt, Electronics World, Oct 1984, etc.

Greiner, R.A.,"Amplifier-Loudspeaker Interfacing", JAES vol. 28, no. 5 May 80

Davis, Fred E., "Effects of cable, Loudspeaker and Amplifier Interactions", JAES, vol. 39, no. 6 Jun 91

Olsher, D.,"Cable Bound", Stereophile, Jul 88

Pass, Nelson "Speaker Cables: Science or Snake Oil", Speaker Builder, Feb 80

Greenhill, Larry "Speaker Cables: Can you Hear the Difference?" Stereo Review, Aug 83, pg. 46-51.

Lampen, Stephen "Does Wire Directionality Exist?" Speaker Builder, 3/98, pg 30, 31.

Butterworth, Brent & Griffin, Al "String 'em Up!" Home Theater, Oct 98

Butterworth, Brent "Walking the High Wire", Home Theater, Nov 98, pg 94-102.

"A Real-Time Signal Test for Capacitor Quality", by John Curl and Walt Jung, The Audio Amatuer, 4/85  pp 22-24
Pertains to DA measurements of caps.


Web References

Pease, Richard A.; "Understand capacitor soakage to optimize analog systems." http://www.nsc.com/rap/Application/0,1570,28,00.html

Jung, Walt & Marsh, Richard N.; "Picking Capacitors",
http://www.capacitors.com/pickcap/pickcap.htm

Note on Cap D-E curves, by Steve:
http://members.aol.com/sbench102/caps.html

Karl A. Weber, "On Capacitor Dielectric Materials - A Chemist's View"
http://audience-av.com/on_capacitor_dielectric_material.htm
Comment:
The previous four URL's relate to the capacitance of an audio cable.

Goudreau, Pete; "JPS Labs Superconductor Interconnects: A Technical Discussion", SoundStage,  http://www.soundstage.com/articles/pete01.htm
Comment:  A very interesting article on how chassis potentials affect interconnects.

Hawksford, Malcolm Omar; "The Essex Echo 1995"
http://free.polbox.pl/m/mik0/essex.htm

Cardas, George; "Cable Resonance is Easy to Measure",
http://www.cardas.com/insights/measureresonance.html

Bond, Matthew; "The Science of Cable Design",
http://www.sonic.net/soundscape/cable_ar.html
(Parts 1-3 of this series appear in Stereophile Vol. 19, Numbers 1, 3 & 5.)
Also at:
http://www.taralabs.com/white_papers/Science_Design1.asp

Magnan, Jim; Whitepaper on skin effect and time smear:
http://www.magnan.com/buffs.shtml

On Skin Effects in cable:
http://www.femlab.com/electro/gallery/skin-effect.html
http://capella.dur.ac.uk/doug/noisecols13.txt
(Section 6.12)

Conductor technology and info ala Van Den Hull:
http://www.vandenhul.com/artpap/hybrid.htm
http://www.vandenhul.com/artpap/brickwal.htm

http://www.hometheaterhifi.com/volume_7_4/audio-cable-shootout-part-1-12-2000.html

Whitepapers from Tara labs:
http://www.taralabs.com/papers/index.htm

Vandersteen on biwiring:
http://www.vandersteen.com/pages/Answr7.htm

Q&A on cables from Straightwire:
http://www.straightwire.com/qa.html

AudioQuest Cable Theory pages:
http://www.audioquest.com/theory/theory1.html
thru
http://www.audioquest.com/theory/theory5.html

MIT measurements on cables:
http://www.mitcables.com/pages/page69.html
must click onto the proper links to papers and tech info.

Nelson Pass on speakercables:
http://passlabs.com/spkrcabl.html
OR
http://passlabs.com/articles/spkrcabl.html

Sullivan, Charles R.; "Optimal Choice for Number of Strands
in a Litz-Wire Transformer Winding", Paper presented at the PESC '97, Technical Program, Plenary Session 1, Monday, June 23, 1997, St. Louis MO
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~sullivan/litzwire/litz.html
Comments:  Has sections on skin effect, proximity effect, etc.

More on Litz wire
http://www.wiretron.com/litz.html

http://www.soundstage.com/maxdb/maxdb011999.htm
On cable resonances.

