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       (by Dr. Juan José López-Gutiérrez and María José Martín-Sánchez)



                       MATRIARCHATE                        PATRIARCHATE

                   the absent hunting man       1       from sacrifice to science

  couple/birth unknown relationship       2       from the tomb to the temple

            naming persons and things        3       from magic to the logical

               exogamy (the foreigner)        4       from the rites to the religion

                              lunar calendar        5       solar calendar

homeopathic healing (the serpent)        6       from the myth  to the law of the city

                               eternal return        7       the effective marriage institution



                                       *      *



I must be wise and follow the advice of my professors, Malinowski, Kapplan or Manners, when they say that I must feel as a member of the aborigines1 and that I must practice the empathy (verstehen)2 with the groups that are object of my study. That would mean, I suppose, I must imply with my sex (that of  women, in my case). This goes ahead, to the time that I show my rejection against the attitude of those who proclaim the convenience, even necessity, that the anthropologists stay independent –indifferent, better read, upon pinky clouds- with regard to the real world, too much full of conflicts and concerns, so that one may conserve the desirable scientific objectivity while overseing the misery of daily life.3

It would be, on the other hand, a clumsy audacity to show my stupor on the "paternalism" exerted by many academic anthropologists4, so I would rather not do it5.

The “matriarchate" word should be avoided because the real power that the woman exerted in the primitive maternal society had nothing to do with the connotations of power in a patriarchal society where the exerted control is police, military, institutional and religious, what could not take place by any means in those primitive groups.

As far as the references to mythology, they are to the Greek ones. It agrees to alert that, although our excelsior culture is of a Greek origin, to the Greeks also we must attribute a double sin: one, to impose the patriarchate on a secular maternal culture in all Mediterranean, apostatizing of its own ancestors; and the other, to denigrate the colonized feminine sex as the cause of all evils of mankind, in an historical adjustment of accounts that demonstrates that the previous authority was on the women’s side, as it can be deducted from the febrile and pathologic violence upon them that has come humiliating until nowadays. Be enough with the examples of Eva and Pandora. Even Hesiod himself, while dealing in his manual with how to plant radishes in spring, takes advantage of it, as it is his obligation, to loosen a preposterousness when least comes to story: "he who trusts a woman, that one trusts thiefs"6.

This said, it can be artistic, but nonscientist, that what cannot be contrasted. And as myths relate facts, stories and values, most of which by its antiquity are not contrastable, they are labeled as "not-scientists" and, by doing so, the error is committed to ignore them, by the mere fact being based on so superficial ground for science as it is the one of myths. When the useful thing would be to dare to interpret them, to let to us fascinate by its stories and to risk from them hypotheses that could orient to us in our ripples about our cultural evolution at old times, although such hypotheses would only be accepted as “scientists” when they were indeed contrasted. But myths were the way that people felt, thought and expressed, which to me seems to be more than enough7.

(1) Malinowski, B., Introducción: objeto, método y finalidad de la investiga­ción (1922),
     LECTURAS DE ANTROPOLOGIA, (La cultura y las culturas) -hereinafter LECTURAS...-,
     edics.UNED (1996), pág.150

(2) Kapplan, D. (y R.A.Manners), Antropología, métodos y problemas en la formulación de
(1972), íbid.pág.44

(3) A good sample of committed anthropology can be seen in  R. J. Gonzalez
    Anthropologists  in  the Public Sphere, Univ.
Texas, 2004.
(4) With these oxen we plowed, and it will not be enough with being sorry to us. I am thinking,
     for example, in M.Harris  who, after dedicating four complete pages to demonstrate that the
     egg had to be previous to the hen -that is, to refute the "scientific creationism" (sic) which
     tries that the man was created by a God to his image and similarity in a day of a concrete
     month of 4004 year b.p. may be at 5 pm (more or less)-, he laboriously praises the abjection
    and the pious lie like effective (but feminine, of course) excelsior virtues, as it confirms the
    "Lupita case", or places to the woman in her own place, the one that corresponds to her, that
     of the weakest, as the athletic marks in the Olympic Games undoubtedly demonstrate (sic
again, it isn’t my fault, I really moan), vide Harris, M., Introduction to the General
     Anthropology, edics.Alianza (1994), págs. 41/46, 467 and 468.
(5) ... especially considering that this work is only one scholastic task and not a thesis on the
      matter, aside from the danger that supposes that "academic" works extend their supposed
      hermetic to affect to the hierarchic pictures or the society, no matter how constructive the
      critic could be, as it happened to our friend J.Spradley, see Jaleo en la celda.
Ética en el
      trabajo de campo urba­no
(1967), en LECTURAS..., págs. 199/216.
(6) Hesiod, Teogonía: los Trabajos y los Días, edics.Alianza (1990), pág. 80, versíc. 376.
(7) Myth is much more and deeper than legend: cultural heap, guide of survival by accumulation
     of the experience (totemic spirit of their ancestors), Right/Morals/History, historical memory,
     signs of identity… ans it is the only source when there is not another one.

Dating is a dangerous challenge when dealing with Prehistory8, since what is right for today could be wrong for yesterday, not to say for thousands of years back. This does not prevent many scholars from convincingly asserting that matrilineality (unanimously accepted) has never implied matriarchate in the history of mankind9. Without realizing that, given the inheritance of the cultural heap, gathered in their myths and  rituals, they only could be governed by those who had these keys of survival. The safekeeping and transmission of these values (the accumulated experience of the ancestors) forced the women (the mothers, we must and will expose arguments on it) to organize and to govern, although they’d have done it in such natural a way that it is possible that they did not notice themselves of the power they exercised. This it is the persistence of these pages. Dates even can be suggested: we know the imposition of patriarchal values by the aqueous in Greece circa 4.000 years ago, around the 2000 b.p., although it cost to them more of a millennium to prevail in all Mediterranean. And fixing a departure line to the moment in which we were able to exert certain capacity of abstraction -the inhumation of corpses, for example, that reveals the first of myths: the one of the eternal return, 200.000 years ago10-, should this be right, the male has come governing 4.000/200.000, this is a 2% of the total of these times. But look how cockily-showy pretentious they are wandering around!

Two are the subjects that I’ll try to contrast, using myths like source: one, the matrilineality institution as a system that implied a maternal society before the arrival of the patriarchal culture, and the other one the patriarchal order, that replaced the former and still keeps itself alive and effective. The consequences to lend ear to this boldness could reach as far as to have to rewrite manuals of History and Anthropology, since we question  paradigms widely accepted10 such as the existence of a patriarchal system since the beginning of  times or that another one of the autochthony of cultures, for the sake of mentioning matters unquestioned nowadays11.

1. MATRILINEALITY (and the maternal society from where it comes: not only as a filial connection but also like channel of the inheritance of the cultural heap that, when myths are included, implies the exercise of the authority), was not only a fact (no matter how hard philologists like A.Garcia-Calvo or C.Lèvi-Strauss12, or even a great majority of the anthropologists, take the monogamist couple for granted since the most remote times, freely assuming in the pair the man’s predominant role), the maternal society not only was a fact but also an axiom, because of its necessity, if not of common sense, as now it will be displayed:

(8) It is dangerous to propose dates (4.000 years for the patriarchate, less than 100.000 for the articulated sound, two
    million years to consider “human” the Homo Ergaster/Erectus...) when "the knowledge on the vast period (of our
   origins) will vary deeply in the next years", according to B. Keesing,
Teorías de la cultu­ra (1974), LECTURAS...,

(9) For instance, Harris, M., op.c., pág. 461.

