A PROVOCATIVE AND FEMININE GLANCE
(by Dr. Juan José López-Gutiérrez and María José Martín-Sánchez)
the absent hunting man 1 from sacrifice to science
couple/birth unknown relationship 2 from the tomb to
homeopathic healing (the serpent) 6 from the myth to the law of the city
the effective marriage institution
I must be wise and follow the advice of my professors,
Malinowski, Kapplan or Manners, when they say that I must feel as a member of
the aborigines1 and that I must practice the empathy (verstehen)2
with the groups that are object of my study. That would mean, I suppose, I must
imply with my sex (that of women, in my case). This goes ahead, to the
time that I show my rejection against the attitude of those who proclaim the
convenience, even necessity, that the anthropologists stay independent
–indifferent, better read, upon pinky clouds- with regard to the real world, too
much full of conflicts and concerns, so that one may conserve the desirable
scientific objectivity while overseing the misery of daily life.3
It would be, on the other hand, a clumsy audacity to show my stupor on the "paternalism" exerted by many academic anthropologists4, so I would rather not do it5.
The “matriarchate" word should be avoided because the real power that the woman exerted in the primitive maternal society had nothing to do with the connotations of power in a patriarchal society where the exerted control is police, military, institutional and religious, what could not take place by any means in those primitive groups.
As far as the references to mythology, they are to the Greek ones. It agrees to alert that, although our excelsior culture is of a Greek origin, to the Greeks also we must attribute a double sin: one, to impose the patriarchate on a secular maternal culture in all Mediterranean, apostatizing of its own ancestors; and the other, to denigrate the colonized feminine sex as the cause of all evils of mankind, in an historical adjustment of accounts that demonstrates that the previous authority was on the women’s side, as it can be deducted from the febrile and pathologic violence upon them that has come humiliating until nowadays. Be enough with the examples of Eva and Pandora. Even Hesiod himself, while dealing in his manual with how to plant radishes in spring, takes advantage of it, as it is his obligation, to loosen a preposterousness when least comes to story: "he who trusts a woman, that one trusts thiefs"6.
This said, it can be artistic, but nonscientist, that what cannot be contrasted. And as myths relate facts, stories and values, most of which by its antiquity are not contrastable, they are labeled as "not-scientists" and, by doing so, the error is committed to ignore them, by the mere fact being based on so superficial ground for science as it is the one of myths. When the useful thing would be to dare to interpret them, to let to us fascinate by its stories and to risk from them hypotheses that could orient to us in our ripples about our cultural evolution at old times, although such hypotheses would only be accepted as “scientists” when they were indeed contrasted. But myths were the way that people felt, thought and expressed, which to me seems to be more than enough7.
Dating is a dangerous challenge when dealing with
Prehistory8, since what is right for today could be wrong for
yesterday, not to say for thousands of years back. This does not prevent many
scholars from convincingly asserting that matrilineality (unanimously accepted)
has never implied matriarchate in the history of mankind9.
Without realizing that, given the inheritance of the cultural heap, gathered in
their myths and rituals, they only could be governed by those who had
these keys of survival. The safekeeping and transmission of these values (the
accumulated experience of the ancestors) forced the women (the mothers, we must
and will expose arguments on it) to organize and to govern, although they’d have
done it in such natural a way that it is possible that they did not notice
themselves of the power they exercised. This it is the persistence of these
pages. Dates even can be suggested: we know the imposition of patriarchal values
by the aqueous in Greece circa 4.000 years ago, around the 2000 b.p.,
although it cost to them more of a millennium to prevail in all Mediterranean.
And fixing a departure line to the moment in which we were able to exert certain
capacity of abstraction -the inhumation of corpses, for example, that reveals
the first of myths: the one of the eternal return, 200.000 years ago10-,
should this be right, the male has come governing 4.000/200.000, this is a 2% of
the total of these times. But look how cockily-showy pretentious they are
Two are the subjects that I’ll try to contrast, using
myths like source: one, the matrilineality institution as a system that implied
a maternal society before the arrival of the patriarchal culture, and the
other one the patriarchal order, that replaced the former and still keeps
itself alive and effective. The consequences to lend ear to this boldness could
reach as far as to have to rewrite manuals of History and Anthropology, since we
question paradigms widely accepted10 such as the existence of a
patriarchal system since the beginning of times or that another one of the
autochthony of cultures, for the sake of mentioning matters unquestioned
1. MATRILINEALITY (and the maternal society from where it comes: not only as a filial connection but also like channel of the inheritance of the cultural heap that, when myths are included, implies the exercise of the authority), was not only a fact (no matter how hard philologists like A.Garcia-Calvo or C.Lèvi-Strauss12, or even a great majority of the anthropologists, take the monogamist couple for granted since the most remote times, freely assuming in the pair the man’s predominant role), the maternal society not only was a fact but also an axiom, because of its necessity, if not of common sense, as now it will be displayed:
(9) For instance, Harris, M., op.c., pág. 461.
