October 2006, © at Common Law


“The hexagram (six-pointed star) has been used as an ornament, and possibly as a magical sign, in many cultures since ancient times. It was used by Jews as well, but was not especially a Jewish symbol. In Byzantine and Arab sources it became known as the “seal of Solomon”, and this name was also adopted in Jewish sources. By the late Middle Ages the name had gradually changed to “shield of David” (magen David). It was used as an official emblem by various Jewish families and communities beginning about 500 years ago, and was widely adopted as a Jewish symbol in the 19th century. In particular, it was adopted by the Zionist movement, and thus become an official Israeli symbol. For more details on its history see the article Magen David in the Encyclopedia Judaica, Vol. 11, cols. 687-697” ( Ask the Rabbi).

Hebrew Magen David (“Shield of David”). Jewish symbol composed of two overlaid equilateral triangles that form a six-pointed star. It appears on synagogues, tombstones, and the flag of Israel. An ancient sign not much used by Jews before the Middle Ages, it was popularized by Kabbalists for protection against evil spirits. The Jewish community of Prague adopted it as an official symbol and its use became widespread in the 17th century. Though it has neither biblical nor Talmudic authority, it became a nearly universal emblem of Judaism in the 19th century. The Nazis' use of it to identify Jews invested it with the symbolism of martyrdom and heroism” (Encyclopedia Brittanica).

The earliest known Jewish use of the hexagram was as a seal in ancient Israel (6th century B.C.E.) and then eight centuries later in a *synagogue frieze in Capernaum. But these early hexagrams may have been only ornamental designs; ironically, a swastika, another popular ancient motif, appears alongside the hexagram on the Capernaum synagogue wall” (Menorah Ministries, emphasis added).

The Six Pointed Star

“By, Dr. O.J. Graham

The Six-Pointed Star is going into its fourth edition. There have been thousands of letters over the years and comments are available upon request. The questions which are asked of this author are:

“What made you even remotely curious that the six-pointed star might not be "Jewish"? After all, it is called the "Star of David" and has it not become the international insignia of Jewishness and the State of Israel?

“The controversy and the challenge are answered in the book. The quest began at York University, Ontario, Canada, when an Orthodox Jewish friend of mine was investigating Messianic Judaism. Our intellectual conversation covered many topics which included the so-called Star of David, which he said he did not use as the symbol G-d really gave the children of Israel was the seven-branched Menorah. Being a journalist, he challenged me to explore the six-pointed star. And I accepted the challenge, with the plan that I would prove its Jewishness. After all, I wore one and felt I had to defend it, even to him.

“That was the summer of 1979 and the research took me four years to complete. I found a few Jews who knew it was not Jewish, and these are mentioned in the book. Others did not think about it, and most did not care whether it was orignially occult or not - they did not think it mattered. I checked Jewish sources and all their encyclopaedias attested that it was not originally Jewish and was not used as the symbol for any of the twelve tribes of Israel. Jewish sources said it wasn't originally Jewish. So, what was it? That took four years of research. From archive to archive, library to library...history book to history book.

“The first mention of the star was in Amos 5:26 regarding the trek from Egypt to Canaan. Then in 922 B.C., when Solomon married the daughter of Pharoah and went into magic and witchcraft and built an altar to Ashtoroth and Moloch. The book traces the six pointed star from Egypt to Solomon,1 to Arab Magic and Witchcraft, to Druid use(references are documented). The book traces the star through Freemasonry usage to Mayer Amschel Bauer, who, in the 17th century, changed his name to depict the red six-pointed star (or shield) which he had hung on his door in Germany, and thus began the family of "Red Shield" or Rothschild. The research carried on through this family, to their court of arms, to Cabala, to Astrology, to Hitler and his putting a yellow six-pointed star on all Jews during the holocaust, to the Zionist symbol, and finally to the flag of the State of Israel and beyond.

“Because this symbol is comprised of a six within a six within a six (6 points, 6 triangles, 6 sides of the hexagon in the middle) the research also included a look at the 666 prophecies in the Book of Daniel etc., regarding the "wilful King" (anti-Christ) and the "mark of the beast". The Scriptural significance of the number seven and a Biblical description of the real Messiah and the seven-branched Candlestick (Menorah) which God gave to the children of Israel as an everlasting covenant (which is also mentioned in the New Testament) is covered. All the sources are written at the bottom of each page making it easy for readers to see and check for themselves.