(10) Let us anticipate some subjects whose explanation would force to remake many hypotheses: 1: among primitive
    people the spirit was “bad”, always bad; 2: in myths the "father" is not such nor the son is it by the fact that he
   succeeds to the former, like the patriarchal context forces erroneously to interpret, and 3: the magical rituals are not
   “religious” at all but quite the opposite, as soon it will be seen.

(11) An example: the similarity of the pinzamientos in the penis (agricultural ceremonies of fecundity) in the
  Mediterranean rites of Atis or Adonis and in the Mayan sacrifices, not to talk of the structure of pyramids, the bronze
  works, the myths, etc., all of these issues previous to the year 3000 b.p…, and all of a sudden the abrupt cut of
  communications between Eurasia and America, with the consequent absence of the wheel, the iron or the arc of
  middle point…
, to say only a few, in the New continent, all of which demonstrates a continuous previous diffusion of
  the Mediterranean knowledge into the American culture, until the year 3000, more or less, when all the communication
  suddenly stops. If this is so, and so it is, how can we talk of autochthony of the American culture which would have
  developed in parallel with the euroasiatic one, as many defend, among them A.Toynbe or M.Harris at the top, and
  without nobody, apparently, daring to discuss it?

 (12) Lèvi-Strauss, C., La familia (1956), en LECTURAS..., pág.296, cleanly assumes the prejudice of the remote
  origins of the monogamist family for immediately, in the same mentioned work, to so recognize "exceptions" (that are
  rather genuine rests of secular traditions) in number that rather majority seems to be they it: thus the "nayar" of India,
  the "toda" in the Tibet and Nepal, the "tupi-kawahik" at the center of Brazil, the South American amazons
  "nambikwara", the pre-Columbian Peru, the "iroqueses" and "hopi" of Arizona or the Indians of the northwest coast in
  North America, the "chukchee" in Siberia, the tribe "emerillon" of the Guayana, old Egypt, the African "tiv",  the
  "ndembu" of Zambia, the "ashanti" of the Sahara, the New Guinea aborigenes, numerous tribes of Polynesia, even the
  "trobriandeses" of the islands of the Western Pacific, and in Australia the "wunambal", and so many others more, in
  spite of the evident influence of our western civilization in the tribal cultures
, because as E.Schwimmer says in
  Religion y Cultura. El Mito y sus Conexiones (1982) LECTURAS... pág. 607, "the missionary, the landowner and the
  soldier (add the tourists and multinationals), no matter how hard they believe to be in discord to each other, all of them
  contribute the same to the process of colonial domination by their metropolis". Certain friend of mine in the
  Venezuelan forest was received by a genuine Indian chief... who had just signed a second mortgage in the purchase of
  an apartment in Caracas.


1.1. The long absences of the man, hunter under the sun of the noon, to avoid to compete with other predators, according to the hypothesis of Fiatkwoski13 -with the consequent duplication of the cerebral mass, fall of the corporal hair by the development of the sweater glands, so that we could perform a grouped uninterrupted persecution of major hunting and succeeding by exhaustion of the tired prey, when we still belonged to the Homo Ergaster-, so long absences would have left exposed their group to all the dangers if the ones that remained in him, the mothers with the young, had not known it to govern, had not been able it to govern, were not it, in fact, governed. And I say, mothers, organized in groups well since, "given the period of infantile dependency (human, speaking of the Homo Ergaster) more prolonged than in the other anthropomorphous, hardly a mother, single she, could take charge of several young at the same time"14.

1.2. The ignorance of the man on the relationship between the childbirth and the copula, unknown  until recently (not beyond the Magdaleniense period), of which the myths give us continuous certainty, by doing of North Wind (Bóreas) and of the water the fecunders of the woman (the genitals of the human females and animals were exposed towards the north to be pregnant), could not even give to foot to the possibility of patrilineal connections during millenniums, when the role of the man in the lineage was unknown, no matter how hard we want to use the term father not as ancestor but in the sense of protector and hunting-meat provider for the "children of the female", so being the term “father” a misleading word that would uselessly induce to nowhere but confusion.

1.3. The practice, from remote origins, of exogamy, exposed in most of the myths (vga.: at nuptial competitions), whatever its reasons might be, either biological, or economic or political that could explain it, the male is stranger to the tribe that is territorially agglutinated by the mothers and the young. To only mention an example, the seven first kings of Rome, from Romulus and Remo, according to reliable-sources’ well informed myths, historically confirmed, the seven first kings of Rome were foreign. (As it was Oedipus alive in Tebas, and later dead, like protector of Athens. Or Aquilles, myrmidon, of the totem of the ant in Egina, turned king-horse in Tesalia. Or in the nuptial competitions of Telamon for Glauce in Salamina, or of Oedipus for Yocasta in Tebas, or of Pelops for Hipodamia in Olympia...). Strangers to a culture that, according to Lèvi-Strauss, is not but a world of "shared symbols".

Then, if foreigner, no matter how willing we are to speculate on his adaptation to the new means that welcome to him -for which he is to be adopted by means of rituals that on all fours include the step below the legs of the representative of the mothers of the tribe, simulating birth within the new group, or by means of the baptism, pretending a new childbirth after "breaking waters", rescue from the waters, within the tribe -; if the foreigner neither knows the language of his new family, nor her myths, nor their rights nor their obligations, how then he can so gratuitously be presumed capacity to govern a group that is to him strange? supposition this one undisputed, but perhaps explicable only by the intellectual myopia of a scientific anthropological class traditionally little ready to interpret archaic institutions outside the patriarchal context in which it follows immersed.

1.4. The Biblical curse that threw Adam and Eva from the paradise was compensated by an effective lenity: the power to give names to the things. Power that would give us the dominion on all over the world, around and beyond us. Power that the mothers were in charge to develop. We do not know the real name of the city of "Rome", that only knew the Highest Priests who also knew to keep it hidden. Nothing makes the individual more vulnerable than the knowledge of its name by strangers. Evans-Pritchard knows something of it and Peacock tells about it when he speaks of his field-work with the nuer in Africa15. The reason is that the name -which the mother will keep in secret until the adolescence, to protect the new-born baby to whom she will give a second name to be called-, like the hair, the image, the nails, the track on the ground on walking by foot 16 or the shade which is projected under the sun, are elements, parts, where the spirit can be jeopardized by anyone by means of contact or mimetic magic.


(13) Harris, M., op.c., pág.116.

(14) Arsuaga, J.L. (co-author), La Especie Elegida (Atapuerca Project), edics.Temas de Hoy (1998), pág.217.
(15) Peacock, J.L., Método (1986), en LECTURAS..., pág.155.
(16) Homerus defines in the Iliad the Gods like those who do not leave tracks on the ground while foot-walking. Let us  remember to Clytemnestra carpeting the ground to sacrifice her husband, king Agamemnon; or to Jason, worried to  have lost his sandal; we can contemplate the track of Mahoma’s foot like a holy relic in a museum of Istanbul, and  understand the aversion of the natives of primitive cultures before a photo-camera, or see in our time great personages  protected under pallium, not to project shade, and on stretcher, not to leave tracks when walking, because that would  make them vulnerable.


Being thus, mother would have to eliminate from her language those words whereupon her children had been named (common names, normally), when they died, if she did not want that whoever that could use it, in any other context, could be contaminated by the spirit of those who had had it, after dead.

