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Part VI

 

 

 

Root / lemma: su̯em-

Meaning: to move; to swim

Material: Old Irish to-senn- ` pursue ' (*su̯em-d-ne-), (common Celtic Alb. abbreviation) verbal noun tofunn, probably to:

    Norwegian svamla `fantasize', svamra ` err about, swarm '; Old Icelandic svim(m)a, symja (preterit svamm summum and svam svǭmum) `swim', Old High German Old Saxon Old English swimman ds.; causative Middle High German swemmen ` let swim ', Modern High German schwemmen; Old Frisian swammia, Middle High German swamen `swim', Icelandic Norwegian svamla, sumla `splash', Gothic swumsl n. `pond, pool'; Old Icelandic sund n. `the swimming; strait ', syndr ` swimmable ', Old English sund n. ` swimming ability ', poet. `sea, water', Middle Low German sunt (-d-) ` strait ' (Modern High German Sund); different about Modern High German Sund Kluge-Gotze16 780.  

References: WP. II 524.

Page(s): 1046


Root / lemma: (s)u̯endh-

Meaning: to disappear

Material: Old High German swintan ` dwindle, lose weight, wilt, become unconscious ', Old Saxon far-swindan ` disappear', Old English swindan ` decrease, dwindle ', causative Middle High German swenden ` make dwindle, root up, remove by the roots ', Modern High German verschwenden dial. ` make arable through burning of grass ', Old High German swintilōn, Modern High German schwindeln; vowel gradation Modern High German Schwund; Old Church Slavic uvędati `wither, wilt', vowel gradation Church Slavic ǫditi ` smoke, fume ';

    compare Old Irish a-sennad Adv. ` in the end; and then; at worst; in short| to sum up; in fact| indeed, at last| finally ' (*su̯endh-no-?); (common Celtic alb. abbreviation)

   whether Germanic swindan belongs to swīnan ` dwindle ' (see su̯ī-) and previously through derailment converted in e-grade?

References: WP. II 526, Vasmer 1, 245.

Page(s): 1047


Root / lemma: su̯eng-, su̯enk- : su̯eg-, su̯ek- (*ĝʷheng- : kṣu̯eng-)

Meaning: to bend

Material: Old Indic svájatē, -ti (svaŋkṣyate) ` entangles, entwines', participle svaktá-, pariṣvakta- = Avestan pairišx ̌vaxta- `rings umschlossen'; Old Irish seng ` slim ' (`*pliable'), Celtic PN Singi-dūnum;

Ow. svájat ē, Ti (svaŋkṣyate) 'embraces', Partiz. svakta ́-, pariṣvakta-= av. pairišx ̌vaxta-` all around surrounded ones; air. is scorching 'slender' ('*biegsam), kelt. ON Singi-dūnum;

Note:

[Illyrian Singidūnum today: Belgrade?) translated in Slavic bel ` white' + grad ` city' = city of Albanians].

Maybe alb. (*su̯eng) deng ` pile' (common alb. su̯e- de- shift)

    Middle High German Middle Low German swanc `pliable, slim, fine, fragile, flimsy ', Old English swancor `pliable, fragile, flimsy '; Norwegian svekk, svokk f. (*swank-i̯ō, -ō) `cavity of the sole ', Danish Swedish swank `valley, cavity'; Old English swincan ` labor, work, toil; exert oneself, make an effort ', causative swencan ` plague, afflict ' (swenc m. ` affliction '), Old High German Middle High German swenken ` allow to swing, fling ', Modern High German schwenken ` wave'; Middle High German swank (-k-) ` turn, swing, prank, idea ', Modern High German Schwank;

    besides Germanic *sweng- (Indo Germanic *su̯enk-):

    Old High German Old Saxon swingan `(sich) schwingen, fly', Old Saxon swingan (swinga `club, mace, joint'), Old English swingan `hit, lash, flog, sich schwingen'; causative Gothic af-swaggwjan `schwankend make' (?), Old English swengan `sich schwingen', Middle High German swanc, swunc (-g-) `schwingende movement, Schwang, swing '; Middle Low German Middle High German swengel ` handle '; Old Icelandic svangr `thin, narrow, tight, slim, slender, thin ', Middle High German swanger ` slim '; Old Icelandic svangi m. ` groin, flank ' (`incurvation ');

    without nasals: Norwegian svaga, svagra `waver, swerve, dangle ', svagga ` go fluctuating ', Old Icelandic sveggja `(a ship) turn '; Middle Low German swak `pliable, thin, weak', Middle High German swach `evil, bad, miserable, feeble, weak', Middle Low German swaken also `wobble, sway' (as swanken).

References: WP. II 526 f.;

See also: compare also seu- and su̯ē̆(i)- `bend'.

Page(s): 1047-1048


Root / lemma: su̯enk-, sunk-

Meaning: heavy

Material: Old English swangor ` clumsy, idle', Old High German swangar `pregnant'; Lithuanian suñkti ` become heavy ', sunkùs ` heavy ' (of the body and of work), older Lithuanian sunkinga `pregnant'. 

References: WP. II 525.

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Root / lemma: su̯ento-, sunto-

Meaning: vigorous, vivacious, healthy

Note: only Germanic?

Material: Gothic swinÞs `strong, fit, healthy', Old Icelandic svinnr `rash, hasty, strong, smart', (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Old English swīð, Olld Saxon swīði `strong, violent, valiant', Middle High German swint, swinde `strong, violent', geschwind `fast, rapid, fierce, grim'; Old High German gisunt (-d-) `fit, healthy', Old Saxon gisund, Old English gesund, Old Frisian sund `fresh, undamaged; intact, whole, fit, healthy'.

References: WP. II 525 f.; because of Ablauts probably Indo Germanic; after Persson Beitr. 1892 and 587 to Lithuanian siunèiu ` send' (different above S. 909); compare also Lithuanian s(i)ùmdyti ` agitate '.