“I started out to defend this symbol, but ended up shocked and quite devasted with the evidence gleaned from the academic research. It is the only book on the origin and history of the six-pointed star or hexagram. Have a good read, check the references yourself, and I would be happy to hear your comments. All the best to you

“August 16, 1999

“Dr. O.J. Graham

[email protected]” (as cited in 666 - The Masonic Square and Compass/Six Pointeed Star).

“MAGEN DAVID (. . . shield of David), symbol consisting of two superimposed equilateral triangles, forming a hexagram. It was used for decoration and as a magical sign in many civilizations and in various parts of the world, but was not known as a specifically Jewish symbol in biblical and Talmudic times. Where it appears in Jewish contexts, as in synagogues and on tombstones, it had a purely ornamental function. The phrase itself appears in the third benediction after the reading of the haftarah, where it is a designation for God. According to the authoritative study by Gershom Scholem, Jewish groups took over the designation seal of Solomon from Islamic magic sources. As a luck sign it appeared on magical versions of the mezuzah from the tenth century. It is uncertain whether the term shield of David arose in Islamic or Jewish mystical circles. Although appearing in a number of Jewish contexts, it first had an official Jewish usage in Prague, probably as a heraldic symbol, and spread from there in the seventeenth century to other European countries. . . ” (THE OXFORD DICTIONARY OF THE JEWISH RELIGION, MAGEN DAVID, pp. 433-434).

According to The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia the Shield (Star) of David is from magic and occult sources:

"SHIELD OF DAVID (Magen David; in Ashkenazic pronunciation, Mogen Dovid), a symbol made up of two equilateral triangles that are interlaced so as to form a hexagonal star, every point of which touches a circle of the same radius as each one of their six sides. This symbol is of ancient origin; according to the teachings of the Rosicrucians, it was known to the ancient Egyptians, Hindus, Chinese and Peruvians. It is found on a Hebrew seal discovered in Sidon and dating from the 7th cent. B.C.E.; upon the tombstone of a certain Leon Ben David, dating from the 3rd cent. C.E.; on the synagogue at Tell Hum (Capernaum) in Galilee, from the same century; in the Jewish catacombs at the Villa Torlonia, near Rome; on the city wall at Jerusalem; in an Arabic amulet of the 9th cent.; in Byzantine magic texts; in medieval books of magic (but as a pentagraph); in German folklore; in the relics of the Templars; as the “stone of the wise” in alchemy; as the stone-mason's sign (but in a somewhat different form) in the coat of arms of the Freemasons; as the “Order of the Seal of Solomon” in Abyssinia (from 1874 on); in the old town hall of Vienna; on or in churches at Aquileia, Brandenburg, Stendal, Hannover, Lüneburg and Bad Gastein (the latter is the most recent date). It was placed on the sign-board of taverns, particularly in South Germany, reputedly because it was used by the Pythagoreans on their begging tours to notify their comrades that at that place they had found a hospitable reception.

"It can not be definitely stated just when the Shield of David became a generally acknowledged symbol of Judaism. When it first appears on Jewish buildings and objects, it often occurs in connection with other symbols, so that it may be no more that a conventional decoration. On the other hand, so few Jewish synagogues have survived from the earlier period that it is impossible to draw conclusions from the absence of the symbol in earlier accounts and to hold that it may not have a much longer history than that which is actually known. It begins to appear frequently on synagogues from the 16th cent. on, when the influence of the Cabalist Isaac Luria was spreading. It appears side by side with the Menorah, which until then had been regarded as the “shield of David,” and which it gradually displaced in synagogues and on religious objects. A Hebrew manuscript of 1564, in the Hamburg Stadtbibliothek, has the symbol accompanied by the words, magen david; it is further met with in the arrangement of the Seder, as a Zionist emblem, and in the name of the Red Magen David Society (equivalent to the Red Cross).

"It is only in Jewish sources that the interlaced triangles are called “shield of David,” as non-Jewish sources call the symbol the “seal of Solomon.” The Jewish title appears first in the Eshkol Hakofer (about 1148) of the Karaite Judah ben Elijah Hadasi. Here, in connection with the Mezuzah (the doorpost amulet), the names of seven angels are given, each one of which is accompanied by this hexagram. This connection would indicate one meaning of the symbol. According to an ancient view, angels, as well as spirits and demons, were created out of fire and air. The zodiac was considered as consisting of twelve signs, of which three each belonged to the four elements of fire, water, air and earth; the hexagram was formed by drawing lines that connected the zodiacal symbols (arranged in a circle) devoted to fire on the one hand and air on the other. Again, according to the Cabalistic view which speaks of two worlds, an upper and a lower one which corresponds to it , the two triangles, one upright and one inverted, would be the symbol of evolution and involution, the inner link of the visible and invisible world, the representation of the Ten Sefiroth as the mathematical figure of the Tree of Life. Mythologically, it designates the emergence of the microcosm (man) from the macrocosm (the universe), of the Zeir Anpin (immediate aspect of God) from the Aba Veumma (hidden aspect of God); according to this analogy, the Messiah David will arise from the “bosom of Abraham,” the foundation stone of the world.

"A further confirmation of this mythological explanation is the fact that in medieval times the symbol was designated “shield of David and Abraham”; God as the “shield” or protection of both David and Abraham appears in the Bible (Gen. 15:1; Ps. 18:36). The use of the term “shield” points to an astrological and mythical connection, and is reminiscent of the shield of Melkart (Hercules), with which the latter slew the giant Antaeus. Just as this was preserved in the temple at Gadeira, so the shield of David, according to David Reubeni, was preserved in the synagogue at Bologna.

"Not to be confused with the Shield of David is the pentagram with the names of God in ancient papyri. This five pointed symbol is a rival of the hexagram for the title of “seal of Solomon.”

"The Shield of David was further interpreted to denote the seven days of the week, with the planets as their overlords. The hexagon in the center, the most complete figure, was the Sabbath; the six outer triangles, the six week-days. It was divided into four rhomboids, corresponding to the four cardinal directions: north, south, east and west. As a Messianic symbol, it represented the zodiacal sign of Pisces (February 21 to March 20), the time of the year in which the Messiah was supposed to appear.

"In modern times the Shield of David has become the most universally recognized Jewish symbol. It appears in synagogues and ritual objects, on the seals of Jewish organizations and on bookplates, on the Zionist emblem (see illustration, vol. 2, p. 66) and on amulets. It was so closely connected with Jewish life as to be called the “Jewish star” by anti-Semites and to be chosen by the Nazis as the shape of their reintroduced Jew badge." ~~ Max Grunwald. (The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, SHEILD OF DAVID, © 1948 Universal Jewish Encyclopedia Co., Inc., vol. 9, pp. 506-507).

The shield of David is not mentioned in rabbinic literature. Notably, not a single archeological proof exists as yet concerning the use of this symbol in the Holy Land in ancient times, even after King David. A David's shield has recently been noted on a Jewish tombstone at Tarentum, in southern Italy, which may date as early as the third century of the common era. The earliest Jewish literary source which mentions it, the Eshkol ha-Kofer of the Karaite Judah Hadassi (middle of the 12th cent.), says, in ch. 242: 'Seven names of angels precede the mezuzah: Michael, Gabriel, etc.... Tetragrammaton protect thee! And likewise the sign called ''David's shield'' is placed beside the name of each angel.' It was, therefore, at this time a sign on amulets” (Bigpedia).

“The evolution of the six-pointed Jewish star, the 'Magen David,' literally the 'Shield of David.' also known as the hexagram, or more rarely, *Solomon's Seal, is long and complex. Although it is now the most common and universally recognized sign of Judaism and Jewish identity, both within and outside of the Jewish community, it has only achieved this status in the last two hundred years. Before that it was chiefly associated with magic or with the insignia of individual families or communities. Yet despite its equivocal history, Jews have long been attracted to this design and have sought to ascribe to it venerable origins” (Menorah Ministries).

“It was the *menorah that served as the primary Jewish symbol from antiquity until the post-Renaissance period, not the 'Jewish star'" (Menorah Ministries).

“Although scholars have attempted to trace the Star of David back to King David himself; to Rabbi Akiva and the Bar Kokhba ('son of the star') rebellion (135 C.E.); or to *kabbalists, especially Rabbi Isaac Luria (16th century), no Jewish literature or artifacts document this claim. Rather, all evidence suggests that the early use of the hexagram was limited to 'practical Kabbalah,' that is, Jewish magic, probably dating back to the 6th century C.E.” (Menorah Ministries).

“Among Jewish mystics and wonderworkers, the hexagram was most commonly used as a magical protection against demons, often inscribed on the outside of *mezuzot and on amulets” (Menorah Ministries).

“Ironically, the religious Jews of Europe and the Orient, already accustomed to seeing hexagrams on kabbalistic amulets, accepted this secularized emblem of the enlightened Jews as a legitimate Jewish symbol, even though it had no religious content or scriptural basis” (Menorah Ministries).

“When Theodor Herzl looked for a symbol for the new Zionist movement, he chose the Star of David because it was so well known and also because it had no religious associations” (Menorah Ministries).

“On the popular level, Jews continue to use the Jewish star as it was used for centuries: as a magical amulet of good luck and as a secularized symbol of Jewish identity” (Menorah Ministries).

“The hexagram is frequently used in the magic formulas in the old book of witchcraft, The Key of Solomon” (

“On November 9, 1938, at the orders of Heydrich, the hexagram combined with the colour yellow, earlier used to symbolize the Jews, and on ships' flags to symbolize that there was plague aboard, was introduced to mark all those of Jewish birth” (

“But ye have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chiun your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves Therefore will I cause you to go into captivity beyond Damascus, saith the LORD, whose name is The God of hosts.” (Amos 5:26-27, underline added). CHIUN: “A word occurring in connection with 'Siccuth' in Amos v. 26. Scholars have long been puzzled to know whether in this passage they are common nouns or proper names. 'Siccuth' is probably the Assyrian 'Sakkut' (Schrader, 'K. A. T.' pp. 442 et seq.), an epithet of Ninib and Anu. Ninib was identified with Saturn (Jensen, 'Kosmologie,' p. 136). . .” (Jastrow and Barton).

“The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia declares that the SIX-POINTED STAR...according to the Rosicrucians...was known to the ancient Egyptians” (Graham, p. 13 as cited in Aho).

Regarding Star-Worship, the Jewish Encyclopedia says, “This is perhaps the oldest form of idolatry practised by the ancients. According to Wisdom xiii. 2, the observation of the stars in the East very early led the people to regard the planets and the fixed stars as gods. The religion of the ancient Egyptians is known to have consisted preeminently of sun-worship. Moses sternly warned the Israelites against worshiping the sun, moon, stars, and all the host of heaven (Deut. iv. 19, xvii. 3); it may be said that the prohibition of making and worshiping any image of that which is in heaven above (Ex. xx. 4; Deut. v. 8) implies also the stars and the other celestial bodies. The Israelites fell into this kind of idolatry, and as early as the time of Amos they had the images of Siccuth and Chiun, "the stars of their god" (Amos v. 26, R. V.); the latter name is generally supposed to denote the planet Saturn” (Seligsohn, et al.).

“In Medieval Jewish, Islamic and Christian legends, the Seal of Solomon was a magical signet ring said to have been possessed by King Solomon (or Sulayman in the Islamic version), which variously gave him the power to command demons (or jinni), or to speak with animals. In one of the Arabian Nights' Entertainments, an evil djinn is described as being imprisoned in a copper bottle for 1,800 years by a lead seal stamped by the ring. Other, later books (Pseudomonarchia Daemonum) manage to fit far more demons in the bottle” (Wikipedia, Seal of Solomon, “lead” underline added).

“In the book THE HISTORY AND PRACTICE OF MAGIC, Vol. 2, the six-pointed star is called the talisman of Saturn. It is illustrated obverse and reverse. The latter is the Seal of Solomon; the former is the five pointed star, commonly called the pentagram. Details are given on how to make these symbols and the materials to use” (Dispatch Magazine).

According to Wolf Carnahan's web site, the Talisman of Saturn has the pentagram on the obverse side and the hexagram on the reverse side.

Carnahan's asserts, “In order to make the talisman of Saturn, a plaque of very pure lead must be obtained, cut in the form of a circle about the size of an ordinary medal, and the two faces polished smoothly” (Carnahan, “lead” underline added). Interestingly, “saturnism” is an term used to mean “lead poisoning.”2

“But esotericism again presents a dual aspect. Here, as in every phase of earthly life, there is the revers de la médaille . . . .” (Webster, Nesta. SECRET SOCIETIES AND SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS, Chapter 1, p. 9). “Reverse of the medal” is the translation of revers de la médaille in the above citation. Notice the obverse and reverse of the Talisman of Saturn shown above.

“In the magic papyri of antiquity, pentagrams, together with stars and other signs, are frequently found on amulets bearing the Jewish names of God—"Sabaoth," "Adonai," "Eloai"—and used to guard against fever and other diseases (Wessely, "Neue Zauberpapyri," pp. 68, 70, and note). Curiously enough, only the pentacle appears, not the hexagram3 (Jacobs and Blau, bold emphasis added).

“In the synagogues, perhaps, it took the place of the mezuzah, and the name "shield of David" may have been given it in virtue of its protective powers. The hexagram may have been employed originally also as an architectural ornament on synagogues, as it is, for example, on the cathedrals of Brandenburg and Stendal, and on the Marktkirche at Hanover. A pentacle in this form, , is found on the ancient synagogue at Tell Hum” (Jacobs and Blau, emphasis added).

“Some researchers have theorized that the hexagram represents the astrological chart at the time of David's birth or anointment as king. The hexagram is also known as the 'King's Star' in astrological circles, and was an important astrological symbol in Zoroastrianism” (Wikipedia, Star of David).

“The Jewish view of God, which permitted no images of Him, was and still is opposed to the acceptance of any symbols, and neither the Bible nor the Talmud recognizes their existence. It is noteworthy, moreover, that the shield of David is not mentioned in rabbinical literature. The "Magen Dawid," therefore, probably did not originate withinRabbinism [sic], the official and dominant Judaism for more than 2,000 years” (Jacobs and Blau).

According to AvramYehoshua, “In The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia, [sic] under 'Magen David' (Hebrew for Shield of David, a common term for the Star of David), this article appears, quoted at length:

“'(Heb. 'Shield of David'): Mystical symbol consisting of two superimposed triangles forming a star or hexagram; today regarded as a Jewish symbol. Although occurring in the Capernaum synagogue (3rd cent. CE), it was in ancient times predominantly a non-Jewish decorative motif (e.g. on Roman mosaic pavements), and is found in Christian churches in the Middle Ages, while absent from contemporary Jewish decoration and not mentioned in rabbinic literature.

“The name figures from the 13th cent. in the 'practical Kabbalah,' where it is a magic symbol associated with the pentagram or 'Star of Solomon' (with which it is frequently confused). The origin and period of its adoption as a Jewish symbol is a matter of dispute. It occurs in a specifically Jewish context in Prague in the 17th cent. The M.D. was adopted by the First Zionist Congress (1897) as a symbol, and figures on the flags of the Zionist Organization and of the State of Israel. It was used by the Nazis, in the form of a yellow star, as the Jewish 'Badge of shame.' . . .(AvramYehoshua, underline added).

“A 'magic symbol associated with the pentagram'?! The pentagram is one of the most powerful symbols of the occult. The Lord specifically warns against this kind of thing in His Torah. As Jews, and certainly as followers of Yeshua, we are not to look to magicians, mediums or sorcerers, etc. to guide us in our walk with the Lord, or protect us. And we are certainly not to use their symbols as representative of Yahveh or His People Israel” (AvramYehoshua).

The first concrete evidence in archaeology was found in the city of Sidon. This consisted of a ring with a seal on it in the shape of a six-pointed star, which was dated from the seventh century BCE. For those who have been to Israel, you will remember the famous six-pointed star on the synagogue of Capernaum. This structure has been dated from the second century CE but it is believed to be directly over the site of an earlier synagogue, the one likely used by Yeshua himself (Luke 4:31-37).' (This was taken from the web cite of Rabbi Barney Kasdan)” (AvramYehoshua).

Rabbi Kasdan appears to have confused the Star of David (six pointed), for the Seal of Solomon (five pointed), as the Encyclopedia mentions above. Be that as it may, he wants to foster a foundation for acceptance of the Star of David by telling us of the archeological 'evidence' that makes it kosher. But this no more makes the Star of David kosher, than finding crosses and fish symbols on the tombs of early Roman Gentile Christians. Perhaps they didn't realize that those symbols were representative of the pagan gods, Tamuz and Dagon, respectively.4 Today, most believers who wear the Star of David or the cross or who use the fish symbol, don't realize it either. That's a very sad commentary on our 'teachers.'” (AvramYehoshua).

“There is no biblical evidence, whether Scriptural or archeological [sic], that the so called 'Star of David' is a God given symbol for His People Israel. But there is extensive evidence that the 'Star of David' originated in the occult and continues to occupy a place in it today. I could not see how I, as a representative of Yeshua (Truth), could give legitimacy to an anti-biblical symbol. Therefore, I discontinued using the Star of David because I could not biblically justify it. It was from ancient time, and still is today, a symbol of the occult, long before it came to be a symbol for the Jewish People” (AvramYehoshua).

“Speaking of the 'Star of David,' Yehoshua says, 'What makes it so anti-Torah, and therefore anti-Yahveh, is that this lends credence to magic and the occult, which Yahveh soundly condemns. Unfortunately, this practice is prevalent within Judaism (and Christianity), today. An interweaving of occult mysticism, with the Scriptures and the traditions of the Jewish (or Christian) People. The Talmud was begun in Babylon, with all its pagan-occult influences, long after King's David and Solomon were dead. And the Kabala5 is not part of the Word of God. Kabala is Jewish sorcery'” (AvramYehoshua, emphasis added).

“The so-called 'Star of David' is essentially a 'hexagram,' nothing more, nothing less. There is no Biblical or Jewish evidence that traces this ancient occult symbol with king David of Israel. However, there is evidence that it was used by king Solomon, after he turned to pagan gods and the occult, late in his life, causing God to become very angry with him” (Dankenbring).

“Some Orthodox Jewish groups reject the use of the hexagram Star of David because of its association with magic and the occult. They do not recognize it as a Jewish symbol. Some Haredi groups, such as Neturei Karta, reject it because of its association with Zionism” (Wikipedia, Star of David).

“If you examine the so-called 'Star of David,' or hexagram, closely, you will discover something astonishing. It has six points, forms six equilateral triangles, and in its interior forms a six sided hexagon -- thus it reveals the number of Satan the devil, or the beast of Revelation -- 66, and 6 -- 666 !!!” (Dankenbring).

“There is a substantial body of evidence plainly indicating that the six pointed star, also called a hexagram, is of occultic origin. Scholars of antiquity have long since found the symbol on an ancient Arabic amulet, in magic texts from the Byzantine era, in medieval books of the occult, in Templar relics, in freemasonic heraldry, and even in a Moslem mosaic dated to the 8th century AD”(Lloyd, James).

“Furthermore, since the symbol now represents Judaism, and the Christ rejecting people and nation known as Israel, using the most basic of scriptural definitions, it is self evident the image is associated with the term Antichrist. See I John 2:22 for details”(Lloyd, James).

“In the book THE HISTORY AND PRACTICE OF MAGIC, Vol. 2, the six-pointed star is called the talisman of Saturn. It is illustrated obverse and reverse. The latter is the Seal of Solomon; the former is the five pointed star, commonly called the pentagram. Details are given on how to make these symbols and the materials to use” (Despatch Magazine).

“Scholars have said it may be a relict from Ancient Egyptian religious practices, adopted by Jews engaged in the occult and syncretism as early as the era of King Solomon” (Wikipedia, Star of David).

“The Magen David (shield of David, or as it is more commonly known, the Star of David) is the symbol most commonly associated with Judaism today, but it is actually a relatively new Jewish symbol. It is supposed to represent the shape of King David's shield (or perhaps the emblem on it), but there is really no support for that claim in any early rabbinic literature. In fact, the symbol is so rare in early Jewish literature and artwork that art dealers suspect forgery if they find the symbol in early works” (Jewish Virtual Library).

“The symbol of intertwined equilateral triangles is a common one in the Middle East and North Africa, and is thought to bring good luck. It appears occasionally in early Jewish artwork, but never as an exclusively Jewish symbol. The nearest thing to an 'official' Jewish symbol at the time was the menorah” (Jewish Virtual Library).

“Its usage as a sign of Jewish identity began in the Middle Ages. A distinctive symbol of Judaism since ancient times was the menorah” (Wikipedia, Star of David).

“The number seven, not the number six is God's perfect number. The symbol given to God's chosen race, as far back as Exodus is the Menorah, or seven branched candle-stick” (Despatch Magazine).

“Read all about this Menorah, which played such a vital role in the Tabernacle and was placed in the Holy Place in Exodus 25. More verses about the Menorah are, 1 Kings 7:49; 11 Chronicles 4:7. Also in the New Testament, Matthew 5:15 ; Rev. 1, 2 & 19:16” (Despatch Magazine).

“In the 17th century, it became a popular practice to put Magen Davids on the outside of synagogues, to identify them as Jewish houses of worship in much the same way that a cross identified a Christian house of worship; however, I have never seen any explanation of why this symbol was chosen, rather than some other symbol” (Jewish Virtual Library).

“A popular folk etymology has it that the Star of David is literally modeled after the shield of the young Israelite warrior David (later to be King David). In order to save metal, the shield was not made of metal but of leather spanned across the simplest metal frame that would hold the round shield: two interlocking triangles. No reliable historical evidence for this etymology exists” (Wikipedia, Star of David).

“Curiously, the Great Seal of the United States appears to contain an image of a Star of David, consisting of 13 smaller American Stars symbolizing the 13 original colonies, above the eagle's head. Some claim that this appears, supposedly in gratitude for the financial contributions of Haym Solomon to the American Revolution and American War of Independence of 1776, which many are not aware of. Some maintain Solomon designed the great seal himself” (, saved from cache).

“When the modern state of Israel was founded, there was much debate over whether this symbol should be used on the flag” (Jewish Virtual Library).

“Raelism uses a symbol inspired by the Star of David. The symbol initially chosen by Claude Vorilhon for his movement was the source of considerable controversy: it resembled a Star of David with the image of a swastika embedded in its center. According to official Raelian statements, the swastika 'represents infinity of time, and trace its origins to Sanskrit and Buddhist symbols, to the Chinese character for temple, and to ancient catacombs, mosques, and synagogues.' In 1991, the symbol was changed to remove the swastika and deflect public criticism, as well as to gain acceptance in Israel for the building of a Raelian 'embassy' to greet anticipated Elohim space vessels” (Bigpedia).

“In the first order, the magical forces are awakened, activated, and balanced in the candidate by the initiator in the rituals themselves. These forces are those of the traditional elements; Fire, Water, Air, Earth, and Spirit, which are symbolized by a pentagram. Beginning in the second order, however, the individual practice of ceremonial magic greatly enhances this process. The Second Order work primarily activates the forces of the seven traditional planets: Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon, which are symbolized by a hexagram” (Monnastre and Griffin).

“Another critique deals with the fact that in western countries – fortunately – no one gets angry about advertisements using the Star of David, but that on the other hand public displays of Christian crucifixes in Israel will lead to violent protests and even measures by the legislation” (Shahak, Israel, Dr.).

“The insight that it was the Catholic Order of the Jesuits that selected the Star of David as a Jewish symbol is rather amusing, if not downright ironic” (Shahak, Israel, Dr.).

“The Jews actually never heard of or used this symbol before the year 1648, with the exception of the time between 700 and 400 BC, when it was used by Jews as well as non-Jews in magic spells. In any case, it is rather amusing to know that the Jewish symbol, which is today on the flag of Israel, was actually given prominence by Viennese Jesuits, as demanded by the German Emperor” (Shahak, Israel, Dr.).


  1., Star of David, Web link. Saved from cache.

  2. Aho, Barbara and Moser, Janet. Six-Pointed Star: Mark of the Beast,

  3. Ask the Rabbi,, The Jewish Star, November 22, 2005,

  4. BIGpedia. Star of David, Web link.

  5. Carnahan, Wolf. Talisman of the Magi, Web link.

  6. Dankenbring, William F. Is the “Star of David” Pagan?, Web link.

  7. Despatch Magazine, Editor W. B. Howard, Endtime Ministries Christian Resource Centre, The six pointed Star, is it the Star of David?, Extract: Vol. 6:3. (Sep. '1994)...pp.30-31. Web link.

  8. Encyclopedia Britannica, Star of David.

  9. Encyclopedia Judaica, Vol. 11, cols. 687-697, as cited in The Jewish Star, November 22, 2005,

  10. 666 - The Masonic Square and Compass/Six Pointed Star

  11. Graham, O.J. The Six-Pointed Star, New Puritan Library, 1984.

  12. Jacobs, Joseph, and Blau, Ludwig. MAGEN DAWID, © 2002 All rights reserved. Web link.

  13. Jastrow, Morris, Jr. and Barton, George A. CHIUN, © 2002 All rights reserved. Web link.

  14. Jewish Virtual Library. Star of David,© 2006 The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, Web link.

  15. Lloyd, James. Star of David, © 2005 Christian Media Network, Christian Media Daily, October 4, 2005.

  16. Menorah Ministries. Star of David - “Quoted for educational purposes from The Encyclopedia of Jewish Symbols, by Ellen Frankel and Betsey Platkin Teutsch, p. 161; Jason Aronson Inc., 1992. Web link.

  17. Monnastre, Cris and Griffin, David. Israel Regardie, Initiation, and Psychotherapy, © 1995. A version of this article first appeared in the Tenth Anniversary Edition of Gnosis Magazine. Saved from Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, .

  18. OXFORD DICTIONARY OF THE JEWISH RELIGION, THE, New York • Oxford, © 1997 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

  19. Seligsohn, M. and the Executive Committee of the Editorial Board of the, STAR-WORSHIP, © 2002 All rights reserved. Web link.

  20. Shahak, Israel, Dr. Where Does the Star of David Come from? Surprising Revelations about the Origin of the States Symbol. Source: The Revisionist 2(3) (2004), pp. 249f. As cited at and

  21. Symbol 27:22 © Copyright 1997--2005 HME Publishing. All rights reserved. Web link.

  22. The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, SHEILD OF DAVID, © 1948 Universal Jewish Encyclopedia Co., Inc., vol. 9, pp. 506-507.

  23. Webster, Nesta. SECRET SOCIETIES AND SUBVERSIVE MOVEMENTS, Boswell Publishing Co., Ltd., London, 1924, OMNI Publications P.O. Box 566, Palmdale, CA 93550, Canadian Intelligence Service 55 - 8th Ave. S.E. High River, AB T1V 1E8,, Web link cached

  24. Wigoder, Geoffrey, D. Phil., Editor in Chief, The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia (New York - Oxford: Facts on File, 1990, 7th Edition), p. 618, as cited in THE STAR OF DAVID by Avram Yehoshua, e-mail to:, Web link.

  25. Wikipedia, Star of David, Web link.

  26. Wikipedia, Seal of Solomon, Web link.

  27. Yehoshua, Avram. THE STAR OF DAVID, Web link.

1Solomon is associated with the number 666 in 1 Kings 10:14.

2“saturnism (sàt´er-nîz´em) noun. See lead poisoning. [From saturn, lead (obsolete), with which alchemists associated the planet Saturn.].” The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition © 1996 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Electronic version licensed from INSO Corporation; further reproduction and distribution in accordance with the Copyright Law of the United States. All rights reserved

3That comment may be an error. See Talisman of the Magi. Web link.

JOHNNY99, October 2006, © at Common Law

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