Simple question of magic. With the magic the human enhanced his dignity and eficiency17, how, if no, we would have ourselves dared hunting a bison? if we had not before hunted it in painting (its spirit), thus doing possible to turn the utopia reality, such it was the enthusiasm and self-esteem that the magic impregnated in our primitive and diminished animistic spirit. The magic was an attitude of "that’s enough!" by our parents with regard to daimones (natural forces) that made aggressive the human being in his defense against their aggressions. The substitution of the names by the mothers, tabooing those whereupon the passed away son had been named, with the purpose of avoiding that anyone could use them and be damaged by the spirit of the dead, was a task to be continuous and controlled. The consequent renovation of the vocabulary had to force a development of the language as now we cannot figure out. And the tremendous power on this subject (to put names) was but mothers’. We know that the thought (the judgment, not the simple abstraction) was only possible after having put names to the things. Nothing "exists" if it before does not have a name through which we can recognize it18. In the beginning was the Word (spoken Logos).

1.5. If the magic was an attitude of "that’s enough!"19 with regard to daimones (natural forces) that made us stronger in our defense against their aggressions, as we have already said, first against cataclysms and other dangers of the nature and later of whatever could do damage to us, one of the first instruments we devised to control them was to measure them, to make them predictable, that is, the calendar, more than 30.000 years ago. I am talking about mental instruments invented by men, and so we here discard material instruments such as the stone carving or fire control.

With the simplest calendar we dominated nothing less than both time and space. A space route happened to be a distance of say "x" moons (temporary measure) of trip. A solstice (temporary) was located in the horizon in a point of the space determinable by means of menhires that served as reference. One hundred moons (lunar periods) are equivalent to eight solar years, measurement uncomfortable to use. For that reason the "year" of four years was used by the Greek (vga.: the Olympic Games), whose number of moons, 50, served to locate myths in times of lunar calendar, that is to say, of maternal tribes, by contrast to the patriarchal ones that imposed the solar calendar.20 Then, in our temples the divine Mother still can bee seen with the moon on her feet, like clear attribute of her sex.


(17) Magnificent studies on magic and its practices in the evolution of the human being, can be seen in Malinowski, B,
  Magia, Ciencia, Religion, edics.Ariel (1982), where at page 15 qualifies as "great Code of the magic" the work The
 Golden Bough
by Sir J.G.Frazer. The contact magic explains, for example, the Jewish tradition of not mixing in our
 stomach the milk food and the one of meat: the alive cow could be damaged by the spirit of the dead animal whose
 meat we have eaten. Or the voodoo or the concoction with hair of the loved person. The old villages were protected by a
 cord of heads of their ancestors, buried around the territory to defend it (like a voltaic arc) against trespassing of
 strangers, reason by which the fiancé still introduces in his habitat the fiancée taking her in arms to avoid that she
 touches the protected ground and by this means she does not suffer damage. Or they throw upon the fiancée some
 rice grains so that, by contact magic, she be fecund. By means of mimetic magic we can tie an ant to a stick so that,
 when it tries to move away, the harder it tries the more it approaches to the stick in the center, and thus will cause the
 return of somebody that has left.

(18) Sapir, E., Definición del Lenguaje (1921), in LECTURAS... pág. 225. The reality of a culture is expressed in its
 language, because the complexity of what “exists" is displayed in the complexity of the words created to such aim.
 Thus the masais have a single word to denominate the "woman" and many for the cows, or the tupi Brazilian call the
 parrot with multiple words, animal that we know with the generic one "parrot", stranger for them, see Harris, M., op.c.,
 pág. 171.

(19) Or the Luci-fer rebel scream: non serviam!, or Prometheus’ defying in arrogant and raised position to skies and the
 gods. Nothing to do with its opposite, the religion, where the man humiliates himself so that some Another one
 removes the chestnuts to him from the fire. Proof of it is that the religions have persecuted the magic practices with
 singular virulence. Magical practices and rites are not to be confused with religion, furthermore they are diametrically
We will return to the subject.

(20) Hécate, the Moon, in Greek means 100. Also it is "moon" Selene-Hellena (Greece). And 50 were the "representing
 priestesses" of the Mother Earth, in charge of controlling the Moon phases, 50 the Danaydes who brought from Egypt
 the wells’ technique, 50 the dogs of hunter Acteón that is devoured by them like deer-Acteon (in clear teromorfic
 reference to his totem animal), 50 the coupling with Danaydes by Heracles in a single night (and Heracles was dory,
 that arrived at the Mediterranean in year 2000, or in the 1200 b.p.), or the 50 children of Príamo, king of Troy (and Troy
 was taken in year 1185 b.p.), giving us clues to understand the story’s lunar calendar framework, by all means signs of
 maternal context.


And it’s only natural that only were the women the ones who were in charge of the calendar and the consequent activity of prediction (like the Delphos pitonisa before to be evicted by Apollo), because such institutions only could be developed by those who, with their continuous presence and sleeplessness, gave stability to the institutions of the tribe.

Martín Cano suggests brilliant and amazing observations on the feminine role in the use of nightly constellations since at least 3500 b.p. in her work Arqueoastronomia/Astronomia Prehistoric at her website es.geocities.com/culturaarcaica/index.html, the reading of which is recommended

1.6. And, like it could not be of another way, it was also the woman who first practiced the medicine (to add something concrete, because if we admitted that she had to do everything within the tribe, it turns out unnecessary -not to say weakening- to reaffirm such assertion by parcels). In the middle of the sanctuary of the Greek Medical Centre, Epidauro, you can see a tholo, a tomb, the entrance to the belly of the mother Earth. All the colonizer cultures exert their values on the infrastructure, physics or morals of the colonized one21. And in Epídavros the medicine was exerted beforehand from long time, presided over by a tholo right in the center of the sanctuary. The archaic medicine -practiced with medical herbs, along with music and dreams- was an homeopathic one. (The modern drug medicine “to cure after” should match the "preventive” one, the best known practice of which is homeopathic: vaccines). The first poison antidote (homeopathic) obtained from the serpent turned this animal sacred and respected in all the cultures, in such degree that has deserved curse damnation and disgust by the new patriarchal culture. Still, in our temples nowadays, the divine Mother can be seen with the serpent under her feet, again as a clear attribute of her sex, although distorted by the patriarchal censorship that makes the snake deceptively guilty for being the origin of all our evils.

The Athens of Pallas, whose totem ancestral had been the Erictonio serpent, in the century of Pericles was still represented by an animal (nocturnal), the owl, although it had been beforehand represented as a goat (the skin of Libyan origin, the égida one, granted the goddess its eternal youth). On the other hand, the serpent (also represented in the Hermes’ double cane and still persisting in our pharmacies logo) that comes from the subsoil like all the alive does, with its periodic changes of shirt it symbolizes the eternal return, the stational periods, the daily repeated sun’s journey, the round circle...

1.7 ...the eternal return, is there a more repeated theme in all the cultures neither more female than the eternal return?: the perfect circle of the snake-dragon that bites its own queue.

From the subsoil of the earth life arises. But the trees and the plants would not survive and reproduce themselves if the seed that gives rise to its life would not die and be buried for that aim. It is not that Life ends in Death, on the contrary Death precedes Life, and thus in The Iliad Homerus says that Night precedes Day. Novare aut perire is more than a simple change, is to perish previously if it is to be born: perire ut novare.  Out of the womb of the mother Earth arises the life and it is to the belly of the earth that we return the bodies of the dead persons so that they can give rise to new lives. And we still keep here seeking our roots, or taking the terms uprooted and eradicated as an insult, or designing our genealogical tree. If we have being burying human corpses for more than 200.000 years, that means that at that time we had already developed the magnificent abstraction –call it by its name: myth- of the eternal return.

The eternal return transcends of its vegetable origin to explain all temporary cycles. When the sun arrives to the winter solstice, somebody must force “him” (how? how should be but by magic) to return following the same road back along the horizon. The titanic rite/myth of Ixión, present in many cultures, in which a fire ring (representing the sun) is rolled down by the slope of a mount in order to oblige the sun to follow this journey of return, so that the summer may always succeed to the winter, seems to have been successful, to faith that they got it, and so thanks to the magic of our ancestors the temporary stations each year could repeat its eternal return, which still nowadays we continue enjoying (one can not help admiring the things that were done in times of my mother! who would dare to say that the myths are not more than stories?).


(21) A grotesque sample of myth colonization was the celebration on the 18th of August of Hipolyte -stepchild of Fedra
 and son of Theseus-, who was homosexual and died under the feet of his horses, and who was included in the catholic
 santoral like San Hipólito, the 18th of August, martyr dead under the feet of the horses, although nowadays it has
 already been excluded, not to mention the solstice of the 24th of December, like day of the birth of the (new) year
 (God), or the own totemic banquet of Eucharist, plus so many others that would be impertinent to bring in.


 Special mention deserves the polymorphism of the old Goddess Gaia, the Mother Earth, with regard to number 3, the plural number, or the triangles. The triangles found among arqueologic remainders in dolmens and other excavations have magic functions (agricultural, of fertility). The Greek delta D is the female symbol by excellence, and its meaning is demiurgic: creative. It is easy to derive this sign D, the triangle, from the pubis of the mother, from which life in each birth arises, although some religion utilize it to represent a Trinity, of suspicious origin. If it is wanted that a field give a good crop, you should bury a triangular figure and by art of the magic -of contact and/or mimetic- you soon will see how efficiently it will work. Magic works by means of associations. The numerous pregnant Venus of the Gravetiense period, of 30.000 years ago, triangle-insinuating, give faith about how to fertilize the land with female instruments that ignore the contest of the male22.

As to number 3, the Greeks knew three numbers -not two, as we do-: the singular one, the dual and the plural one, pertaining to the numbers 1, 2 and 3. “Two” is neither singular nor plural, for as Lèvi-Strauss liked to say, the Greek did not conceive any concept without its opponent, and thus nothing would be beautiful or greater if there was not something ugly or smaller. Number "three" meant "plural", went back to times in which we had not yet carried out the intellectual effort that implied to dominate number 423.

And three (many, many, infinite, so many as realities fit, as needs appear) will be the number of the Mother Earth, and therefore all their epiphanies appeared in number of 3 (further on 9, 3x3): three were the Graces, three were the Muses, three the Stations, three the Hours, three the Grays, three the Harpies, three the heads of the Hydra..., as three will be the times, three-three-three, that Heracles screamed out calling his efebo Hilas to conjure and protect him from death.

Polymorphism, polytheism, magic rites, are all in the same stage24. Therefore poly-theism is so own of the “pagan" times and maternal culture, as much as monotheism -monogamy, monochord, monotonous, mono/everything- will belong to the patriarchal culture patriarchal, as we’ll see when we’ll deal with religion. The Mother-Earth, therefore, she was triple, three-three-three, MOTHER-OLD/MAGICIAN-MAIDEN.  And as today we already know how to count more than three, "many" itself is no longer said "three" and so, only in Spain, we may count as many as 3.000 avocations of the Virgin Maria, Mother of God, some of them even being of different color.

And finally, if the rites of birth and death25 (pardon, of death and birth) were under the scope, under functions and attributes of the mothers -and test of it is that they continue being it in modern patriarchal times- then what could it remain outside of its jurisdiction? Myths, names, therefore, and magic and the calendar, and assemblies and courts, and more functions that you may add whatever they might be, they were own of the mothers, and thus the myths teach it us...,  simply because it could not be otherwise.

But that’s enough. Since so much stirring seeking the plots of functions of the mothers makes us suspects of doubting of our general statement. So, thus were the things. Thus they were, as always they had been. Until a day changed...

...and behold a celestial male brightness came down from the right side threatening and usurping from mothers two functions, to begin with: the magic for the hunt and the solar calendar, to later impose a new order with a virulence such that betrayed that the system ousted had been exactly its opponent.


(22) In the Mediterranean rites of Atis and Adonis the male genitals were thrown to the furrows, what reports us that by
 those times they already knew the function of the penis in the procreation.  Príapo -penis- carries the sickle for the
 crops, and the skeleton with sickle as a Death representation teaches us that Death is fecund, since the sickle serves
 to crop.

(23) Ifrah, G., Historia Universal de los Números (Cifras), edics. Espasa (1997), págs. 20 and ss. We began 40.000
 years ago to count on the fingers: digits (dactyls), curettes and corybantic, under the baton of Príapo, form the
 Goddess’ entourage.  In the origin of the abacus is the pile of rocks (known as "hermes" that was the name of the
 Greek god of the numbers, "calculus" in Latin means rocks, the Gallitzin amilhadoiros were piled up along the Road of
 Santiago): those leaving for anywhere used to lay a rock on a pile and took it back when returned, so that the number
 of rocks piled up was the number of individuals who still were away.

(24) Priestesses (or "sacerdotisas", sacred persons tabooed because they were in contact with the dead world) of the
 Goddess (Olympic term owed to a patriarchal context), not in religious sense, but rather as icons with magic functions,
 held rites that later would be exerted by sorcerers once they entered in the magic for the hunt, own secular male

(25) Evans-Pritchard, E., in Teorías de la Religión Primitiva, edics. Siglo XXI (1984), pág. 178, verifies that "the rites
 take place from time to time by ceremonies in which the status is confirmed, just as the birth, initiation, marriage or


2. The PATRIARCHATE is recent and inserted in a process that went from sacrifice to science, from the tomb up to the temple, from teromorfic magic to the logical reason, from magic rites to religion, from the lunar calendar to the solar one, from the myth to the law, from tribal family to the territorial city. The process was top crowned with an evil device, matrimony, that the male well knew to take advantage of.

We do not much agree with Lèvi-Strauss when affirms, with certain reason, that nothing worth of mention has ever occurred in the human history after the great Neolithic revolution carried out with the intensive agriculture after its domestication26. We think on the contrary that somewhat important occurred, and that was the change of female group structure to another of patriarchal character (referred to the Mediterranean towns, in which we have evidences from Samos up to the Balearic islands, passing through Crete, Lesbos, or Libya)27. The date and place of the final phase of the patriarchal colonization at the Mediterranean, we recall, happened to be at the second millennium b.p. with the entrance of the Indo-European aqueous in Greece in the 2000 (the military leader and the walled city were already known more than a thousand years before in the Middle East).

The symbiosis among the two cultures suffered a process of other thousand years, with special virulence among the years 1.100/80028, reaching its apogee among the jonios of Athens and of the coast of Anatolia in the Pericles V century, when exploded the art and the philosophy, and with these the science and the technology.  The dory invader at 1200 b.p. imposed the solar calendar, more accurate than the lunar one, what permitted to better predict29 (and thus "to cause") the rains30, and its spears of iron imposed on itself the spears of bronze of the pelasgos aborigenes.

The dory celestial light of the day imposed on the shadows of the earthly Mediterranean night, the logic succeeded to the magic (not of the all still), the territorial contact (demos) to the blood family tribe. The Indo-European oak tree of Zeus, higher than the Mediterranean quercus of Hera, attracts better the rays and is therefore better source of the fire controlled, and it will help to evict Her out of its secular sanctuary in Dodona.  The new gods (new values) will be called uránidas (sons of Uranus, the Sky), and its best representative on the Earth was to be Heracles, the great dory solar hero whose Twelve Works would have as an main objective to erase of the face of the land the maternal traditions, in a voyage full of contradictions (its feats will count on itself solar numbers as 12 and lunar as the 50 and the 3).

As for the old "goddess" the instructions were clear: from defamation to extermination. The subsoil of the land is black, dark, lightless, and is found to the left, better said, in the sinister band, in West (Tártaro, tar-tar, "western of the west". Being parallel the womb of the woman and that of the Earth, “give birth” in Spanish is said “alumbrar, dar a luz”: to illuminate, to give the light to the newborn coming from darkness). When the old system, that of always, was colonized by the new patriarchate, utilizing the binary contrasts we will verify that in the opposite: Female/male, the Mother/the father, the Night/the day, Death/life, the Sinister/the right, the Darkness/the light, the Land/the sky, the Moon/the sun, the Snake/the eagle, Nature/culture, the Magic/the (she? he? it?) Reason31.., the terms of the left have been cursing damned by evident reasons of public health. (:So, neither Artemisia can remain with Hipólito when the latter’s time to dye is about to arrive, nor in Delos island, cradle of Apollo, maximum representative of the new patriarchal culture, protector of the health and of the medicine, nobody was permitted to get sick nor much less to die).


(26) Lèvi-Strauss, C., Raza e Historia, in LECTURAS. .., pág. 115.

(27) See R.Graves, Los Mitos Griegos, Alianza Editorial (1989). The Mother Earth resided in the Tár-tar-o ("West-to-
 the-west” place, where the Hespérides’ Garden was, from where Orion pursues each night the atlántidas Pléyades-

(28) The night of the wedding of Zeus to Hera lasted 300 years, the myth says, and in fact we do not know anything of
 what occurred in Greece during that time (years 1100/800) of social crisis by the change of values, that is the
 framework of the Greek myths.

(29) Apollodoro in The Argonauts relates a worthy feat to be counted by the mythology: the goat golden skin, that would
 not be used but to cover Zeus’ sculpture -in its temple at Lafistio, Orcomenos- so that it could take command on the
 rains, or to predict them and therefore to conjure the clouds to rain, was brought to Greece from the Black Sea by
 Jason and Medea.

(30) Day-Zíos-Zeus-God (light) is the God of the ray, because the ray is the light of the rain, but its acceptance will
 come given really as God of the rain. Since raining in Greece use to happen in November, traditional month of the death
 (of the nature) by beginning the winter, paradoxically November became the month of Zeus. The term "God" initiates
 already the religious career.

(31) If "Reason" is well represented by Pallas Athena, there is who qualifies to this goddess as marimacho trasvestido
 (“travestied Queer tomboy"), vide López-G-, J.J., Los Dioses Bajan del Olimpo (History of Mankind through the Greek
 Myths), edics. C.A.L. (1994), vol.II, pág. 729, on the basis that is the female Womb, not the male Reason, that is


Serve the following one like example on the defamatory and deceptive patriarchal reproof against the old institutions, rituals and beliefs, with such an efficacy that we still continue admitting them without criticizing, that is: the three "goddesses" of the winds were most beautiful, so much that their father was called Wonders (Taumante). One of them, Iris, the rain-bow is shown us when it rains while the sun is shining. One can imagine how her sisters would look alike. Well, do you know how they were called?: the Harpies. And it be compared its image with it imposed by Apollo and its followers, accounting for as horrendous, with hairs of snakes, pestilent..., sinister, and here we all continue without anybody daring to say a word.

Let’s see process, that is the same one that the process of the emancipation of the sacred king escaping from sacrificial death -already not so voluntary- so as to be erected in hereditary monarch-leader in a new urban and hierarchical context. 

          2.1From sacrifice to science (sacrificia sint delenda), from the gloomy death to the light of the life, from the fertile triangle to chemical fertilizers, nobody puts in doubt the progresses of the empire of the logic and of the abolition of the sacrifice that, loss the reason of its origins, had derived in that of collective annual “murder" of the fármakos ("expiatory goat", in principle the loftiest one, later the criminal or the ugliest one, as it arrived really to occur, passing for the meaningless "sacrificial murder" of children and women).

We take up, however, at this point, the myth of the "eternal return" in the spot in which death is origin of life, you do remember it, don’t you? The scythe that brandishes the Death does not serve to reap lives (a sickle to kill?) but to collect abundant crops. In this perspective the kindness of the voluntary sacrifice turns out to be doubtless if the death of the "best", the sacred king -the youngest one, the strongest one, the more alive-, gives life to his tribe. Not another the origin seems of the totem (representation of the collective one) whose agape annual is the food (theo-fagia) of the ancestor32, of whose spirit and force is impregnated the tribe33. The selected-for-sacrifice animal that embodied the ancestors spirit34 it would be that of more life, distinguished of the others by a crown that it marked it like tabooed (sacred), with special care that itself no suffered any damage whatsoever until the annual rite were celebrated, since any harm that could happen to it would result in a same damage to all the tribe and the members of the tribe35. Therefore, if a culture is the more "civilized"  when the more is sacrificed a generation in favor of the following one, when was the human being more civilized that when voluntarily competed for dying, by to be sacrificed, for the benefit of its group? Because that and not another thing were in its origins the bloody sacrifices, to whose spectators were to be controlled so that they did not emasculate themselves -such was their enthusiasm- in order to throw their genitals to the furrows following the rite performed with the privileged selected to be sacrificed.

2.2. The tomb-pyramid emerged from the subsoil. In the evolution that carried from tomb to temple (passing for the interval of the astronomical observatory palace with sacrificial altar and funeral chamber?) we began by lightening the tomb of the ballast of the land, said that in physical terms as much as in figured sense.  Now it sufficed with throwing a little dust of land on the dead person to obtain thus the benefit of the inhumation, as did Antigone on the corpse of its brother Pollinices to the door of Tebas, being because of it then condemned to death. The dust that is put on the faithful front on Ash-Wednesday recalls its origin and the myth of the eternal return. "Sit tibi terra levis" should not be translated literally as that "be light the sand (covering you)", or that do not be costly to have died, but rather that a simple handful of dust suffices for complying with this ritual of inhumation, of dying to be able to reborn, change of status.


(32) Although Freud dares to more in their daring explanation of the atonement of the fault by means of the agape or
 collective food of the "father" whose spirit is not but the objective projection of the remorse due to the “complex of
 Edipo” and of the emotional ambivalence (love-hatred) of the living people with the dead person.

(33) "The Gods itself are not pleased with impose on the men the load of the fault, they want more: they require the
 awareness of the fault, and this only can be reached through the sacrifice", says Calasso, R. in Las Bodas de Cadmo
 y Harmonia
, edics. Anagrama (1990), pág. 283.
(34) Lévy-Bruhl, L. should not have wondered when he verified in its Mitologia Primitiva (australianos y papúes), edics.
 Peninsula (1978), pág. 64, that "in the myths men and animals appear standing as equal".  They are equal, by all
 means, as a matter of fact. Just consider the totemic agape recalling the divinizing of the animal hunted (so as to be

(35) The sacred king was also crowned, what made him a taboo and distinguished him as the one that should be
 sacrificed.  Subsequently the athletes were crowned, the best ones, although no longer is necessary that dwell for the
 others. Christ is crowned before dying for saving not only to their tribe but to the entire world, and still the kings -in our
 rational phase- are covered with the crown although perhaps ignoring its meaning as "the best one that ought to be
 sacrificed" (by good of his community).


To the extent that emerged from the subsoil, and complying with its oracular function36, the dolmen-tomb was oriented toward cardinal points to measure –among other- the solstices, and developed until they became temples, in the outside court of which the sacrifices were hold (that no longer human beings, but of animals, and these no more totemic but domesticated), until the time came when religions would recover them reinstalling the altars inside the temples37

And it is with the force of its origin from tomb that religious temples, that no longer harbor to dead but to their effigy divinized, and that look at the sky denying of subsoil, in secular alliance with the political power they will impose the terrorism of conscience on the labor population.

2.3. And we passed from Magic to Reason, although less than we should do and do proclaim. The relationship no longer is of mental associations but of cause-effect. Prior a curious teromorfic process: the dependence of the greater hunt -that we manage to helped by the magic- caused the totem derived from tree, or mount, or stone, or cloud, to figure of animal (teromorfism, wherefrom the masks)38 and the ritual passed to be a function of the sorcerers whose head of totemic animal would remain in Egypt, more reluctant to the changes, while in Greece progressed to the inverse one, with human head and body of animal, in a process of anthropomorphism that gave the Olympic Gods their human figures39.

The magic for the hunt was probably the first one assumed as such by the male. With the reason, nevertheless, the masks will fall. Let them fall down, masks out!

            2.4. From Rites to Religion, from magical rites to religious liturgy.  God has been created by the man to his image and resemblance. The invention of God is fruit of a process that begins with the projection of the remorse of the ones who survive the dead person into the spirit of the dead40, that is: the spirit of the tribe, incarnated in its members individuals; continues with a totemic assimilation of the sacred king that, after having dead, remains immortalized like hero (protector), and finally ends by divinizing the dead as immortal and beneficial. Only it remained to define Him as redeemer, creator and unique single God (with the help of the guilty complex and the original sin). On the other hand, the evolution since the tomb to the temple, which with the religion would maintain their gloomy original funerary aspect, with altars where again bloody sacrifices would be carried out (no matter how much of virtual character), had opened their doors to some new inhabitants, the priestly caste, that shall anathematize since their pulpits to anybody who were not humiliated and submissive to their dogma and their morale.

(36) Before carrying out the predictions by the flight of the birds or by means of the study of the livers of the animal
 sacrificed (in the liver the Greek thought the spirit was located), the remainders of the sacred king were consulted, its
 umbilical cord, or genitals, or the jawbone, or its head in the Tracie, as was done with Orfeo.

(37) When in the IX century b.p. the noblemen (aristoi) shared the power, they also made use of the tombs of their
 ancestors as protective heroes. The aversion to the death, which we own to the patriarchal culture, forced the
 prohibition of the funerary luxuries and the cemeteries (necropolis) to be set extra-muros (out of the walls). And that is
 how Death was declared out of the law (out of the city, since the city was the law).

(38) Bull (really cow, but we will utilize the new patriarchal language) in Crete or in Argos (Io), lion in Mycenae or Tebas,
 horse in Tesalia, boar in Erimanto or Calidón, octopus in Misia, sepia in the coast of Yolcos, hog in Eleusis and
 Egypt... If Zeus couples with the Spartan Leda in figure of swan is because the totem of Sparta is that bird’s, and it will
 have "to be disguised" as a bull if it mounts on the Cow Europe from Phoenician to Beocia. Minos had to be taurus in
 Creta if it wanted to couple with Pasífae, introduced in a device of wood with figure of cow. Hera had eyes of  veal

(39) Leach, E., en Aspectos antropológs.del lenguaje: categorías animales e injuria verbal (1972), LECTURAS...,
, exposes their strangeness for different words to animals they as be alive or dead ("sacrificed": this term would
 have been of help to him). His intuition could have permitted him to advance more in his investigation on words of
 animals as terms offensive or tabooed, if he would have realized the totemic nature of teromorfism.

(40) The hypothesis of Freud on the remorse of the relatives of the passed away (not to say of the responsible for
 sacrificing it) as origin of the spirit (that once projected, objectified, with own "life", out of us and of our reach, in
 principle is always "bad", since wants to avenge itself of those who have not loved it sufficiently in life, although being
 itself the spirit of the whole tribe it will be awarded the task of being protector of the group), the remorse of the
 members of his group as the origin of the spirit is confirmed by the cheatings of the ones that survived him: dressing of
 mourning-black for not to be seen by the avenger spirit of the dead person, being enclosed at home during forty days to
 escape from its view again, crying him with hysterical tears, or condemning the knife as the guilty one (stony or
 obsidian’s, the sacrificial knife never was made out of the dory iron), as did the Athenians in the festivals so called


Only it remained for the priestly caste to accommodate itself with the dominant class to, by means of the terrorism of conscience and a police centralized structure, repress the force of the workers for the sake of  common good, or of the general interest, however you may call it, it all depends on fashions and times. And so, for a greater glory of God the most horrendous crimes in the history of Humanity would be committed, from the Spanish Inquisition to the Holy Wars, passing for the castration (physiological and mental) of their believers, as prize to their fidelity. It is so as the concept of God will charge all its force: when be done religious with  monotheism, with which coherently it will melt to become itself.

Now it’s time to clarify, or at least discuss, some semantics. The term "polytheist religion" is incoherent, mistaken, misleading and contradictory in its own terms, since polytheism is magician (the contrary thing of the religious thing, the Lucifer shout non serviam! was the origin of magic, we have already seen it), while religion arrived with monotheism41. What means that there is not religion out of monotheism; that monotheist religion is a redundancy, since religion and monotheism are the same thing; that every religion is monotheist; that  polytheism has never been religion. The catholic faithful, vga., practice religious worships that in reality are magic practices (transport images to cause to rain, pray so that things occur..., that insert in the framework of the old goddess pagan "religion" and as such poli-theist42, therefore do not worship an abstract concept as is own of monotheism but do indeed worship innumerous concrete icons among the ones mostly are female), without realizing nor admitting that their magic practiced nowadays, in the so-called Rational Age, no longer is magic but superstition.


It is not admissible, therefore, that the great majority insist in the acceptance of the need of the religious feeling by the human being since its origins. No, it has never felt it. The religion is but a mental superstructure imposed by the metropolises to its conquered territories in order to oust their native gods and thus to get their subordination, being later utilized by the leading class to oblige all citizens to the submission under hierarchical Power and Status. And all this occurred recently, there by the year 1.364 b.p. with the Egyptian God Sun of Akhenaton43 or with Olympic Greek gods, less than that 2% of the time that we carry developing us as human, in a cultural more than biological evolution.

The religion to us does not come from the Greeks but in spite of the Greeks. The Olympic gods, already anthropomorphous44, were mere protective values that agglutinate the citizens around their city, not religious gods as erroneously again are qualified, since in Greece there were neither dogmas nor a priestly caste: the funerals are celebrated by a friend or a relative, to Patroclo his friend Achilles, to this his son Neoptólemo.  When after the Olympic humanization by Homer in The Iliad the gods be lacked them the respect that no longer deserve in a rational society, nobility, taking advantage of the divinities balance and discounts, dared to rival the old sacred king institutions by being erected their own tombs with protective heroes of their own lineage.


(41) The work of E.Schwimmer on the religion and the culture, as well as many other publications on the theme, get lost
 at times because of not distinguishing, as to owe, among magical rites on the one hand and by the other the religion
 (always monotheist),
vide Schwimmer, E, Religión y cultura. El mito y sus conexiones (1982), LECTURAS..., págs
 577 y ss. Vide supra footnote

(42) Few cultures have usurped beliefs, myths, rituals and traditions with less modesty than it has done the catholic
 religion with the pagan traditions, being gained with it the popular support, ranging since festivals and pilgrimages’
 dates to the totemic Eucharistic agape, by cite not more, therefore little would remain it of original contribution.  From
 there their propaganda success, assuming traditions and pagan rites that in our rational culture should turn out to be
 arduous by superstitious.

(43) "The egalitarian tribes do not need a supreme God, which nevertheless turns out to be inevitable in the social
 organizations with a strong centralized power", is Schwimmer, E. who says it (op.cit. pág. 604) and in this we
 applaud it.

(44) The anthropomorphous Olympic gods conserves their pedigree as animals: Zeus-eagle, Hera-turkey, Apollo-
 dolphin, Palas Athena-owl, Posidón-horse/bull, Deméter-pig (before than that, ear), Dióniso-leopard, Artemisia-deer,
 Cronos-crow (oracular animal, Cronos inhabits in the horizon where we measure the solstices to be able to predict the
 times of sows and crops)...


             2.5.  From the lunar calendar to the solar one. The dolmen-vagina, with the chamber-uterus in the bottom of the tomb, proclaims its function of calendar (forecast) when is oriented toward cardinal points so as to face equinoxes and solstices45, evolving later, with the indo-european solar year, in monumental and sumptuary tombs, pyramids or mausoleums that retain their function of astronomical observatories. The solar calendar is more accurate than the lunar one, we know that. Number 12 would substitute the 50. The lunar surplus month 13 was declared harmful and still that number is avoided like the plague. The dory Sun is imposed and gives name to the solar heroes that will delay various centuries in dominating the secular maternal culture: from Perseo to Theseus, passing through Jason, Belerofonte, Achilles, Agamemnon, Meleagro, Cadmo, Edipo, Menelao, with Heracles to the head... and Odysseus, above all Odysseus, that elevates the deceit to paradigm. To the multiple theories on the field of the myths" (family of the God, nature/culture, emigrations, changes of status. ..) fits to add two more: that the content of the myths is the story of the solar kings that forced the step of the matriarchal culture to patriarchal and that the time in which were framed was that of the own transition. 

2.6. From the tribe to the city.  The city substitutes the blood cognative family relationship by the territorial one, demos means territorial district. The law of the city is public and written, obliges everybody and replaces the myth in its role as a rule, but this will have to expect to Rome to come, the city of the Roman Law and the Public Works, where Mars, God of the war, graduated as engineer as much as a lawyer, got a prestige that in Greece it never had. The demographic pressure, due to several causes and, among them, the city itself, obliges to found colonies (granaries) abroad. The colonies, or new territories conquered by the force, should not be fully segregated from the metro-polis, for which the God of the mother-city will be imposed (one only, the main one, does not agree to give rise to other different God) in replacement of the native God (values). The consequent maritime traffic gives place to commerce that, following after the exogamic competing for the crown in the tribe that received him, will be carried out by "strangers"46. If there is a word to summarize the essence of the city in a single term, I would select “anonymity” (names out!). And anonymous will be the companies where anonymous money will concentrate as its capital. Anonymity is an urban illusion for a dreamed liberty. In the City we experienced what we later called State.

T. C. Lewellen exposes five theories that explain the origin of the State47, forgetting the first and main one. According to him the origin of States for some authors is in the war, for others in the private property, for others in the public works (hydraulics), for others in the demographic pressure, for others in the need of a bureaucratic centralized power to defend the higher classes in its exploitation of the labor force, omitting, we repeat, the somewhat prior, main motive without which the other reasons would not be able to have imposed, that is, according to Bachofen (1861) : that "the State was only possible when maternal right was overcome" 48.
Once usurped the power on the magic (for the hunt and the carved of the weapons) and on the forecast (the calendar), the male was prepared to govern as a monarch. To such end, he married his daughter or his sister, since it was not but her that sustained the legality of the dynasty49.  He will invent the sacrifice of the children (by more vitality?), of foreigners (intending to approach to the origins?), in effigy (continues in force by magic), and at last of animals untied of its ancient totemic origin, being carried to the tomb with himself together with its woman, its slaves and horses, and other personal ownerships to accompany him in its trip (or perhaps so that his spirit leave us in peace). And thus it was how the male, that already came exercising like leader of a professional army, or as a sorcerer of magical rituals (in principle by the hunting activity whose weapons he manufactured) and of measurement of the solstices, now will usurped all the political/social/economic functions, the forescating and the government, the laws and the art, the medicine, the sport, the scripture, the commerce. .., cornering the women into domestics.


(45) Atreo, father of Agamemnon, prevails on Tiestes as king of Mycenae, not by force or the cunning that he could
 dispose of, but by his astronomical knowledge. Tiestes was legitimized for power by possessing the goat gold skin, but
 had to yield before his brother Atreo when this one obliged the sun to come back and be put for the east (probable a
 measurement of the solstice in which the sun takes the road of return along the horizon).

(46) Polanyi, K., El sistema económico como proceso institucionaliza­do (1957), LECTURAS..., pág.401.

(47) Lewellen, T.C., Evolución del Estado (1983), en LECTURAS..., págs.522/530.

(48) Bachofen, J., El Matriarcado, edics. Akal (1861/1987), pág.158.

(49) The "institution" to marry his daughter (the heir, always she the heir) that utilized the king Atreo "to be substituted"
 in the throne by himself (first efficient stammering of the sacred king to mock his sacrifice and the annual end of his
 reign), had already been established by Cíniras in Cyprus with his daughter Smyrna. To the purpose "Zeus is married
 with a lot of multiple goddesses to absorb their special powers", see Kirk, G., El Mito, edics. Paidos (1985), pág. 188.
 The son of the pharaoh in Egypt had to marry his sister, since he only could be pharaoh as consort.


Then we were ready to proclaim that male do not need the women even to procreate and reproduce themselves: it is the seed of the male that makes us possible to reproduce ourselves, the bellies of the woman being a simple deposit, it’s Apollo who says that50. In an intent of usurping from the woman even the maternity, Zeus engenders to Athena in its brain and to Dióniso in its thigh. The misogynic Apollo charges prominence as the political ideologist of the new regime.

2.7 But what gave the last strike to the maternal society, stealing from it the woman’s natural power in the secular groups, was matrimony, a much more efficient device than in principle could one imagine. We will center ourselves in a neuralgic point, the exile of the bride to the land (house) of the husband, where his myths and rituals will not protect her. Myths know how to tell stories and explain how dories could colonize the lands of the pelasgos (the native ones): the solution was "to remove them of their land": the aborigenes turned out to be gi-ants (Gea-ginos: engendered by the Earth, that is to say “natives”) in their territory, but not outside of it. So they displaced the jonios to the other side of the Egeo sea. When the giants rebelled against the dory Zeus, they had to be killed by catching them of the neck without letting them touch the ground, displacing them in suspense out of their lands, because if they happened to touch "their floor", they reborn. The work of Heracles with the lion of Nemea ratifies it: the dory solar hero by excellence had to kill the lion maintaining it in suspense, because if it touched the ground with its legs, it did not die. Can it be told better?

Now, when the Greek myths tell the prominent moment in the institution of the marriage, do it in the paintings in the glasses or with the history of Penelope and Ulysses. It was Odysseus the first one that, in the myths, requires to its couple that abandon her family and her Spartan territory. As for the paintings in ceramics, F.Lisarrague magnificently describes the exit of the bride from her own territory (family) to be exiled (nocturnal procession in which the mother of the girl carries torch) to a strange land, as frequent motive of decoration(51).

Two immediate corollaries (on the matrimonies’ patrimonial aspects):

- 1: if to the children the mother put them names, the father put them the surnames (the father’s names), "son of: -vich", among the Slavs, "Ben" among the Moslems, "Mac" in the Irish and Scottish, "-ez" for the Spaniards...;

 - 2: the dynasty, the hereditary inheritance and of status, the lineage. It is the patrilineal filiation the one that now is imposed, once the father of his son knows that is it, or thus recognizes it, assuring (?!) the blood male filiation in the inheritance of its "parents", cause and effect of the private property.

Fortes insists in the instability of the lineages (52) -against the stability, would have been able to add, of the tribe during millenniums- so much to level of the family as of the social group. The ingenious work of Lèvi-Strauss on the family, in which exposes that the institution of the marriage among "crossed brothers in law” but not "parallel brothers in law” (children from the brothers/sisters of the father versus children from the brothers/sisters of the mother), shows the pressure of the great social family on the nuclear family so that this, once constituted as a unit of economic production, in each generation has to leave of its own family, assuring with it the survival of the great social family as well as of familiar unit53; by saying all that he does not explain the origin of the institution of the marriage, but takes it for granted, since splits of it.


Nobody can deny the beneficial effects of the change of culture, since the abolition of sacrifices to the discovery of the molecular DNA. But it should not have been done by denying ancient values that would have made us able to preserve of other effects, not less undeniable, of the new patriarchal culture as are the neurasthenia, the lonelyness54, the social and economic inequality, the despotism of a religious and oppressing State, the free violence and so many other more55


(50) Esquilo, The Orestíada (III, The Eumenides), edics.B, Group Z (1988), pág. 295.

(51) Lisarrague, F., Historia de las Mujeres (tomo I: La Antigüedad), edics. Altea/Taurus/Alfa­guara (1991),

(52) Fortes, M.,  La estructura de los grupos de filiación unilineal (1953), LECTURAS..., pág.320.

(53) Lèvi-Strauss, C., La Familia (1956), en LECTURAS..., pág.317.

(54) On the enlargement of the relations of the monogamist couple toward more extensive "networks" of friends and
 family (tribe homesick?), v. Bott, Elis., Familia
urbana, roles conyugales y redes sociales (1955), en LECTURAS...,


So male became foxes and made female chickens56, vae victis! and all of them were put together in the same poultry coop: the matrimony57, with the known ginocides. And it is not that they kill because they are violent, but the own system of the monogamist family causes the violence58, that is later projected to society at large59. In the peak of the harsh cruelty, if the jail of the marriage was a torment, worse still was to obtain that the torture anxiously were to be desired by the victim.

As Lèvi-Strauss suggests in his work Raza e Historia 60, the culture develops through dialectical with other cultures. Now that it seems that we have arrived at the "global village", we will have to invent dialectical cultural that they stimulate to ours since inside, and what better dialectical than that of the sexes? Fertile, at least, it sure will be. The male by using the power and religion has done us criminal in the distribution of the wealth and in the conservation of the nature (oh Gaia, mother Earth!), neurasthenic, solitary, paranoid, and though it can be disputed that these wrongs in every case would have happened, it cannot be denied that they have been given in the patriarchal environment and that we have not known how to avoid them neither to remedy.

Anthropologists as Kaberry, Sacks, Sanday, Mathews, Sexton, Leavitt, Kaberry, Weimer... have marked already the rout for new prospects61. Anthropologists of the entire world, keep united! that the work that expects is arduous but gratifying. Only the pusillanimous anthropologists can be presented the doubt on if owe or not to take party, to be engaged with the society. Among us doubts don’t fit. We do not propose but that, in a laic society62 and revoked the institution of the monogamist matrimony –decays alone, is rotting already-, the woman, to begin, charge of two things be done only: of the young and of the real power. The loftiest tasks, such as the art and the science, the sport and the leisure, the finances and the crosswords, we sooner than later will share them too. But for the time being, let male play and enjoy with those toys, they have got free time enough.


 (55) The navajos are understandably amazed about the solitude of sick persons in the white people hospitals, not to
 say if they are children without their parents, v. Bergm­an, R., Una escuela de curande­ros (1963), en LECTURAS...,
 págs.687 y ss.
The value of the money is such that becomes a measure of morals and even personages such as
 Santa Claus trade with "to be good", see Wolf, E.R., Santa Claus: notas de una representación colectiva (1964), en
 LECTU­RAS..., pág.671.
The domestication of the woman "domestic" is induced in the female minds since its more
 tender infancy, see Barry, R. /Bacon, M. /Child, I, Una revisión transcultural de algunas diferen­cias de sexo en la
(1957), págs.675/686.

(56) Females that be shown impassioned or rebellious they will suffer exemplary punishments. As the ones that
 suffered Alcíone, Alope, Antíope, Apemósine, Filónome, Hactiona, Harpálice, Leucótoe, Melanipa, Melisa, Metope,
 Peribea, Perimela, Psámate. .., by speak not of Calírroe, Evadne or Laodamía.  The motives and types of punishments
 can be seen in López-G, J.J., op.cit., vol.II, pág. 756, 745 and ss. What was done of Medea, Clitemnestra..., to whom
 their pulse did not tremble when they had to sacrifice their husbands or relatives ("to betray", in the apollonian
 patriarchal version corrected of the myths, as in the cases of Fedra, Hipodamía or Ariadna) and so many other:
 Alcmena, the amazons, Antigone, Erífile, Filomela, Greek, Ifigenia, Ifimedia, Ino, Io, Ismena, Leda, Mere, Pasífae,
 Polixena, Procne, Procris, Shot, Yocasta…

(57) How then it is able nobody to be missed that the violence within our families, of which so many males feel so
 proud, a 90% of the intra-family mortal aggressions be carried out by the man against the woman? (While the woman
 only attacks him in the other 10%, and in the majority of these occasions she acts for reaction before the terror). More
 than the 50% of the murders in our society are perpetrated against relatives of first degree!

(58) Strauss, M., Morfogénesis societal y violencia intrafami­liar..., LECTURAS..., págs. 713 y sigs. A strange return to
 the matrifocality due to the aids AFDC in the US the mothers single women, in the mainly black and urban markets of
 poverty, can be seen in M.Harris, op.c., pág. 466.

(59) It is not to miss that already it be spoken not only of the psychopathic of the individuals but also ¡of the
 psychopathic of the cultures!  
abnormal cultures, see Draguns, J., Problemática de la definición y comparación de la
 conduc­ta anormal entre culturas
, en LECTURAS..., págs.697 y ss.

(60) Lèvi-Strauss, C., Raza e Historia, op.cit., pág. 115.

(61) Denouncing, for example, Annette Weiner, that the tobriandreses observed by Malinowski did not only they keep
 part of the crop of ñames for the husbands of the sisters, but -and this was silenced by Malinowski, in spite of knowing
 it- the gift was reciprocal and it was given to the wife and not to the brother of the wife, vide Harris, M., op.c., pág. 591.
(62) Sinha, S., La religion en una sociedad opulenta (1966), en LECTURAS..., págs.613/634.


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