Let us anticipate some subjects whose explanation would force to remake many
hypotheses: 1: among primitive
An example: the similarity of the pinzamientos in the penis (agricultural
ceremonies of fecundity) in the
(1956), en LECTURAS..., pág.296, cleanly
assumes the prejudice of the remote
1.1. The long absences of the man, hunter under the sun of the noon, to avoid to compete with other predators, according to the hypothesis of Fiatkwoski13 -with the consequent duplication of the cerebral mass, fall of the corporal hair by the development of the sweater glands, so that we could perform a grouped uninterrupted persecution of major hunting and succeeding by exhaustion of the tired prey, when we still belonged to the Homo Ergaster-, so long absences would have left exposed their group to all the dangers if the ones that remained in him, the mothers with the young, had not known it to govern, had not been able it to govern, were not it, in fact, governed. And I say, mothers, organized in groups well since, "given the period of infantile dependency (human, speaking of the Homo Ergaster) more prolonged than in the other anthropomorphous, hardly a mother, single she, could take charge of several young at the same time"14.
1.2. The ignorance of the man on the relationship between the childbirth and the copula, unknown until recently (not beyond the Magdaleniense period), of which the myths give us continuous certainty, by doing of North Wind (Bóreas) and of the water the fecunders of the woman (the genitals of the human females and animals were exposed towards the north to be pregnant), could not even give to foot to the possibility of patrilineal connections during millenniums, when the role of the man in the lineage was unknown, no matter how hard we want to use the term father not as ancestor but in the sense of protector and hunting-meat provider for the "children of the female", so being the term “father” a misleading word that would uselessly induce to nowhere but confusion.
1.3. The practice, from remote origins, of exogamy, exposed in most of the myths (vga.: at nuptial competitions), whatever its reasons might be, either biological, or economic or political that could explain it, the male is stranger to the tribe that is territorially agglutinated by the mothers and the young. To only mention an example, the seven first kings of Rome, from Romulus and Remo, according to reliable-sources’ well informed myths, historically confirmed, the seven first kings of Rome were foreign. (As it was Oedipus alive in Tebas, and later dead, like protector of Athens. Or Aquilles, myrmidon, of the totem of the ant in Egina, turned king-horse in Tesalia. Or in the nuptial competitions of Telamon for Glauce in Salamina, or of Oedipus for Yocasta in Tebas, or of Pelops for Hipodamia in Olympia...). Strangers to a culture that, according to Lèvi-Strauss, is not but a world of "shared symbols".
Then, if foreigner, no matter how willing we are to speculate on his adaptation to the new means that welcome to him -for which he is to be adopted by means of rituals that on all fours include the step below the legs of the representative of the mothers of the tribe, simulating birth within the new group, or by means of the baptism, pretending a new childbirth after "breaking waters", rescue from the waters, within the tribe -; if the foreigner neither knows the language of his new family, nor her myths, nor their rights nor their obligations, how then he can so gratuitously be presumed capacity to govern a group that is to him strange? supposition this one undisputed, but perhaps explicable only by the intellectual myopia of a scientific anthropological class traditionally little ready to interpret archaic institutions outside the patriarchal context in which it follows immersed.
1.4. The Biblical curse that threw Adam and Eva from the paradise was compensated by an effective lenity: the power to give names to the things. Power that would give us the dominion on all over the world, around and beyond us. Power that the mothers were in charge to develop. We do not know the real name of the city of "Rome", that only knew the Highest Priests who also knew to keep it hidden. Nothing makes the individual more vulnerable than the knowledge of its name by strangers. Evans-Pritchard knows something of it and Peacock tells about it when he speaks of his field-work with the nuer in Africa15. The reason is that the name -which the mother will keep in secret until the adolescence, to protect the new-born baby to whom she will give a second name to be called-, like the hair, the image, the nails, the track on the ground on walking by foot 16 or the shade which is projected under the sun, are elements, parts, where the spirit can be jeopardized by anyone by means of contact or mimetic magic.