Page(s): 1048


Root / lemma: su̯en-

Meaning: to sound

Material: Old Indic svánati (secondary ásvanīt) ` sounds, resounds ' (= Latin sonit), -svanaḥ- n. `noise', svaná- m. `sound, tone, clangor ' (= Latin sonus), svāná- ` soughing '; Avestan *x ̌anat̃-èaxra- ` whizz (one of the wheels) '; 

 

Latin sonō, -āre, -ui, -itum Old Latin sonere (*su̯énō) ` echo/resound; be heard| sound; be spoken of (as); celebrate in speech', sonus (*su̯onos ` clangor, noise| sound '; Old Irish son `sound' Latin loanword);

 

probably Old Irish senn-, preterit sephainn ` echo/resound, play (an instrument)', whose -nn- probably after to-senn- ` pursue ', that (originated from *su̯em-d-ne-) belongs to root su̯em-; (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Old Irish senim (i.e. seinm) `the playing, sounding '; Old English swinsian `sing, make music ', swinn ` music, song'; also Old High German Old English swan `swan', Old Icelandic svanr ` male swan';

   whether sen- besides su̯en- in Latvian sanēt, senēt `buzz', Irish sanas ` whispering', Welsh hanes `history' actually `*rumor'?

References: WP. II 524 f., WH. II 559 f.

Page(s): 1046-1047


Root / lemma: su̯ep-1, sup- (*ku̯ep-1)

Meaning: to sleep, *cease, die

Note:

Root / lemma: su̯ep-1, sup- : `to sleep, *cease, die' derived from Root / lemma: su̯ep-2, sup-, su̯eb- : `to throw, *sway, swing (put to sleep)'.

Material:

Hittite: sup-, supparija- (I)  ' schlafen '  (Friedrich 198)

Tokharian: A ṣpäṃ, B ṣpane `Schlaf '  

Old Indian: svapiti, svápati `to sleep, fall asleep ' , pass. supyate, ptc. suptá; svápna- m. `sleep, dream ' ; svápnya- n. `vision in a dream '  

Avestan: xʷap- `schlafen ' ; xʷafna- m. `Schlaf, Traum '  

Armenian: khun, gen. khnoy `Schlaf '  

Old Greek: hǘpno-s m. `Schlaf '  

Slavic: *sъpātī, *sъpītь; *sъnǭtī, aor. *sъpe; *sɨ̄pātī; *sъnъ, *sъnьje

Baltic: *sap-n-i-, *sap-n-a-, -ia- c., *sap-en-a-, -an-, -i- c.

Germanic: *swi[f]-a- vb., *swab-ja- vb., *swib-ē- vb., *swēb[f]=, *swō[f]=, *sub=; *swi[f]-n-a- m., etc.

Latin: sōpīre `einschläfern ' , sopor, -ōris m. `Schlaf, Schläfrigkeit ' ; soomnus, -ī m. `Schlaf ' , somnium n. `Traum '  

Celtic: OIr sūan `Schlaf ' ; Cymr hūn `Schlaf ' , an-hunedd `insomnia ' , Corn, Bret hun  ' Schlaf '  

Albanian: ǵumɛ `Schlaf '  

 

Old Indic svápiti, svápati ` sleeps, falls asleep ', Pass. supyatē, participle suptá- `dozed off', causative svāpáyati ` put to sleep' (= Old Icelandic sø̄fa), svapayati ds. (= Old Icelandic svefja etc.); Avestan x ̌ap- `sleep'; gr. ὕπαρ `Wehrtraum ';

    Latin sōpiō, -īre ` put to sleep ', sŏpor, -&ōris ` deep sleep' (*su̯epōr); Old Icelandic sofa (svaf), Old English swefan stem verb `sleep, cease'; causative Old Icelandic svefja ` put to sleep, make silent, appease', Old English swefian ds., Old English swebban ` put to sleep, slay', Old Saxon answebbian, Old High German antswebben, Middle High German entsweben ds., Middle High German also ` become sleepy, fall asleep ' (*su̯opéi̯ō); Old Icelandic sø̄fa `slay' (*su̯ōpéi̯ō); Old Icelandic suǣfa ` put to sleep ' (*su̯ēpei̯ō), syfja impersonal ` make sleepy ', East Frisian suffen ` become sleepy ' (Dutch suf ` dizzy, stupid'); Old Icelandic sofna schw. verb ` fall asleep '; Middle High German swep, -bes `sleep', Old English sweofot n. ds.; Old Church Slavic sъpati, Iterative sypati `sleep', usъnǫti ` fall asleep ';

    Old Indic svápna- `sleep, dream', Avestan x ̌afna- m. ds.; Armenian k`un, Gen. k`noy `sleep' (*su̯opnos); gr. ὕπνος `sleep' (= Old Church Slavic sъnъ and:) alb. gjumë;

Latin somnus : Italian sonno : Portuguese sono : Bolognese sånn : Romagnolo : sòni : Valencian sòn : Romanian somn : Sardinian Campidanesu sonnu : Sicilian sonnu : Swedish sömnen : Spanish sueño : French sommeil : Calabrese suonnu : Zeneize seunno : Napulitano suonno : Greek ὕπνος : Albanian gjumë : Old Irish sūan, Welsh Cornish Breton hun `sleep' : Armenian k`un : Hittite sup- (Medium), supparii̯a- `sleep'.

Latin somnus `sleep' (*su̯epnos or *su̯opnos); Old Irish sūan, Welsh Cornish Breton hun `sleep' (*sopnos = Lithuanian sãpnas); Old Icelandic svefn, Old English swefn `sleep, dream', (from *su̯epnós); Lithuanian sãpnas, sapnỹs `dream', Latvian sapnis `dream'; Old Church Slavic sъnъ `sleep, dream'; compare Old Indic asvapna- ` sleepless ', Avestan ax ̌afna- ds., Latin insomnis, gr. ἄυπνος ds. and the  i̯o-derivative Old Indic svápnyam ` dream ', Latin somnium `dream', žem. sapnis `sleep, dream', Old Church Slavic sъnije ` dream '; gr. ἐνύπνιον (replicated Latin insomnium) ds., Welsh anhunedd `insomnia'; Tocharian A ṣpǝn, В ṣpäne `sleep, dream'; Hittite sup- (Medium), supparii̯a- `sleep'.

Maybe Breton hun : Welsh hun : Estonian uni : Finnish uni `sleep'.

References: WP. II 523 f., WH. II 557 f., Trautmann 292 f., Vasmer 2, 694.

Page(s): 1048-1049


Root / lemma: su̯ep-2, sup-, su̯eb-

Meaning: to throw, *sway, swing

Material: Old Indic svapū́ ` besom '; Old Church Slavic svepiti sę `agitari '; zero grade sъpǫ, suti ` pour, strew, distribute', Iterative sypati ` pour ', rasypati ` winnow, scatter'; sunǫti ` pour out/away/off; allow to drain; shower; volley (missles); send/stream forth', sъpъ `heap' (but Lithuanian sùpti `swing, sway' rather to seu- `bend'); Latin supō, -āre `throw', dissipō, -āre ` scatter| disperse| dissipate| squander; destroy completely; circulate ', obsipō, -āre ` sprinkle against (water), reproach', insipere ` throw in, send in ';

    Germanic *svab- and *svap- (Indo Germanic *su̯eb-) in Old Icelandic sōfl ` broom, tool used for sweeping ' (*swōƀala-), svāf n. `spear, javelin'; Old English ge-swōpe f. `offal, rubbish' (Icelandic sópa ` sweep, wash away ' is English loanword); Low German swabbeln `(from water ) wave, surge, billow ', Modern High German schwapp-en, -eln, -ern  

References: WP. II 524, WH. I 356 ff., Trautmann 293, Vasmer 3, 57.

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Root / lemma: su̯erbh- (also su̯er-?)

Meaning: to turn; to sweep

Material: Welsh chwerfu `the whirling, turning round ', chwerfan `whirl for a spindle'; chwyrn `quick, fast (spinning)' from *su̯erbh-nio-; Gothic af-, bi-swaírban ` wipe', Old Icelandic sverfa stem verb ` file, rasp, abrade ', svarf n. ` offal from rasping', Old English sweorfan ds., afr. swerva ` grovel, truckle, creep ', Old Saxon swerƀan ` wipe', Old High German suuerban ` wipe; wipe dry; wipe away ', suuarp, swirbil ` raging abyss; gulf| the sea, whirlpool| eddy| vortex ', Middle High German swerben ` move whirling '; Old Icelandic svarfa `wander around, wander about', Old Swedish svarva `turn, work a lathe, (lies) devise, invent ';

    Slavic *svorbъ in Church Slavic svrabъ (in addition Old Church Slavic svrabьnъ `κνησμώδης '); vowel gradation Slavic *svьrbitъ, *svьrběti `itch' in Russian sverbít, sverbětь etc.; compare Latvian svar̃pst m. `borer' (*su̯arb-sta-);

    perhaps in addition gr. σύρφος n., συρφετός m. `rubbish', σύρφαξ, -ᾱκος ` anything swept together, sweepings, refuse, rubbish, litter '; compare also σαίρω `sweep' (*su̯eri̯ō), σάρον n., σάρος m. ` besom, rubbish' and σύ̄ρω (Fut. σῠρῶ) `pull, drag, sweep, wash', συρμός m. ` any lengthened sweeping motion, the moving, vomiting ', συρμαίᾱ f. ` emetic, vomiting, purge-plant  ', σύρμα n. ` anything trailed or dragged, towing dress, rubbish', σύρτης m. ` towing rope ', σύρτις, -ιδος f. `sandbank'.

References: WP. II 529 f., Trautmann 295, Vasmer 2, 589, 596 f.

Page(s): 1050-1051


Root / lemma: su̯ergh- (*ĝʷhergh- : kṣu̯ergh-)

Meaning: to take care of; to be ill

Material:

Hittite: istark- (I)  ' erkranken '  (Tischler 434)

Tokharian: A särk, B sark  ' Krankheit '  

Old Indian: sūrkṣati  ' to heed, care or trouble about '  

Armenian: erk `Mühe ' , erkn `Geburtschmerzen '  

Slavic: *sorgā, *sorgъ

Baltic: *sir̃g- (*ser̃g-a-) vb. (1?), *sar̃g-in^- vb. caus., *ser̃g-ā^ f.

Germanic: *swurg-ō(n-) f., *swurg-ē- vb., *swurg-ia- vb.

Celtic: *serg- > OIr serg `Krankheit '  

Comments: In Arm a reflex of *s(w)erg-. As to Hitt ist- ˜ IE s-, cf. an anologous corresp. Sl *stregǭ ˜ Balt *serg- (see *sterg-  ' to love ' )

 

1. Old Indic sūrkṣati ` looks after something '; common Old Indic -ĝʷh- > -kṣu̯-

Gothic saúrga ` care, sorrow ', Old Icelandic Old English sorg, Old Saxon sorga, Old High German sorga, Old Franconian sworga ` care '; Gothic saúrgan, Old Icelandic syrgja, Old Saxon sorgōn, Old English sorgian, Old High German sorgēn, sworgēn `care for, worry'.

    2. Old Irish serg `disease, malady', Lithuanian sergù, sir̃gti ` be sick ', Old Church Slavic sraga `disease, malady', sragъ ` austere| plain; bitter| sour; dry (wine); sharp| pungent; dark| somber| morose, pitiless| grim; savage '; probably also alb. dergjem `be bedridden' (*su̯orghi̯ō) common Old Indic -ĝʷh- > -kṣu̯- : IIllyrian - alb -ĝʷh- > -d-.

Maybe alb. (*su̯orghi̯ō) derdh ` pour, ejaculate ' common alb. ĝh- > -dh-.

 References: WP. II 529, Trautmann 258.

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Root / lemma: su̯er-1 (also ser-?)

Meaning: to speak

Material: Latin sermō, -ōnis ` conversation| discussion; rumor; diction; speech; talk; the word  ' (*sermō) is unclear;

Maybe alb. (*sermō) thirmë n. f. `shout, call' [common alb. s > th shift]

Oscan sverrunei `the speaker, announcer, spokesperson'; Gothic swaran, swōr `swear, vow', Old Icelandic sveria, Old English Old Saxon swerian, Old High German swerien, swerren ds., Old Icelandic sø̄ri Nom. Pl. `vow, pledge, oath', Middle High German swuor `vow, pledge', Old Icelandic svara `anworten, Bürgschaft leisten ', svǫr Pl. ` answer', and-svar ` judicial verdict ', Old English and-swaru ` answer', Old Saxon ant-swōr ` answer, responsibility, liability, obligation '; Old Church Slavic svarъ `quarrel', svarъ `fight, struggle', svariti `vilify, scold, fight, struggle'; Russian ssóra `quarrel' from *sъsora?

    *su̯er- `speak, talk' is perhaps (but not certainly) the use from su̯er-` hum, whiz ' in articulated speech.

References: WP. II 527, WH. II 521 f., Trautmann 296 f., Vasmer 2, 712.

Page(s): 1049


Root / lemma: su̯er-2

Meaning: to hiss

Note:

From a truncated Root / lemma: sūs-*er : to buzz derived Root / lemma: su̯er-2 : to hiss

Material: Old Indic svárati ` sounds, resounds, allows to resound '; also surmī́ `duct, tube, pipe' (flute?); svará- svára- m. ` clangor, sound, tone';

    ὕραξ, -κος m. `shrew' (*surak-), CCretan ὕρον `swarm of bees' Hes.;

Maybe alb. Geg (*hurix) urith, Tosk hamuridhe ` mole ' (common alb. -k > -th shift) similarity between shrew and mole as in:

Old High German scero ` mole '

Modern High German Schermaus

Norwegian vatn-skjer  `shrew'

Old English scréawa m. ` shrew'

Lithuanian kertùkas `shrew'

Belarusian: крот (krot) m. ` mole '

Bosnian: krtica f. ` mole '

Bulgarian: къртица (kǎrtitsa) f. ` mole '

Romanian: cârtiþã ` mole '

Croatian: krtica f. ` mole '

Czech: krt; krtek m. ` mole '

Polish: kret ` mole '

Kurdish Kurmanji: koremiºk ` mole ' see Root / lemma: (s)ker-4, (s)kerǝ-, (s)krē- : to cut

Latin susurrus ` a humming, murmuring, muttering, whispering ', susurrō, -āre `hiss, whisper, buzz' (rr consonant increase in onomatopoeic words), absurdus ` out of tune| discordant; absurd| nonsensical| out of place; awkward| uncouth ' (*su̯orodo-s); surdus `deaf' as `dull or inarticulate hörend and redend'?);

Maybe alb. shushurin ` rustle ' : Breton sarac'hat : Galician susurrar from Latin susurrus ` a humming, murmuring, muttering, whispering '.

Maybe alb shurdh ` deaf ' : French sourd : Napulitano surdo : Romagnolo sùrd : from Latin surdus `deaf'.

While Basque gor, entzungor : Finnish kuuro : Turkish sağır : Hungarian süket `deaf'.

Latin probably sōrex, -icis (previously late sŏrex) ` shrew, small mouselike mammal with a long snout ' from *su̯ōr-ak- (: gr. ὕραξ ds.); Welsh chwyrnu `drone, grumble' (to *chwyrn from *su̯erni̯o-?);

    Old Icelandic svarra `roar', Norwegian sverra `whirl; circle', Modern High German schwirren; Norwegian surla ` sing softly ', Swedish sorla ` trickle, mumble, murmur', Middle Low German Modern High German surren, Middle High German surm `Gesumse '; maybe  Icelandic svarmr ` dizziness ', Old English swearm ` swarm, bulk, mass', Old High German swarm ` swarm ';

    Lithuanian surmà `flute', Old Church Slavic svirati `whistle' (lengthening from *svьr-),

Maybe alb. (*surma) zhurma ` noise'.

References: WP. II 527 f., WH. II 634 f., 637 f., Vasmer 2, 593.

See also: s. also su̯er- `speak'.

Page(s): 1049-1050


Root / lemma: su̯er-3

Meaning: stake

Material: Old Indic sváru- m. `picket, pole, double post, long wooden piece '; gr. ἕρμα n. `prop'; homer. Akk. ἑρμῖνα m. ` bedpost '; Old High German swirōn `bepfählen ', Middle High German swir `Uferpfahl ', Modern High German Swiss Schwiren `picket, pole', Old English swier, swior m. f. ` jamb, column ';

with k-forms Old Icelandic svīri m. ` neck, prow, bow of a ship' (*swerhjan-), Old English swīera, swīora ` neck ' (*swirhjan-); Latin zero grade surus `twig, branch, picket, pole', Diminutive surculus, surcellus `shoot| sprout'; perhaps sūra `calf of the leg' (see below *sōrā).

References: WP. II 528 f., WH. II 635.

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Root / lemma: su̯er-4 (*ksu̯er-4)

Meaning: to cut, pierce

Material: Avestan x ̌ara- m. `wound, injury ';

Maybe alb. Geg (*svarna) varrë ` wound'.

    Old Irish serb, Welsh chwerw `bitter' (*su̯er-u̯o-), originally probably ` burning, pricking '; Welsh chwarren f. `gland' (*su̯orsinā);

    Old High German sweran stem verb `ache, fester, swell', swero ` physical pain, esp. ulcer', Modern High German Schwäre, Geschwür  `ulcer', Old High German swer(a)do ` physical pain', Old English sweornian ` curdle, coagulate, harden '; Old High German swert ` sword', Old English sweord, Old Icelandic sverð from *swer-ða- ` stabbing weapon'; 

Maybe through metathesis alb. Geg (*swe-u̯o-r) sëmun, Tosc sëmur `make sick' (r/n allophones). Alb. -m- (*-b-) = Celtic (*su̯er-u̯o-) Old Irish serb, Welsh chwerw `bitter' see above.

    proto Slavic. *su̯ara- ` weakling, sick ' in Russian chvóryj, Old Czech chvorý, vowel gradation churavý ds. and Church Slavic chyra ` fragileness '; perhaps here Serbian-Church Slavic svrъdьlъ `borer', proto Slavic. *svьrdьlo.

References: WP. II 529, Trautmann 295, Krogmann KZ. 59, 204, Vasmer 2, 589, 3, 237, 243, Loth RC. 41, 233.

Page(s): 1050


Root / lemma: su̯er-5

Meaning: ` scale, weigh '

See also: see below u̯er-1.

Page(s): 1050


Root / lemma: su̯esor- (*ksu̯esor)

Meaning: sister

Note:

Root / lemma: su̯esor- (*su̯estor): `sister' derived from Root / lemma: se- : `reflexive pronoun, *own' + common Illyrian -tar, -tor suffix; it was modelled after Root / lemma: pǝtḗ(r) Gen. pǝtr-és, -ós : `father', Root / lemma: mātér- : `mother', Root / lemma: bhrā́ter- : `brother'

Material: Old Indic svásar-, Avestan x ̌aŋhar- ` sister ';

Armenian k`oir ds. (*su̯esōr); Nom. Pl. k`or-k` (*su̯esŏres), Gen. Sg. k`eṙ (*su̯esros); gr. ἔορ [Vok.] θυγάτηρ, ἀνεψιός Hes., ἔορες προσήκοντες, συγγενεῖς Hes.; Latin soror `a sister' (in addition sobrīnus ` a cousin by the mother's side, mother's sister's child ', from *su̯esr-īnos = Old Church Slavic sestrinъ ` belonging to sister ', compare also East Lithuanian seserė́nas ` sister's son '); Old Irish siur ` sister ' (*su̯esōr), Dative Akk. sīeir, Gen. sethar (analogy after māthir, Gen. māthar), Welsh chwaer, Old Cornish huir, Middle Cornish hoer, hor, Breton c'hoar; Gothic swistar (Gen. swistrs, Dative swistr); Old Icelandic syster, Pl. systr (Proto Norse swestar from -ēr), Old High German swester (*-ēr!), Old English sweostor, suster;

   before the t- insertion newly created are Old Saxon Old Swedish swiri `son of the mother's sister ', Old English swiria ` sister's son, weather ';

    Old Prussian swestro (transferred in the ā-Dekl.) with -w- perhaps through Modern High German influence, because of Lithuanian sesuõ, Gen. seser̃s and Old Church Slavic sestra (transferred in the ā-Dekl.) ` sister ' (also FlN) place ahead u̯-lose *sesor-; Tocharian A ṣar, В ṣer ` sister '.

    Indo Germanic *s(u̯)e-sor- to reflexive stem se-, seu̯e-; to ending compare fem. Old Indic ti-sraḥ ` three ', Old Irish téoir (*trisores) ds.; contains perhaps yet *sor `wife, woman'? Or from *su-esor (see 343) ` of own blood, relative '? 

References: WP. II 533 f., WH. II 563, Trautmann 258, Benveniste, BSL 35, 104 f.; Pisani, Miscellanea G. Galbiati III, 1951, 7 f., M. Mayrhofer by Brandenstein Studien 32 ff.

Page(s): 1051


Root / lemma: su̯ēid- (*kṣu̯ēid- < ĝʷhēid-)

Meaning: milk

Material: Old Indic kṣvidyati, kṣvēdatē (unbel.) `gets humid, wet'; Avestan xšvīd- m. `milk', common Old Indic -ĝʷh- > -kṣu̯- : Avestan -ĝʷh- > -xšu̯-

perhaps to Lithuanian svíesti `smear', Latvian svaîdît ds., Lithuanian svíestas `butter', Latvian sviê(k)st ds.

References: WP. II 521, WH. II 624;

See also: s. also su̯eid- above S. 1042, Z. 5.

Page(s): 1043


Root / lemma: su̯ē̆(i)-

Meaning: to bend, turn, swing

Note: (see also seu- and su̯eng- `bend')

Material: Gr. σῑμός ` curved upward, dull-nosed, sneering ' (in addition σικχός `disgust, nauseating, rebuking all '?); perhaps also σῑρός `pit, pothole' (*incurvation?);

    Welsh chwid ` turn lively, trick ', chwidl `be spinning in circle, dizzy ', chwidr `quick, fast, fleeting, careless '; chwim m. (*su̯ī-smo-) `movement, actuation ', Adj. `quick, fast', chwyf m. `movement' (*su̯ĭ-mo-, compare under Germanic swī̆m-), chwyfio ` move| stir| agitate| affect| provoke| disturb ', Breton fiñval, gwiñval ` move, touch, stir ';  

    Welsh chwyn `movement', chwil (*su̯ī-lo-) ` be spinning sich quickly '; chwyl and chwel (*su̯ĭ-lo-, -lā compare Norwegian svil) ` turn, run, flow', Cornish wheyl `work', Old Irish sel ` turn, rotation, period, interval ', Middle Irish of-sel ` turn to the right', tuath-bil ` turn to the left ';

    Middle Low German swāien, sweimen ` swing, wave '; as participle Old Icelandic svað n. ` glide, smooth flowing movement, slipping, skidding ', (*su̯ǝ-to-), svaða `glide, slide', Old English swaðian ` encase, swathe ', English swath(e), Middle Low German Middle High German swade ` swath, strip of cut grain left by a scythe or mowing machine, long broad strip of land ';

    Norwegian svīma `waver, lurch', Middle High German swīmen ds.; Old English swīma m. ` dizziness, giddiness; swindle, faint, swoon', Old Icelandic svīmi, Dutch zwijm ds.; Middle High German swīmel, swimmel ` dizziness, giddiness; swindle '; Old Icelandic sveimr m., sveim n. ` turmoil, tumult ', sveima ` gad about ', Middle High German sweim m. ` the floating, roaming, swinging ', sweimen ` swing, waver'; Norwegian svil n. ` spiral; the frizzy seminal bag of cod-like fish '; Low German swīr ` swing, rotation, dawdling ', swīren ` move swinging, fly around, live in the lap of luxury '. 

    su̯eib-: Avestan xšvaēwayat̃-aštra- ` swinging the whip ', xšviwra- `agile'; Gothic midja-sweipains ` deluge, flood '; Old Icelandic sveipa `throw, wrap, cover, swathe ', Old English swāpan `swing, sweep, wash away, drive, push', Old Saxon swēp ` swept away ', Old High German sweifan `swing, wander, quarrel', sweif ` reversal, tail' = Old Icelandic sveipr `band, strap, curled hair', Old Icelandic svipa ` whip'.

    su̯eid-: in Lithuanian svíesti, Latvian sviêst `throw', frequentative Lithuanian sváidyti, Latvian svaĩdît ` toss, fling repeatedly '; whether Latvian svaĩdît `anoint, smear' (under under su̯ēid-) here?

    su̯eig-: Germanic also ` give way, give in, slacken ' (derive  from su̯ī- ` dwindle ') : Old High German swīhhōn, Old English swīcian ` roam, wander, cheat, deceive', Old Icelandic svīkva sȳkva (u̯-present), svīkja `cheat, deceive, betray ', Old English swīcan ` abandon, cheat, deceive', poet. ` leave, depart, wander ', Old Saxon swīan ds. `languish'; Old High German swīhhan `languish, slacken, abandon ', Middle High German swīch m. ` course of time ', ā-swīch ` secret departure ', sweichen `languish'; Old Icelandic svik n. ` betrayal, deceit', Old English swic n. ds., Old High German biswih m. ds.;

    Lithuanian svaĩgti ` received dizziness', svaiginė́ti ` around stagger dizzily ', Russian svigát' ` roam ';

    Tocharian A wāweku ` lie', В waike `lie, falsity'.

    su̯eik-: Old Icelandic sveigr `pliable', m. `flexible stalk', Swedish dial. svīga, svēg ` be bent ', causative Old Icelandic sveigja `bend', Pass. svigna `be bent, bow, give way, give in', svigi m. `flexible stalk'; Old High German sweiga `cattle shed' (*netting).

    su̯eip-: Old Icelandic svīfa `swing, turn, wander around, wander about, hover ', Old English swīfan `turn, sweep, wash away, wave (English swift `quick, fast') ', Old Icelandic sueifla `swing', Middle High German swibeln, swivelen `lurch', Old High German sweibōn ` hover, swing', swebēn ` hover '.

    Latvian svàipīt ` lash, flog ', svipst(ik̨)s `Hasenfuß, Zierbengel'.

References: WP. II 518 ff., Vasmer 2, 591 f., Johannesson 794 ff.

Page(s): 1041-1042


Root / lemma: su̯ī-, -g-, -k-, -p-

Meaning: to fade, weaken, etc..

Note: extended su̯ii̯ō-p-?

Material: Old Icelandic svīa ` slacken '; svīna, Old High German swīnan ` abate, dwindle '; Middle High German swīnen also ` become senseless, unconscious, fall silent '.

    su̯ī-k-: Old High German swīgēn, Old Saxon swigōn, Old English swīgian, sugian, suwian ` keep mum, keep quiet '.

    su̯ī-g-: σῑγή f. `the silence ', σῑγάω ` keep silent ' (compare ῥίγα σιώπα Hes., i.e. Fίγᾱ).

    su̯ī-p-: Gothic sweiban `cease, slacken ', Old Icelandic svīfask ` step back from something, abstain ', Old High German giswiftōn ` cease to talk| fall silent| lapse into silence; cease to function| become idle ', Middle Low German swichten ` withdraw, slacken, make silent ', Dutch zwichten ` withdraw', Modern High German (from Low German) beschwichtigen ‘appease’ (also Messapic σίπτα σιώπα?);

    in addition *su̯ii̯ō-p- in gr. σιωπάω ` keep silent ' and *su̯i̯ō-p- with gr. zero grade from i̯ after double consonant in διασωπάσομαι, σεσωπᾱμένον (Pind.) and in εὐσωπία ἡσυχία Hes.

References: WP. II 534;

See also: compare above (s)u̯endh-.

Page(s): 1052


Root / lemma: su̯omb(h)o-s

Meaning: porous, spongy

Material: Gr. σομφός ` spongy, fungous, porous' = Germanic *swamba- in Old High German swamp, -bes m. ` sponge '; besides Germanic *swampu- (Indo Germanic *su̯ombu-) and *swamma- in Old Icelandic suǫppr ` sponge; ball (after the shape)', Middle Low German swamp, -pes ` sponge, fungus ' and Gothic swamm Akk. `(washing) sponge ', Old English swamm m. ` fungus ', Middle Low German svam, -mmes ` sponge; fungus '; from spongy ground: English swamp `swamp, marsh'; westfäl. swampen ` rise and come down, from spongy ground ', changing through vowel gradation Middle High German sumpf `swamp, marsh' = Old Icelandic soppr ` ball ', Norwegian also ` fungus '.

References: WP. II 534 f.

Page(s): 1052


Root / lemma: su̯ordo-s

Meaning: black, dark

Material: Latin *sordus as base from sordeō, -ēre ` be dirty/soiled; seem mean/unworthy/not good enough/common/coarse/vile/ignoble ', sordidus ` dirty| unclean| foul| filthy; vulgar| sordid; low| base| mean| paltry; vile', sordēs, -is f. ` filth| dirrt| uncleanness| squalor; meanness| stinginess; humiliation| baseness '; Gothic swarts, Old Icelandic swart, Old English sweart, Old High German swarz `black', zero grade Old Icelandic sorta f. `black paint, color', sorti m. `darkness, thick fog', sortna ` become black '; 

   supposedly Latin suāsum ` sooty stain on a dress ' as *suarssom is related, it derived as basic form *su̯ardo-, so that sordeo from su̯r̥d-;

   whether Old Saxon swerkan (participle gesworkan) ` become dim, become dark, become cloudy ', Old English sweorcan ` become dim, sad ', Old High German giswerc, gisworc ` darkening through clouds' and Irish sorb `blemish, smut', are related (Indo Germanic *su̯er-g-, *su̯or-b(h)o- besides *su̯ordo-), is doubtful.

References: WP. II 535, WH. II 562 f.

Page(s): 1052


Root / lemma: sū-ro-, sou-ro-

Meaning: salty, bitter; cheese

Note: root seu̯(ǝ)-, sou̯(ǝ)- : sū̆-

Note:

Root / lemma: sū-ro-, sou-ro- : salty, bitter; cheese, derived from extension ks-eu- of Root / lemma: kes- : to scratch, itch

Material: Old Icelandic sūrr `sour, sharp', m. `sourdough', Middle Low German Middle High German sūr n. ` bitterness'; Old Icelandic sȳra f. `sour milk', Old English sȳring ds., Old High German sūrī `Säure '; Old High German Old English sūr `sour', Old Icelandic sūr-eygr, Old High German sūr-ougi, Old English sūr-īege `blear eyed, bleareyed '; compare Tocharian В sūrma ` eye disease';

    Lithuanian sū́ras ` salty ', Latvian sũrs ` salty, bitter', Lithuanian sū́ris m. `cheese', Old Prussian suris ds.;

    Old Church Slavic syrъ `humid, wet', Russian syrój `humid, wet, raw, sour'; substantivized Old Church Slavic syrъ, Russian syr `cheese';

    vowel gradation Old Icelandic saurr m. `smut, animal seed, sperm '; Old Bulgarian surovъ `raw', Russian suróvyj `rough, raw' (*sou-ro-);

Maybe alb. shurrë (surna) `urine '

    compare FlN Celtic Sūra, Modern High German Sauer, Sūr, Old Prussian Sure, Latvian Sūr-upe, and den PN Συράκουσαι Pl. `Syrakus' (Sicily), with nt-derivative to Συρακώ name of a swamp.

References: WP. II 513, Trautmann 293 f., Vasmer 3, 49, 58; perhaps to seu̯(ǝ)-1 `juice, sap' (above S. 912 f.); about `milk' to: ` coagulated, sour milk'.

Page(s): 1039


Root / lemma: sū̆-s, suu̯-ós (*ksuu̯-ós)

Meaning: pig, swine

Material: Avestan hū (Gen. Sg. for *huvō) `swine'; gr. ὗς, ὑός, Akk. ὗν m. `boar', f. `sow' (therefrom ὕαινα f. ` hyena') besides σῦς, συός ds.; in addition συῆλαι τόποι βορβορώδεις Hes.; συφε(ι)ός, συφός m. ` pigpen' (*-φέFιος, to φύω, Indo Germanic bheu-, above S. 146 ff.); constellation the ΏΥάδες `group of pigs'; compare gr. lak. σίκα; 

    alb. (*kswi) thi `swine'; Latin sūs, suis `swine', Umbrian sif `sues ', sim `suem ', suřum, sorsom, sorsalem ` of pigs/swine ' (*sŭ-do-, *sŭ-dāli-);

    gall. *su-tegis ` pigpen' (M.-L. 8492);

    Old High German Old English sū, Old Icelandic sȳr `sow';

    Latvian suvẽns, sivẽns `piglet' (unclear Old Prussian seweynis ` pigpen'); Tocharian В suwo `swine';

   Adjectival no- derivatives: on the one hand gr. (late) ὑηνός `of swine', on the other hand (proto language) Latin suīnus ds., Old Church Slavic svinъ ds. = Latvian svīns ` smeared, dirty'; Tocharian В swāñana misa ` pork ';

   substantivized Gothic swein, Old Icelandic suīn, Old English Old High German swīn `swine'; Old Church Slavic svinija `swine' probably reshaped from *svīnī (fem. to svinъ).

    k- derivatives:

    Old Indic sūkara- m. `boar, swine' (reinterpreted as ` one who creates Sū-(pig)'); Middle Persian xūk, osset. χui ds.; Latin sucula `young sow'; with expressive Gemination: Celtic *sukko- `swine, (pig-) snout, plowshare ' in Old Irish socc sáil ` guinea pig ' (a fish), Middle Irish soc m. ` plowshare, snout (of swine)', Old Irish FlN Socc; Welsh hwch m. f., later only f. `swine', Cornish hoch, Breton houc'h, hoc'h m. `swine'; from Gallo-Latin derive Welsh swch, Cornish soch, Breton souc'h and French soc ` plowshare ';

Maybe alb. (*ksuu̯-ós) dosë `sow' (common alb. ksuo- > do- shift)

    Old English sugu `sow', Old Saxon suga, Middle Low German soge, Modern High German schwäb. suge `sow'; with expressive Gemination Norwegian Swedish sugga, Middle Low German sugge.

References: WP. II 512 f., WH. II 635 ff., Trautmann 294, Vasmer 2, 593, Benveniste BSL 45, 74 f. 90, Thieme, Heimat d. Indo Germanic Gemeinsprache 26 f., 36 f.; probably originally ` begetter', to seu-2: sū- ` to give birth to children ' (above S. 913 f.); compare Old Irish berit `sow' (*bherentī); or just imitative sound?

Page(s): 1038-1039


Root / lemma: sūs-

Meaning: to buzz

Note: only Germanic and Slavic

Comments:

Root / lemma: sūs- : to buzz, derived from Root / lemma: k̂u̯es-, k̂us- : to puff, sigh.

Material: Old High German sūsōn ` buzz, whirr ', Middle Low German sūsen, Swedish susa, Danish suse ds.;

    Old Church Slavic sysati ` buzz, whirr, whistle'; Old Russian susol ` ground squirrel, house rat ', Bulgarian sъsel ds.; sъskam ` fizz '; compare Latvian susuris ` shrew, small mouselike mammal with a long snout ', susers ` dormouse '.

Maybe alb. shushurimë : Spanish susurro : French sussurement : Portuguese sussurro : Venetian sùsio ` rustle '. Also Galician susurrar : alb. shushurin ` to rustle '.

References: WP. II 514, Trautmann 294, Vasmer 3, 50 f.

Page(s): 1039


Root / lemma: sūs- (*ksus)

Meaning: parent

Note: only Old Indic and Albanian

Note: Root / lemma: sūs- : parent derived from Root / lemma: au̯o-s : grandfather: Hittite ḫu-uḫ-ḫa-aš (ḫuḫḫaš) `grandfather'? Lycian *χuga `motherly grandfather'.

Material: Old Indic sūḥ `progenitor'; alb. gjysh `grandfather' (*sū-s-i̯o-), originally `progenitor'; tre-gjysh `great grandfather (literally `three-grandfather)', gjyshe `grandmother' (*sū-s-i̯ē).

References: Jokl. Ling.-kult. Untersuchungen 28 ff.;

See also: to seu̯ǝ- : sū-, above S. 913 f.

Page(s): 1039


Root / lemma: tag- (or teg- : tog- : teg-)

Meaning: to touch, gripe

Material: Gr. τεταγών ` grabbing ' (: Latin tetigī); Latin tangō, -ere, tetigī tactum (Old Latin also aorist tagō, -ere) ` touch| strike; border on| influence ', integer ` unbroken, unmarred, unscathed, undamaged (untouched)', tagax ` thievish| given to pilfering '; taxim ` clandestine ', taxō, āre ` value| assess the worth of; access a crime; reckon the size/extent; fix sum of, touch'; unclear with -gh- Volscan atahus Fut. II `attigerit ', Marrucinian ta[h]a or ta[g]a `tangat '; Latin contamināre ` debase w/mixture of inferior material; contaminate| infect; pollute (morally) ' to contagiō ` contact/touch (to contagion/infection); social contact/intercourse; influence '; 

    Old English ðaccian ` touch, caress gently ', Old Low German thakolōn ` caress '; perhaps here of concept ` caress, feel fine ': Irish tais `soft, humid, wet, gentle', gall. Taxi-magulus;

    whether Old Irish tongid ` vows, swears, swears ', dī-tong- ` negate ', Perf. do-ru-thethaig (*te-tog-e) belongs verbal noun dīthech (*dī-tego-) in addition (to Welsh tyngu `swear, vow', Cornish to-, Middle Breton toeaff, Modern Breton toui ds.), is perhaps an Indo Germanic root *teg- must be assumed, wherefore still belongs Phrygian eti-te-tik-menos ` accursed, doomed, damned '; gr. Latin a would be then reduplication-grade, as Latin a in frangō (above S. 165), etc.

References: WP. I 703, WH. II 647 f., O. Schrader Reallexikon s. v. oath.

Page(s): 1054-1055


Root / lemma: tak-, takē(i)-

Meaning: to be silent

Material: Latin taceō, -ēre ` be silent; pass over in silence; leave unmentioned| be silent about something  ', Umbrian tac̨ez ` silent| secret ', tasetur Nom. Pl. `taciti ';

    Gothic Þahan ` keep mum, keep quiet ', Þahains ` silence ', with grammatical variation Old High German dagēn, Old Saxon thagōn, thagian ds., Old Icelandic Þegja ds., Þagna ` fall silent ', Þagall, Þǫgull ` silent';

    perhaps as active to the above neuter passive group: Old Irish tachtaid ` chokes, retches', Welsh tagu, Cornish Breton taga ` the choking ' as originally ` allow to fall silent '; unclear is Welsh gos-teg f. ` silence '.

References: WP. I 703, WH. II 641 f.

Page(s): 1055


Root / lemma: tap-1

Meaning: to dip

Material: Armenian t`at`avem ` dive', t`ōn (*tapni-) ` dampness, damp, rain';

    Old Church Slavic topiti ` dip; plunge', *to(p)nǫti `immergi ', in addition among others Lower Sorbian toń ` pond ', Czech tu̇ně `immersion in the river', Russian tónja `protected bay'.

References: WP. I 705, Vasmer 3, 119, 120 f.

Page(s): 1056


Root / lemma: tap-2

Meaning: to press down, press together

Material: Gr. ταπεινός `low, humble' (`*pressed'); Old Icelandic Þefja `stomp', Þōf n. `crush', Þōfi m. ` felt ' (out of it Lithuanian túba, Latvian tūba, Old Prussian tubo ` felt '.)

References: WP. I 705, Mayrhofer 477.

Page(s): 1056


Root / lemma: tata-, tē̆ta- 

Meaning: Daddy; expr. child word

Material:

Hittite: Luw. tati(ja)-, h.l. tati(a)-, Lyk. tedi

Old Indian: tatá- m. `father ' , tāta- m. `father; a term of affection addressed to a senior or junior '  

Old Greek: voc. tatā^ AP11.67 (Myrin.)  ' daddy ' , tétta Hom. LS: expld. as hetaírou pròs hetai^ron genikḕ prosphṓnēsis (Apollon. Lex.), or as a friendly or respectful address of youths to their elders (Hsch., Suid., Eust.), or said to be untraslatable (Eust.): tétta, siōpē^i hē^so Il.4.412

Slavic: *tātā

Baltic: *tē̃t-ia- m., *tē̃t-iā̃ m.

Latin: tata m. `Vater (in der Kindersprache), Ernährer '  

Celtic: Corn tat `Vater ' , hendat  ' Grossvater '  

Albanian: tatɛ `Vater '  

 

Old Indic tatá- `father', tāta- `father, son, dear '; gr. τέττα (Hom.) Vok., τατᾶ Vok. `o father!'; alb. tatë `father'; Latin tata `father (in the baby talk); feeder '; