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Pirahã Dictionary/ Dicionário Mura-Pirahã

by D.L.Everett ?


This is a preliminary dictionary.
 
All segments correspond to IPA notation except for the following:

7        voiceless glottal stop

'        high tone marker; slightly offset behind the intended vowel (á,í,ó)

*** Portuguese definitions are also included here ***
 

A
-abo'i' sfx dependent verb do7, fazer7 to do in a punctiliar, out-upward manner, not penetrating the object but joining it to something else in a somewhat fixed manner, fazer numa direção para cima-fora, puntual, não penetrando o objeto mas juntando o objeto com outra coisa de uma maneira mais ou menos fixa
 

-a'hoi' sfx 1. dependent verb go learn, ir aprender 2. dependent verb do repeatedly, fazer varias vezes

-a'ip- ifx dependent verb do1, fazer1 to do in a non-punctiliar, downward manner, fazer numa direção para baixo, não puntual General: This is a dependent verb which is used for actions and processes which are done in a downward motion.

-a'it- ifx dependent verb against, em oposição

-a'ob- ifx dependent verb do2, fazer2 to do in a punctiliar, outward direction, fazer numa direção para fora; puntual

-a'op- ifx dependent verb do3, fazer3 to do in a non-punctiliar, outward direction, fazer numa direção para for, não puntual

-a'p- ifx dependent verb do4, fazer4 to do in a non-punctiliar, inward direction, fazer numa direção para dentro, não puntual

B
-ba' sfx

baa'bi adj. sick, doente

ba'aga'i 1. v pile, montar 2. v stack, pilhar

ba'ag-a'obi' compound verb to stack, empilhar

ba'agi 1. adj. alot stacked 2. compound verb to pile, many/muito; montado

ba'a-ha' 1. adv. well, bem 2. adv. alot, muito

baa'i'hi'igi' adv. slowly, devagar

ba'-a'ipa'i compound verb to comb, pentear-se

ba'-a'ip-a'pi' compound verb to comb reflexive, pentear-se

baa'tahai 1. v to unwind untie, desfazer 2. v to undo, desatar

ba'bai adv. almost (used with third person), quase

baga'-a'bi 1. compound verb to stick, emperrar 2. compound verb to jam, pegar-se

bag-a'boi' 1. compound verb (indirect animate objects are treated as direct and the indirect then marked as ergative or with other positions) to share interchange; to overlap, compartilhar trocar 2. compound verb (indirect animate objects are treated as direct and the indirect then marked as ergative or with other positions) exchange, sobrepor-se

bag-aha'pi 1. v to drift, flutuar 2. v to wander from place to place, ser levado

bag-a'ho-aag-a'pi compound verb to pass by, passar

bagai' adv. almost, quase

baiai v fear, temer

ba'opi v to rub, esfregar

bao'sai'

bi-igio' adv. downward, para baixo

bi'isa-ho-a'boi' compound verb to shake hands, apertar a mão

bi'i-xo'i'-sai n hand soap, sobonete

botoi n scar, cicatriz

G
ga'i 1. v to say, dizer 2. adv. near, falar

ga'i2 adv. here, aqui

ga'ig-a'b-o'pi' compound verb to tie with a knot, atar; dar nó

ga'ig-a'hoi' 1. compound verb to tie many times wrap, amarrar várias vezes dar corda 2. compound verb to wind, enrolar-se General: The final -i drops with verbal morphology.

ga'igi' v tie, amarrar

ga'ig-o'pi' compound verb to tie around, amarrar para fechar

ga'i-hi demonstrative this, isto

go' 1. question word; quantifier that, que 2. question word; quantifier what, o que

go'-gi'i's-o question phrase how much, quanto

go'-gi'i's-o' 1. adv. - question phrase why how 2. question phrase how many, for what reason/por que; como

go'o' question word where, aonde

H
-hai' sfx future an event in the future, futuro

hi'-abi v temporary negation, negação temporária General: hi'-aba negates temporary, changing conditions.

hi'-o'gi-a'aga-o ergative pronoun all the men, todos os homens

ho-abo'i' compound verb to turn the light out, desligar a luz

ho-a'boi' 1. compound verb (indirect animate objects are treated synactically as direct and the direct is then marked as ergative) to release to to pass to; to shake hands, soltar passar; apertar a mão 2. compound verb (indirect animate objects are treated synactically as direct and the direct is then marked as ergative) to give to, dar

hoa'i-ip-a'boi' 1. compound verb to shine the light, brilhar 2. compound verb to turn on the light, ligar a luz

hoa'i-ipi compound verb to turn on a light, acender

ho-a'op-a'pi 1. v to pass out to share with many, distribuir 2. v to distribute, compartilhar com vários

hoapiigi' compound verb to blow with mouth, soprar com a boca

hoi 1. v to release to pass; open; leave, soltar passar; abrir; sair 2. v to give, dar

hoi' 1. adj. more than a few, mais do que um pouco 2. adj. some, alguns

ho'i adj. few, pouco

hoigi' adj. dirty, sujo

ho'iihi'i 1. adj. single, único 2. adj. one, um

K
kaab-a'obi' compound verb to bite, morder

kaa'bi 1. adj.; dependent verb full stretch; pull, encher saturar; esticar; puxar 2. adj.; dependent verb spread, espalhar

kaaga-kai compound verb to study, estudar

kaap-a'bogi' 1. compound verb to squeeze, espremer 2. compound verb to press together, apertar-se

kaap-a'boi' 1. compound verb to bath by jumping in the water, tomar banho pulando na água 2. compound verb to splash, salpicar

kaap-a'obi' 1. compound verb to break to shatter, break 2. compound verb to shoot with a gun, atirar

kaap-a'opi 1. compound verb to slice, cortar em fatias, despedaçar 2. compound verb to scatter, espalhar

kaapi' v to kill, matar

kab-a'b-o'pi' compoud verb finish, acabar; terminar

kabi v negation-permanent condition, negação-condição permanente General: When /k/ is dropped and/or the final -i of the noun is drop, or agreement markers show up in place of nouns, then the structure of the verb is not stative but intransitive, meaning to finish; to quit; to stop.

kaga-ka'obi' compound verb to write, escrever

kaha'pi 1. verb; dependent verb to fly to ride a bike, viajar soltar; andar de bicicleta 2. verb; dependent verb to free, voar

ka'i 1. v to mess, emcomodar mexer com; atrapalhar 2. v to bother, mexer em

kai'bai adv. spread out, espalhado

kaib-a'ipi' v to pour, derramar

ka'ib-a'ipi' v to pour, derramar

ka'ipi' 1. v to make 2. adv. scattered, construct/fazer; construir

kao-a'ipi' compound verb to speak poorly, falar com sotaque

kaobi' v to fall, cair

kao-hi'-aaga' adj. to yawning, bocejando

kao-hi'-aaga'o' adj. to yawning, bocejando

ka'o'i' question word who, quem

kaopi' v to go back, voltar para o lugar de saída

ko' adj. sweet, doce

ko-a'boi' compound verb to cover up, cobrir

ko-a'i adj. dead, morto

koata'-a'ho-aagi compound verb fold, dobrar

kobai 1. v to see observar 2. v to return from where you came, watch/ver; assistir; olhar; observar General: The initial k- and final -i may drop in continuous speech.

kog-a'op-a'pi compound verb to urinate standing up, urinar de pe

kog-a'pi v to urinate, urinar

kohoi v to eat repeatedly, comer muitas vezes

koi' adv. really (temporary), muito; bem (temporária) General: (an incomplete entry) This suffix is only used with temporary or changing situations.

ko'o'i' adj. small (temporary), pequeno

ko'o'saa'ga 1. v to not know 2. adj. little, ignorant/não saber

kopa'i adj. black, preto

kos-aaga' v to stare look intently; to know; to understand, olhar fixamente

O
-o'i't- ifx 1. dependent verb to part 2. v to gaze, into pieces/partir; em pedaços

-o'p- ifx dependent verb do5, fazer5 to do in a non-punctiliar, upward direction, fazer numa direção para cima, não puntual

P
pa'abi v to tear, rasgar

pi n water, água

pi-aga'ab-opi' 1. compound verb to wring water out of clothes, torcer 2. v rip, apertar

piixi adj. long, longo; comprido

pio adv. also, também

S
saha-xai verb of modality should not, não deve

siitoga'o n belt, cinto

T
ti'a'-a'hoi' compound verb to break something brittle, quebrar uma coisa dura

tigi 1. adj. brittle 2. verb of modality won't, hard/duro

ti'i'oisa'paoi' n plastic bag, saco plástico General: The final -i of main entry appears with word in isolation.

tiixi-a'op-a'pi' compound verb to boil something until it is very soft, ferver até ficar muito mole

ti'-xo'gi-a'aga-o ergative pronoun all of us, todos nós

tooi adj. tall, alto General: The final -i is dropped in continuous speech.<

X
xaaga' 1. v to be with, ter 2. v to have (non-permanent), estar com General: The glottal deletes in verb constructions.

xa'a(ga) v to be (permanent states and qualities of subjects), ser

xa'aga2 1. adj. dry low, seco baixo 2. adj. empty, vazio

xa'ag-a'boi' 1. v to empty, vazar 2. v to dry, secar

xaag-a'ho-aaga' 1. compound verb to change from one thing into another, virar transformar 2. compound verb to transform, mudar

xa'a'hai' 1. v walk, andar 2. v go, ir

xaai'bi 1. adj. clear, claro 2. adj. clean, limpo

xa'a'-ib-o'gi adv. quickly, depressa

xa'a'pa'-itai n hair, cabelo

xa'as-aag-opi' 1. compound verb to make clean to clear 2. adv. fast, to make smooth/limpar; passar sobre; alisar

xa'a'si 1. adj. clean, limpo 2. adj. new, novo

xa'a'-xa'ho'i'' v verb, devagar

xa'ba adv. only, só

xa'b-a'ipi' compound verb to sit, sentar-se

xa'b-a'obi' 1. compound verb to cure, curar 2. compound verb to make well, ficar bem

xabaxa'i adv. only, só

xa'bi' 1. verb; dependent verb to stay to grab; to cure, ficar 2. verb; dependent verb to get, pegar

xabo'o'pa'i v to return, voltar

xagaia' adj. crooked, torto

xagi'i adj. cold, frio

xaho-aaga' 1. compound dependent verb to begin, to start away, começar, ir para 2. compound dependent verb to leave away, sair para

xahoa-kohoa'i compound time word early morning, madrugada

xahoa-ko'hoa'i compound time word early morning, madrugada

xa'ho'i' v to do, fazer

xai 1. v to be, estar 2. v links more abstract adj. with noun (I believe this might be the plural form of the verb xaaga'), liga adjetivos abstratos com nomes

xa'i 1. v to mess, emcomodar mexer com; atrapalhar 2. v to bother, mexer em

xa'isi n outside, fora

xait-a'ho'i' compound verb to sleep, dormir

xaoo'-s-a'b-a'ipi' compound verb to kneel, ajoelhar-se

xaopi' 1. v to be mad, estar bravo 2. v to fight, brigar

xapo-a'i 1. compound verb to show affection to kiss, acariciar 2. compound verb to fondle, beijar

xapo'o'bii 1. adj. bitter, amargo 2. adj. sour, azedo General: The final -i drops

xi'a'-a'ho-aaga' compound verb to weaken, enfraquecer

xi'a'-a'hoi' compound verb to bend, dobrar

xib-a'boi' compound verb stab, flechar

xib-aha'pi 1. compound verb to untie, desfazer 2. compound verb shoot with an arrow, desamarrar

xi'bai'si n spouse, marido ou mulher

xib-a'it-o'pi' 1. compound verb to wash clothes, lavar roupa 2. compound verb to scrub, esfregar

xib-a'obi 1. compound verb to strike knock over, bater 2. compound verb collide, chocar General: The final -i of the verb forms an infinitive form whiich i deleted with morphology is added.

xibi' v to hit, bater

xi'biga'i 1. adj. strong dark, forte grosso 2. adj. thick, escuro

xi'biga'isi n grandparent, avós

xibi'ibi v to send, mandar; enviar

xibi'ooi' n flying insect, inseto que voa General: The final -i drops

xibo-g-a'pi compound verb to enter, entrar

xib-og-a'pi compound verb to enter, entrar

xiboi n piece, pedaço

xib-o'i't-a'ipi' compound verb to cut, cortar

xib-o'i't-a'opi compound verb chop, cortar

xi'ga 1. adv. right 2. n part, exactly/correto; exato

xig-aap-a'ipi' compound verb to stab repeatedly, furar repetidamente

xig-a'ap-a'ipi' compound verb to stab repeatedly, furar repetidamente

xig-aap-a'obi' 1. compound verb to stab, apunhalar 2. compound verb puncture, furar General: The final -i drop with verbal morphology.

xig-a'ho-aag-a'pi' compound verb bring, trazer

xig-a'ho-aag-o'pi' compound verb take away, levar

xig-a'obi 1. compound verb to pin down to pin up, pregar 2. compound verb to pin on, fixar

xig-ap-opi' compound verb to string beads, colocar miçanga num fio

xigi' 1. v to carry to leave with, carregar sair com 2. v to steal, roubar

xi'gi adj. hard, duro

xigia'b-a'opi' compound verb to grow (plants), crescer (plants) General: The final -i of the verb forms the infinitive and is deleted with verbal morphology.

xigia'bi adj. similar, semelhante General: The final -i only occurs with the isolated form.

xigi'-aha'pi compound verb to travel

xigi'a'i 1. adj. correct; o.k., certo 2. compound verb to go to a specific place, o.k.

xig-o'pi' 1. compound verb to sprinkle unsettle; stir up, rociar soprar 2. compound verb to shake, borrifar

xihi' 1. v put rest, botar 2. v place, colocar

xihi'-abo'i' 1. compound verb to light with a match to stick together; to balance, acender com fósforo suspender; fixar 2. compound verb to hang, pendurar

xihi'-a'boi compound verb to fit together, encaixar; ajustar

xihi'-a'boi' compound verb to fit together, encaixar; ajustar

xihi'-a'ipi' 1. v store plant, guardar 2. v save, plant

xihi'-o'gi' adj. expensive, caro

xihi'-o'pi' v button, abotoar

xihoa'-a'boi' compound verb to wet, molhar

xii'a'opi' v to grate, ralar

xiiga'ha' adj. hard, duro

xi'i'ga'i n back, costas

xi'-o'gi-a'aga-o ergative pronoun they female girls, todas elas

xi'o'i'i 1. adj. fragmented jointed 2. ergative pronoun women, wavey/fragmentado; ondulado;

xip-a'boi' 1. compound verb to do fine carving, talhar 2. compound verb to thread something small, enfiar uma coisa pequena

xip-opi' compound verb to peel with a knife, descascar com uma faca

xisa-a'ipi' compound verb to sing, cantar

xisi' 1. v to cry, chorar 2. v to moan, lamentar

xi'siitai n feather, pena

xi'sitoi v to stand, pôr-se de pé

xit-aa'bi compound verb to peel with your hand, descascar com a mão

xit-aba'aboi' 1. compound to fix to close, concertar 2. compound to put back together, fechar

xit-aba'ab-o'pi' 1. compound verb close to screw on, fechar 2. compound verb shut, apertar

xitai' n cover, coberta

xit-a'ipi' compound verb drink, beber

xitiga' v to steady, firmar, fixar

xito-aa'bi 1. compound verb open remove by pulling or pushing; remove by twisting; screw off, abrir puxar ou empurrar para abrir 2. compound verb pull off, tirar

xito-a'opi' compound verb to fall apart, cair em pedaços

xitoi 1. v come off, sair 2. v separate, separar

xito-opi' 1. compound verb take off cut off; undress, tirar cortar 2. compound verb remove, despir-se

xo-a'boi' 1. compound verb to get dressed to buy, vestir-se 2. compound verb to put on one's body, comprar

xo-a'obi' compound verb to wear, usar roupa no corpo

xoaogabi v to delay, demorar

xo-a'op-a'pi' 1. compound verb to wipe 2. compound verb use clothes, to dry off/limpar; secar; esfregar

xoba'axai v do good, fazer bem

xob-a'bo-g-a'pi' compound verb to thread larger objects, enfiar uma linha General: the final -i drops with verbal morphology. The initial glottal drops with verbal morphology.

xob-a'boi' 1. compound verb stir to move in and out, mexer acrescentar; virar cima para baixo 2. compound verb add, mover de dentro para fora General: The final -i drops with verbal morphology.

xob-a'ipi' compound verb to store, guardar

xob-opi 1. compound verb push, empurrar 2. compound verb blow, soprar

xogi' v want, querer

xo'gi-aag-aha'pi compound verb to grow big, crescer para ser grande

xo'gi-a'aga-o plural ergative pronoun everyone, todos

xo'gio' adj. (only used with objects, not subjects) all, todo(s)

xoho-a'opi' 1. compound verb to hunt for 2. plural ergative pronoun everybody, to look for/cacar; procurar

xoi n hand, mão

xoi' 1. v to hold with hand, segurar com a mão 2. v guard with hand, proteger com a mão General: The final -i drops in verbal constructions.

xo'i adj. pretty, bonito

xo'i' 1. v to hold, segurar 2. v guard, proteger General: The final -i drops in verbal constructions.

xo'i'2 adj. pretty, bonito

xoixi'i' adj. light, leve

xoo'i' 1. n jungle health, mato saúde 2. n place, lugar

xo'o'i' 1. adj. small, pequeno 2. adj. tiny (permanent), (permanente)

xop-a'ipi' 1. compound verb to step on to walk on, pisar 2. compound verb tread, andar em

xopi' 1. v lift, levantar sair 2. v leave, mandar-se

xoti' v to fight, brigar


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