(13) Harris, M., op.c., pág.116.
Arsuaga, J.L. (co-author), La Especie Elegida (Atapuerca Project),
edics.Temas de Hoy (1998), pág.217.
Being thus, mother would have to eliminate from her language those words whereupon her children had been named (common names, normally), when they died, if she did not want that whoever that could use it, in any other context, could be contaminated by the spirit of those who had had it, after dead.
Simple question of magic. With the magic the human enhanced his dignity and eficiency17, how, if no, we would have ourselves dared hunting a bison? if we had not before hunted it in painting (its spirit), thus doing possible to turn the utopia reality, such it was the enthusiasm and self-esteem that the magic impregnated in our primitive and diminished animistic spirit. The magic was an attitude of "that’s enough!" by our parents with regard to daimones (natural forces) that made aggressive the human being in his defense against their aggressions. The substitution of the names by the mothers, tabooing those whereupon the passed away son had been named, with the purpose of avoiding that anyone could use them and be damaged by the spirit of the dead, was a task to be continuous and controlled. The consequent renovation of the vocabulary had to force a development of the language as now we cannot figure out. And the tremendous power on this subject (to put names) was but mothers’. We know that the thought (the judgment, not the simple abstraction) was only possible after having put names to the things. Nothing "exists" if it before does not have a name through which we can recognize it18. In the beginning was the Word (spoken Logos).
1.5. If the magic was an attitude of "that’s enough!"19 with regard to daimones (natural forces) that made us stronger in our defense against their aggressions, as we have already said, first against cataclysms and other dangers of the nature and later of whatever could do damage to us, one of the first instruments we devised to control them was to measure them, to make them predictable, that is, the calendar, more than 30.000 years ago. I am talking about mental instruments invented by men, and so we here discard material instruments such as the stone carving or fire control.
With the simplest calendar we dominated nothing less than both time and space. A space route happened to be a distance of say "x" moons (temporary measure) of trip. A solstice (temporary) was located in the horizon in a point of the space determinable by means of menhires that served as reference. One hundred moons (lunar periods) are equivalent to eight solar years, measurement uncomfortable to use. For that reason the "year" of four years was used by the Greek (vga.: the Olympic Games), whose number of moons, 50, served to locate myths in times of lunar calendar, that is to say, of maternal tribes, by contrast to the patriarchal ones that imposed the solar calendar.20 Then, in our temples the divine Mother still can bee seen with the moon on her feet, like clear attribute of her sex.
Magnificent studies on magic and its practices in the evolution of the human
being, can be seen in Malinowski, B,
Sapir, E., Definición del Lenguaje (1921), in LECTURAS... pág.
225. The reality of a culture is
expressed in its
Or the Luci-fer rebel scream: non serviam!, or Prometheus’ defying in
arrogant and raised position to skies and the
Hécate, the Moon, in Greek means 100. Also it is "moon" Selene-Hellena
(Greece). And 50 were the "representing
And it’s only natural that only were the women the ones who were in charge of the calendar and the consequent activity of prediction (like the Delphos pitonisa before to be evicted by Apollo), because such institutions only could be developed by those who, with their continuous presence and sleeplessness, gave stability to the institutions of the tribe.
Martín Cano suggests brilliant and amazing observations on the feminine role in the use of nightly constellations since at least 3500 b.p. in her work Arqueoastronomia/Astronomia Prehistoric at her website es.geocities.com/culturaarcaica/index.html, the reading of which is recommended
1.6. And, like it could not be of another way, it was also the woman who first practiced the medicine (to add something concrete, because if we admitted that she had to do everything within the tribe, it turns out unnecessary -not to say weakening- to reaffirm such assertion by parcels). In the middle of the sanctuary of the Greek Medical Centre, Epidauro, you can see a tholo, a tomb, the entrance to the belly of the mother Earth. All the colonizer cultures exert their values on the infrastructure, physics or morals of the colonized one21. And in Epídavros the medicine was exerted beforehand from long time, presided over by a tholo right in the center of the sanctuary. The archaic medicine -practiced with medical herbs, along with music and dreams- was an homeopathic one. (The modern drug medicine “to cure after” should match the "preventive” one, the best known practice of which is homeopathic: vaccines). The first poison antidote (homeopathic) obtained from the serpent turned this animal sacred and respected in all the cultures, in such degree that has deserved curse damnation and disgust by the new patriarchal culture. Still, in our temples nowadays, the divine Mother can be seen with the serpent under her feet, again as a clear attribute of her sex, although distorted by the patriarchal censorship that makes the snake deceptively guilty for being the origin of all our evils.
The Athens of Pallas, whose totem ancestral had been the Erictonio serpent, in the century of Pericles was still represented by an animal (nocturnal), the owl, although it had been beforehand represented as a goat (the skin of Libyan origin, the égida one, granted the goddess its eternal youth). On the other hand, the serpent (also represented in the Hermes’ double cane and still persisting in our pharmacies logo) that comes from the subsoil like all the alive does, with its periodic changes of shirt it symbolizes the eternal return, the stational periods, the daily repeated sun’s journey, the round circle...
1.7 ...the eternal return, is there a more repeated theme in all the cultures neither more female than the eternal return?: the perfect circle of the snake-dragon that bites its own queue.
From the subsoil of the earth life arises. But the trees and the plants would not survive and reproduce themselves if the seed that gives rise to its life would not die and be buried for that aim. It is not that Life ends in Death, on the contrary Death precedes Life, and thus in The Iliad Homerus says that Night precedes Day. Novare aut perire is more than a simple change, is to perish previously if it is to be born: perire ut novare. Out of the womb of the mother Earth arises the life and it is to the belly of the earth that we return the bodies of the dead persons so that they can give rise to new lives. And we still keep here seeking our roots, or taking the terms uprooted and eradicated as an insult, or designing our genealogical tree. If we have being burying human corpses for more than 200.000 years, that means that at that time we had already developed the magnificent abstraction –call it by its name: myth- of the eternal return.
The eternal return transcends of its vegetable origin to explain all temporary cycles. When the sun arrives to the winter solstice, somebody must force “him” (how? how should be but by magic) to return following the same road back along the horizon. The titanic rite/myth of Ixión, present in many cultures, in which a fire ring (representing the sun) is rolled down by the slope of a mount in order to oblige the sun to follow this journey of return, so that the summer may always succeed to the winter, seems to have been successful, to faith that they got it, and so thanks to the magic of our ancestors the temporary stations each year could repeat its eternal return, which still nowadays we continue enjoying (one can not help admiring the things that were done in times of my mother! who would dare to say that the myths are not more than stories?).
A grotesque sample of myth colonization was the
celebration on the 18th of August of Hipolyte -stepchild of Fedra
Special mention deserves the polymorphism of the old Goddess Gaia, the Mother Earth, with regard to number 3, the plural number, or the triangles. The triangles found among arqueologic remainders in dolmens and other excavations have magic functions (agricultural, of fertility). The Greek delta D is the female symbol by excellence, and its meaning is demiurgic: creative. It is easy to derive this sign D, the triangle, from the pubis of the mother, from which life in each birth arises, although some religion utilize it to represent a Trinity, of suspicious origin. If it is wanted that a field give a good crop, you should bury a triangular figure and by art of the magic -of contact and/or mimetic- you soon will see how efficiently it will work. Magic works by means of associations. The numerous pregnant Venus of the Gravetiense period, of 30.000 years ago, triangle-insinuating, give faith about how to fertilize the land with female instruments that ignore the contest of the male22.
As to number 3, the Greeks knew three numbers -not two, as we do-: the singular one, the dual and the plural one, pertaining to the numbers 1, 2 and 3. “Two” is neither singular nor plural, for as Lèvi-Strauss liked to say, the Greek did not conceive any concept without its opponent, and thus nothing would be beautiful or greater if there was not something ugly or smaller. Number "three" meant "plural", went back to times in which we had not yet carried out the intellectual effort that implied to dominate number 423.
And three (many, many, infinite, so many as realities fit, as needs appear) will be the number of the Mother Earth, and therefore all their epiphanies appeared in number of 3 (further on 9, 3x3): three were the Graces, three were the Muses, three the Stations, three the Hours, three the Grays, three the Harpies, three the heads of the Hydra..., as three will be the times, three-three-three, that Heracles screamed out calling his efebo Hilas to conjure and protect him from death.
Polymorphism, polytheism, magic rites, are all in the same stage24. Therefore poly-theism is so own of the “pagan" times and maternal culture, as much as monotheism -monogamy, monochord, monotonous, mono/everything- will belong to the patriarchal culture patriarchal, as we’ll see when we’ll deal with religion. The Mother-Earth, therefore, she was triple, three-three-three, MOTHER-OLD/MAGICIAN-MAIDEN. And as today we already know how to count more than three, "many" itself is no longer said "three" and so, only in Spain, we may count as many as 3.000 avocations of the Virgin Maria, Mother of God, some of them even being of different color.
And finally, if the rites of birth and death25 (pardon, of death and birth) were under the scope, under functions and attributes of the mothers -and test of it is that they continue being it in modern patriarchal times- then what could it remain outside of its jurisdiction? Myths, names, therefore, and magic and the calendar, and assemblies and courts, and more functions that you may add whatever they might be, they were own of the mothers, and thus the myths teach it us..., simply because it could not be otherwise.
But that’s enough. Since so much stirring seeking the plots of functions of the mothers makes us suspects of doubting of our general statement. So, thus were the things. Thus they were, as always they had been. Until a day changed...
...and behold a celestial male brightness came down from the right side threatening and usurping from mothers two functions, to begin with: the magic for the hunt and the solar calendar, to later impose a new order with a virulence such that betrayed that the system ousted had been exactly its opponent.
In the Mediterranean rites of Atis and Adonis the male genitals were thrown to
the furrows, what reports us that by
Ifrah, G., Historia Universal de los Números (Cifras), edics.
Espasa (1997), págs. 20 and ss. We began
Priestesses (or "sacerdotisas", sacred persons tabooed because they were
in contact with the dead world) of the
Evans-Pritchard, E., in Teorías de la Religión Primitiva, edics.
Siglo XXI (1984), pág. 178, verifies that
2. The PATRIARCHATE is recent and inserted in a process that went from sacrifice to science, from the tomb up to the temple, from teromorfic magic to the logical reason, from magic rites to religion, from the lunar calendar to the solar one, from the myth to the law, from tribal family to the territorial city. The process was top crowned with an evil device, matrimony, that the male well knew to take advantage of.
We do not much agree with Lèvi-Strauss when affirms, with certain reason, that nothing worth of mention has ever occurred in the human history after the great Neolithic revolution carried out with the intensive agriculture after its domestication26. We think on the contrary that somewhat important occurred, and that was the change of female group structure to another of patriarchal character (referred to the Mediterranean towns, in which we have evidences from Samos up to the Balearic islands, passing through Crete, Lesbos, or Libya)27. The date and place of the final phase of the patriarchal colonization at the Mediterranean, we recall, happened to be at the second millennium b.p. with the entrance of the Indo-European aqueous in Greece in the 2000 (the military leader and the walled city were already known more than a thousand years before in the Middle East).
The symbiosis among the two cultures suffered a process of other thousand years, with special virulence among the years 1.100/80028, reaching its apogee among the jonios of Athens and of the coast of Anatolia in the Pericles V century, when exploded the art and the philosophy, and with these the science and the technology. The dory invader at 1200 b.p. imposed the solar calendar, more accurate than the lunar one, what permitted to better predict29 (and thus "to cause") the rains30, and its spears of iron imposed on itself the spears of bronze of the pelasgos aborigenes.
The dory celestial light of the day imposed on the shadows of the earthly Mediterranean night, the logic succeeded to the magic (not of the all still), the territorial contact (demos) to the blood family tribe. The Indo-European oak tree of Zeus, higher than the Mediterranean quercus of Hera, attracts better the rays and is therefore better source of the fire controlled, and it will help to evict Her out of its secular sanctuary in Dodona. The new gods (new values) will be called uránidas (sons of Uranus, the Sky), and its best representative on the Earth was to be Heracles, the great dory solar hero whose Twelve Works would have as an main objective to erase of the face of the land the maternal traditions, in a voyage full of contradictions (its feats will count on itself solar numbers as 12 and lunar as the 50 and the 3).
As for the old "goddess" the instructions were clear: from defamation to extermination. The subsoil of the land is black, dark, lightless, and is found to the left, better said, in the sinister band, in West (Tártaro, tar-tar, "western of the west". Being parallel the womb of the woman and that of the Earth, “give birth” in Spanish is said “alumbrar, dar a luz”: to illuminate, to give the light to the newborn coming from darkness). When the old system, that of always, was colonized by the new patriarchate, utilizing the binary contrasts we will verify that in the opposite: Female/male, the Mother/the father, the Night/the day, Death/life, the Sinister/the right, the Darkness/the light, the Land/the sky, the Moon/the sun, the Snake/the eagle, Nature/culture, the Magic/the (she? he? it?) Reason31.., the terms of the left have been cursing damned by evident reasons of public health. (:So, neither Artemisia can remain with Hipólito when the latter’s time to dye is about to arrive, nor in Delos island, cradle of Apollo, maximum representative of the new patriarchal culture, protector of the health and of the medicine, nobody was permitted to get sick nor much less to die).
(26) Lèvi-Strauss, C., Raza e Historia, in LECTURAS. .., pág. 115.
See R.Graves, Los Mitos Griegos, Alianza Editorial (1989).
The Mother Earth resided in the Tár-tar-o
The night of the wedding of Zeus to Hera lasted 300 years, the myth says, and in
fact we do not know anything of
Apollodoro in The Argonauts relates a worthy feat to be counted by the
mythology: the goat golden skin, that would
Day-Zíos-Zeus-God (light) is the God of the ray, because the ray is the light of
the rain, but its acceptance will
If "Reason" is well represented by Pallas Athena, there is who qualifies to this
goddess as marimacho trasvestido
Serve the following one like example on the defamatory and deceptive patriarchal reproof against the old institutions, rituals and beliefs, with such an efficacy that we still continue admitting them without criticizing, that is: the three "goddesses" of the winds were most beautiful, so much that their father was called Wonders (Taumante). One of them, Iris, the rain-bow is shown us when it rains while the sun is shining. One can imagine how her sisters would look alike. Well, do you know how they were called?: the Harpies. And it be compared its image with it imposed by Apollo and its followers, accounting for as horrendous, with hairs of snakes, pestilent..., sinister, and here we all continue without anybody daring to say a word.
Let’s see process, that is the same one that the process of the emancipation of the sacred king escaping from sacrificial death -already not so voluntary- so as to be erected in hereditary monarch-leader in a new urban and hierarchical context.
2.1. From sacrifice to science (sacrificia sint delenda), from the gloomy death to the light of the life, from the fertile triangle to chemical fertilizers, nobody puts in doubt the progresses of the empire of the logic and of the abolition of the sacrifice that, loss the reason of its origins, had derived in that of collective annual “murder" of the fármakos ("expiatory goat", in principle the loftiest one, later the criminal or the ugliest one, as it arrived really to occur, passing for the meaningless "sacrificial murder" of children and women).
We take up, however, at this point, the myth of the "eternal return" in the spot in which death is origin of life, you do remember it, don’t you? The scythe that brandishes the Death does not serve to reap lives (a sickle to kill?) but to collect abundant crops. In this perspective the kindness of the voluntary sacrifice turns out to be doubtless if the death of the "best", the sacred king -the youngest one, the strongest one, the more alive-, gives life to his tribe. Not another the origin seems of the totem (representation of the collective one) whose agape annual is the food (theo-fagia) of the ancestor32, of whose spirit and force is impregnated the tribe33. The selected-for-sacrifice animal that embodied the ancestors spirit34 it would be that of more life, distinguished of the others by a crown that it marked it like tabooed (sacred), with special care that itself no suffered any damage whatsoever until the annual rite were celebrated, since any harm that could happen to it would result in a same damage to all the tribe and the members of the tribe35. Therefore, if a culture is the more "civilized" when the more is sacrificed a generation in favor of the following one, when was the human being more civilized that when voluntarily competed for dying, by to be sacrificed, for the benefit of its group? Because that and not another thing were in its origins the bloody sacrifices, to whose spectators were to be controlled so that they did not emasculate themselves -such was their enthusiasm- in order to throw their genitals to the furrows following the rite performed with the privileged selected to be sacrificed.
2.2. The tomb-pyramid emerged from the subsoil. In the evolution that carried from tomb to temple (passing for the interval of the astronomical observatory palace with sacrificial altar and funeral chamber?) we began by lightening the tomb of the ballast of the land, said that in physical terms as much as in figured sense. Now it sufficed with throwing a little dust of land on the dead person to obtain thus the benefit of the inhumation, as did Antigone on the corpse of its brother Pollinices to the door of Tebas, being because of it then condemned to death. The dust that is put on the faithful front on Ash-Wednesday recalls its origin and the myth of the eternal return. "Sit tibi terra levis" should not be translated literally as that "be light the sand (covering you)", or that do not be costly to have died, but rather that a simple handful of dust suffices for complying with this ritual of inhumation, of dying to be able to reborn, change of status.
Although Freud dares to more in their daring explanation of the atonement of the
fault by means of the agape or
"The Gods itself are not pleased with impose on the men the load of the fault,
they want more: they require the
The sacred king was also crowned, what made him a taboo and distinguished him as
the one that should be
To the extent that emerged from the subsoil, and complying with its oracular function36, the dolmen-tomb was oriented toward cardinal points to measure –among other- the solstices, and developed until they became temples, in the outside court of which the sacrifices were hold (that no longer human beings, but of animals, and these no more totemic but domesticated), until the time came when religions would recover them reinstalling the altars inside the temples37.
And it is with the force of its origin from tomb that religious temples, that no longer harbor to dead but to their effigy divinized, and that look at the sky denying of subsoil, in secular alliance with the political power they will impose the terrorism of conscience on the labor population.
2.3. And we passed from Magic to Reason, although less than we should do and do proclaim. The relationship no longer is of mental associations but of cause-effect. Prior a curious teromorfic process: the dependence of the greater hunt -that we manage to helped by the magic- caused the totem derived from tree, or mount, or stone, or cloud, to figure of animal (teromorfism, wherefrom the masks)38 and the ritual passed to be a function of the sorcerers whose head of totemic animal would remain in Egypt, more reluctant to the changes, while in Greece progressed to the inverse one, with human head and body of animal, in a process of anthropomorphism that gave the Olympic Gods their human figures39.
The magic for the hunt was probably the first one assumed as such by the male. With the reason, nevertheless, the masks will fall. Let them fall down, masks out!
2.4. From Rites to Religion, from magical rites to religious liturgy. God has been created by the man to his image and resemblance. The invention of God is fruit of a process that begins with the projection of the remorse of the ones who survive the dead person into the spirit of the dead40, that is: the spirit of the tribe, incarnated in its members individuals; continues with a totemic assimilation of the sacred king that, after having dead, remains immortalized like hero (protector), and finally ends by divinizing the dead as immortal and beneficial. Only it remained to define Him as redeemer, creator and unique single God (with the help of the guilty complex and the original sin). On the other hand, the evolution since the tomb to the temple, which with the religion would maintain their gloomy original funerary aspect, with altars where again bloody sacrifices would be carried out (no matter how much of virtual character), had opened their doors to some new inhabitants, the priestly caste, that shall anathematize since their pulpits to anybody who were not humiliated and submissive to their dogma and their morale.
When in the IX century b.p. the noblemen (aristoi) shared the power, they
also made use of the tombs of their
Bull (really cow, but we will utilize the new patriarchal language) in Crete or
in Argos (Io), lion in Mycenae or Tebas,
en Aspectos antropológs.del lenguaje: categorías animales e injuria verbal
The hypothesis of Freud on the remorse of the relatives of the passed away (not
to say of the responsible for
Only it remained for the priestly caste to accommodate itself with the dominant class to, by means of the terrorism of conscience and a police centralized structure, repress the force of the workers for the sake of common good, or of the general interest, however you may call it, it all depends on fashions and times. And so, for a greater glory of God the most horrendous crimes in the history of Humanity would be committed, from the Spanish Inquisition to the Holy Wars, passing for the castration (physiological and mental) of their believers, as prize to their fidelity. It is so as the concept of God will charge all its force: when be done religious with monotheism, with which coherently it will melt to become itself.
Now it’s time to clarify, or at least discuss, some semantics. The term "polytheist religion" is incoherent, mistaken, misleading and contradictory in its own terms, since polytheism is magician (the contrary thing of the religious thing, the Lucifer shout non serviam! was the origin of magic, we have already seen it), while religion arrived with monotheism41. What means that there is not religion out of monotheism; that monotheist religion is a redundancy, since religion and monotheism are the same thing; that every religion is monotheist; that polytheism has never been religion. The catholic faithful, vga., practice religious worships that in reality are magic practices (transport images to cause to rain, pray so that things occur..., that insert in the framework of the old goddess pagan "religion" and as such poli-theist42, therefore do not worship an abstract concept as is own of monotheism but do indeed worship innumerous concrete icons among the ones mostly are female), without realizing nor admitting that their magic practiced nowadays, in the so-called Rational Age, no longer is magic but superstition.
It is not admissible, therefore, that the great majority insist in the acceptance of the need of the religious feeling by the human being since its origins. No, it has never felt it. The religion is but a mental superstructure imposed by the metropolises to its conquered territories in order to oust their native gods and thus to get their subordination, being later utilized by the leading class to oblige all citizens to the submission under hierarchical Power and Status. And all this occurred recently, there by the year 1.364 b.p. with the Egyptian God Sun of Akhenaton43 or with Olympic Greek gods, less than that 2% of the time that we carry developing us as human, in a cultural more than biological evolution.
The religion to us does not come from the Greeks but in spite of the Greeks. The Olympic gods, already anthropomorphous44, were mere protective values that agglutinate the citizens around their city, not religious gods as erroneously again are qualified, since in Greece there were neither dogmas nor a priestly caste: the funerals are celebrated by a friend or a relative, to Patroclo his friend Achilles, to this his son Neoptólemo. When after the Olympic humanization by Homer in The Iliad the gods be lacked them the respect that no longer deserve in a rational society, nobility, taking advantage of the divinities balance and discounts, dared to rival the old sacred king institutions by being erected their own tombs with protective heroes of their own lineage.
The work of E.Schwimmer on the religion and the culture, as well as many other
publications on the theme, get lost
Few cultures have usurped beliefs, myths, rituals and traditions with less
modesty than it has done the catholic
"The egalitarian tribes do not need a supreme God, which nevertheless turns out
to be inevitable in the social
The anthropomorphous Olympic gods conserves their pedigree as animals:
Zeus-eagle, Hera-turkey, Apollo-
2.5. From the lunar calendar to the solar one. The dolmen-vagina, with the chamber-uterus in the bottom of the tomb, proclaims its function of calendar (forecast) when is oriented toward cardinal points so as to face equinoxes and solstices45, evolving later, with the indo-european solar year, in monumental and sumptuary tombs, pyramids or mausoleums that retain their function of astronomical observatories. The solar calendar is more accurate than the lunar one, we know that. Number 12 would substitute the 50. The lunar surplus month 13 was declared harmful and still that number is avoided like the plague. The dory Sun is imposed and gives name to the solar heroes that will delay various centuries in dominating the secular maternal culture: from Perseo to Theseus, passing through Jason, Belerofonte, Achilles, Agamemnon, Meleagro, Cadmo, Edipo, Menelao, with Heracles to the head... and Odysseus, above all Odysseus, that elevates the deceit to paradigm. To the multiple theories on the field of the myths" (family of the God, nature/culture, emigrations, changes of status. ..) fits to add two more: that the content of the myths is the story of the solar kings that forced the step of the matriarchal culture to patriarchal and that the time in which were framed was that of the own transition.
2.6. From the tribe to the city. The city substitutes the blood cognative family relationship by the territorial one, demos means territorial district. The law of the city is public and written, obliges everybody and replaces the myth in its role as a rule, but this will have to expect to Rome to come, the city of the Roman Law and the Public Works, where Mars, God of the war, graduated as engineer as much as a lawyer, got a prestige that in Greece it never had. The demographic pressure, due to several causes and, among them, the city itself, obliges to found colonies (granaries) abroad. The colonies, or new territories conquered by the force, should not be fully segregated from the metro-polis, for which the God of the mother-city will be imposed (one only, the main one, does not agree to give rise to other different God) in replacement of the native God (values). The consequent maritime traffic gives place to commerce that, following after the exogamic competing for the crown in the tribe that received him, will be carried out by "strangers"46. If there is a word to summarize the essence of the city in a single term, I would select “anonymity” (names out!). And anonymous will be the companies where anonymous money will concentrate as its capital. Anonymity is an urban illusion for a dreamed liberty. In the City we experienced what we later called State.
T. C. Lewellen exposes five theories that explain the
origin of the State47, forgetting the first and main one. According
to him the origin of States for some authors is in the war, for others in the
private property, for others in the public works (hydraulics), for others in the
demographic pressure, for others in the need of a bureaucratic centralized power
to defend the higher classes in its exploitation of the labor force, omitting,
we repeat, the somewhat prior, main motive without which the other reasons would
not be able to have imposed, that is, according to Bachofen (1861) : that "the
State was only possible when maternal right was overcome" 48.
BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERRED TO
(y Martínez, I.), La Especie Elegida (Proyecto Atapuerca), edics.Temas de