Tag McLaren on cables:
http://www.tagmclarenaudio.com/dev/white/wp_cables.zip
(It's a huge 4 Meg+ file)
OR
http://www.tagmclarenaudio.com/dev/white/wp8.asp
AND
http://www.tagmclarenaudio.com/advice/technical/aug/aug.asp

Empirical Audio website:
http://www.empiricalaudio.com/
(has some interesting FAQ's and White Papers)

Copper Crystal Structure microphotos
http://microstructure.copper.org/coppers.htm
http://microstructure.copper.org/grain_size.htm
AND
http://www.harmonictech.com/techgraph.htm

Details on the processing of ETP copper:
http://innovations.copper.org/metallurgy/wiremetallurgy.html

More copper info at:
http://properties.copper.org/
http://properties.copper.org/atomic/homepage.htm

Visualizing electromagnetic fields:
http://physics.syr.edu/courses/vrml/electromagnetism/

Computing basic cable parameters, while varying geometry and dielectric and conductor sizes:
http://www.mogami.com/e/cad/electrical.html

Info from Ragnar Holm Conferences on Connector aspects:
http://www.ewh.ieee.org/soc/cpmt/tc1/index.html
http://www.ewh.ieee.org/soc/cpmt/tc1/h2000top.html
http://www.energy.sintef.no/ICEC/PDF-filer/9_5.pdf

*Belden Cable Company*

Cable Part Finder & Number Search
http://bwccat.belden.com/cgi-bin/ncommerce3/ExecMacro/BELDEN/frames.d2w/report

Tech article about Cable Impedance
http://bwcecom.belden.com/college/Techpprs/ciocahalf.htm
Belden Cable College:
http://bwcecom.belden.com/college/college.htm

Recommendations for Home Theater and High-End Audio by Belden/Steve Lampen (note: these recommendations are more casual than my own, and do not take materials issues as seriously.  They may not coincide with my own recommendations, and are based more on the old school of cables as mere plumbing and RF carriers.)
http://bwcecom.belden.com/college/Techpprs/rhtheatp.htm

Belden Distributor Locator
The Belden distibutor locator is now buried in their web site, see:
http://bwcecom.belden.com/sales/sales.htm
then click on Contact Information, and then on Distributor Locator

Audio/Video Specialists Distributors (NOTE:  May not carry 89259, or other coax or CAT5 cables, as these are not considered AV cables.)
http://bwcecom.belden.com/sales/Distloc/AVdisloc.htm

Cable Permitivity, Conductivity, and Permeability, from Gore web site:
http://www.goreelectronics.com/products/emi/electromagnetic_material_character.cfm

http://www.nationalwire.com/cdg/basicintro.html
Good article for cable parameter basics.

Blind tests of Speaker Cables, Home Theater mag.
http://www.sonic.net/soundscape/wire_rev.html
http://www.ozenterprises.net/wire/icacbles.pdf

Web site with lots of info on capacitors.
http://www.faradnet.com/

E-book on Electrolytic capacitors, includes basics of capacitors.
http://www.faradnet.com/deeley/book_toc.htm
http://www.faradnet.com/deeley/chapt_01.htm


Risch, Jon M.; Assorted Posts and Web Pages, 1997-2003

All the DIY cable links on one page:
http://www.geocities.com/jonrisch/cables.htm

The DIY note that started it all:
http://www.geocities.com/jonrisch/i1.htm
Pictures of soldering RCA plugs:
http://www.geocities.com/jonrisch/ic.htm

The companion note to the interconnect note, the one on DIY speaker cables:
http://www.geocities.com/jonrisch/s1.htm

Diagrams and pictures of speaker cable:
http://www.geocities.com/jonrisch/page2.htm
http://www.geocities.com/jonrisch/page3.htm
http://www.geocities.com/jonrisch/spkrcbl1.htm
http://www.geocities.com/jonrisch/spkrcbl2.htm

How to connect a quad CC 89259 speaker cable:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/19015.html
About different CAT-5 recipes:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/55645.html

DIY Digital Cables:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/66862.html
and for comments on how the three sound:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/46405.html

DIY AC power cord post/thread:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/51766.html

http://www.geocities.com/jonrisch/emf1.htm
simulations of various cables, depicting the EMF's associated with them.

Cable FAQ's
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/tweaks/messages/1582.html

Cable inductance, and how it is controlled
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/17.html

Long Speaker Cables vs. Long Interconnects:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/tweaks/messages/1080.html

Cable Esoterica
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/2341.html

Everyone Should Get Good Cables:
http:[email protected]^0@.ef6863c/8

A discussion of ABX/DBT issues:
http://www.audioreview.com/message/DCForumID6/2574.html#31

Covers some of the relevant EMF aspects of audio cables
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/9387.html

Advanced shielding concepts:
http://www.audioasylum.com/audio/cables/messages/4450.html

All about bi-wiring, the hows and whys
http://www.geocities.com/jonrisch/biwiring.htm
AND
http://www.geocities.com/jonrisch/biwiring2.htm
http://www.geocities.com/jonrisch/biwiring3.htm
Latest Flash on bi-wiring tweaks:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/13441.html

How to listen, excerpt from my AES paper:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/4321.html

My AES paper is preprint #3178, "A User Friendly Methodology for
Subjective Listening Tests", presented at the 91st AES convention,
October, 1991.
Consisting of 33 pages of text, and 19 references, it is too long to try
and present here, and I urge anyone interested in the details to get
a copy from the AES, it is available for $5, and can be ordered from:
http://www.aes.org/publications/preprints/search.html

The skinny on RG-6 coaxial cables:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/25155.html

Easy coaxial based speaker cables:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/7637.html

The hows and whys of shorting plugs in unused inputs/outputs:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/tweaks/messages/932.html
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/tweaks/messages/1571.html
On 75 Ohm Loading plugs:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/tweaks/messages/11799.html

On RCA plugs/Jacks being a "true 75 ohms":
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/68008.html

How AC cords can affect the sound:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/13538.html
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/general/messages/188129.html
Tests of a power cord on a digital recording system:
http://www.thuneau.com/MPC/
AC Power artifacts getting past a DVD power supply:
http://www.hometheaterhifi.com/volume_7_3/dvd-benchmark-part-2-audio-9-2000.html

Minimizing AC Power Leakage Currents, OR How to Orient Your
Two-prong Non-polarized AC Plugs:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/tweaks/messages/36909.html

How digital audio interconnects can affect the sound:
http://www.geocities.com/jonrisch/jitter.htm
some more advanced discussion about jitter at:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/digital/messages/55974.html

Using Up the Error Budget in the Studio:
http://www.audioasylum.com/audio/cables/messages/30013.html

Zobel for high capacitance speaker cables that tend to cause amp oscillation.
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/8955.html

Balanced to RCA and vice versa.
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/tweaks/messages/25544.html

Why elevating cables off the floor may have an effect.
http://www.audioreview.com/message/DCForumID8/2215.html#6

Balanced IC's vs. Unbalanced (single-ended) IC's:
http://www.audioreview.com/message/DCForumID8/1766.html#1

About cable "ground":
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/503.html

The Cost of High End Audio Cables:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/34038.html

Casual Vs. Analytical Listening:
http://www.audioreview.com/message/cgi-bin/dcforum/dcboard.cgi?az=show_thread&om=202&forum=DCForumID3&omm=80

Eliminating Cable TV Ground Loop Hum:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/tweaks/messages/15453.html
(simple version)
AND
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/66830.html
(the involved version, with SS and grounding info)



References for the jitter notes at:
http://www.geocities.com/jonrisch/jitter.html

http://www.digido.com/jitteressay.html
AND
http://www.digido.com/wegetletters.html#anchor2484124
http://www.axon.nl/axon/axon_comp.nsf/whitepapers/whitepapers/$file/jitter.pdf
http://www.galstar.com/~ntracy/acg/AandE/npt.on.jitter2.htm
http://www.stereophile.com/fullarchives.cgi?280
(An archived Stereophile review, that shows measured jitter levels.)

http://www.dcsltd.co.uk/papers/jitter.pdf
(Talks about optical based jitter problems toward the end)

http://www.nanophon.com/audio/jitter92.pdf
http://www.nanophon.com/audio/diagnose.pdf
http://www.nanophon.com/audio/towards.pdf
http://www.homecinemachoice.com/frame.html?http://www.homecinemachoice.com/testbench/DVDPlayers/DVDSound.shtml
http://www.benchmarkmedia.com/appnotes-d/jittercu.asp
http://www.music.mcgill.ca/~martin/bibliography/digital/d_conversion.html
http://www.audioprecision.com/publications//audiotst/jan96/jan961.shtml
http://audioprecision.com/publications/audiotst/dec99/Dec-99.pdf
http://audioprecision.com/publications/audiotst/april00/Apr-00.pdf
http://www.jitter.de/english/engc_navfr.html
(This site has many links to good references, as well as decent explanations of what jitter is, etc.)

Replication News Article on Jitter:
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/general/messages/977.html

Roger Nichols Article on CD mastering jitter:
http://www.rogernichols.com/EQ/EQ_2000_02.html

http://www.elantec.com/pages/apppdf/d40954.pdf
(Impedance variations of a short cable, note may contain technical errors, graph labeling is not consistent)

http://www.toshiba.com/taec/components/Datasheet/TOTX173.pdf
(One of the more popular TOSLINK optical components)

Digital Logic chip output waveforms and ground bounce info:
TI
http://www-s.ti.com/sc/psheets/sdya010/sdya010.pdf
page29-32,  waveform views of various devices, shows great shots of non-square square waves

Fairchild
http://www.fairchildsemi.com/ms/MS/MS-541-MISC.pdf
Pages 10-16, digital logic waveforms, showing less than perfect logic signal transmission, ringing, ground bounce, etc. Esp p. 15-16
http://www.fairchildsemi.com/ms/MS/MS-539-MISC.pdf
Shows good waveforms on page 4, also t-line effects for 3  foot cables.
http://www.fairchildsemi.com/an/AN/AN-831.pdf
Shows RF output of logic chips.
http://www.fairchildsemi.com/an/AN/AN-754.pdf
Shows mis-termination results, and (best case) real world waveforms.
http://www.fairchildsemi.com/an/AN/AN-375.pdf
Clearly shows waveform abberations due to the real world.

info on voltage regulator transients, re digital audio and jitter.
http://www.cherrysemiconductor.com/product/PDF/CS-5233-3PDF.pdf page5
http://www.linear-tech.com/pdf/lt0117.pdf, page 5
http://www.national.com/ads-cgi/viewer.pl/ds/LM/LM117.pdf, page 4
http://www-s.ti.com/sc/psheets/slvs297a/slvs297a.pdf
Fig. 12 and Fig. 13

Ground Bounce Info:

Good basic tutorial.
http://www.ultracad.com/g_bounce.pdf

Shows actual measurements, scope pics, etc.
http://www.fairchildsemi.com/an/AN/AN-640.pdf

About grounds.
http://www.signalintegrity.com/news/2_12.htm



Other Cable Recipes and Cable Info

Chris Van Haus's DIY Speaker Cable recipe:
http://www.venhaus1.com/index.html
http://www.venhaus1.com/diysilverinterconnects.html
http://www.venhaus1.com/diycatfivecables.html
http://www.venhaus1.com/diymains.html
http://www.venhaus1.com/aesebu.html

StarQuad-CAT5 Recipe by Jon B. (lower L than usual braiding, similar C per pair basis)
http://www.AudioAsylum.com/audio/cables/messages/54620.html

On braiding and how to, for cables:
http://www.lis.pitt.edu/~sochats/TELE2058/awg.html
http://www.duke.edu/~scg3/braids.html

Thorsten Loesch's Cable Recipes at:
http://www.tnt-audio.com/clinica/tweaks.html
Note: the TNT Cat5 speaker cable design uses CAT5 part
numbers NOT readily available in the US, and thus,
it will not be a good option for US DIYers.

The Enjoy The Music DIY digital IC recipe:
http://www.enjoythemusic.com/etmcable.htm
(hint: use 1506A instead of 1505A for better results)

Greg Weaver's Signal Tape IC's:
http://www.soundstage.com/synergize/synergize021998.htm
Greg Smith's column on the above, and on stock 89259 coax as an IC:
http://www.soundstage.com/fringe/fringe111998.htm

Polypropylene rope IC's:
http://internet.cybermesa.com/~jmlpartners/diyic.html
http://www.audioasylum.com/audio/cables/messages/44183.html
and
http://www.audioasylum.com/audio/cables/messages/39023.html

Insulation Properties
http://www.asiinstr.com/dc1.html

http://www.alphawire.com/pages.363.htm
http://www.alphawire.com/pages.364.htm
http://209.208.232.71/pages/Insulation.cfm (new alphawire URL)

Wire Gauges
http://www.alphawire.com/pages.370.htm
http://www.alphawire.com/pages.372.htm
http://www.alphawire.com/pages.373.htm

http://www.reade.com/Conversion/wire_gauge.html
http://www.raelectrical.com/wire_gauge_conversion_chart.htm
http://www.coilcraft.com/awg.cfm
http://www.calfinewire.com/services/wirech.htm
http://website.lineone.net/~dave.cushman/wiregauge.html

Other Cable Information, including some of the above:
http://WWW.TIMESMICROWAVE.COM/products/military/TL14/TL14.htm



Copyright Notice
All website content Copyright Jon M. Risch, 2000 - 2003

All applicable copyright laws apply, all rights reserved, except transmission by USENET and like facilities granted.  Any use or inclusion in print or other media are specifically prohibited.  The informational content is not warrantied in any way or form, and any use of said content are at the reader's own risk, the author shall not be held responsible in any way for any damages or injuries arising from the content of this web site.  Common safety practices are encouraged at all times.  Do not fold, spindle or mutilate.



 ----> E-MAIL ME ! <-----


 Back to home page
Hosted by www.Geocities.ws

1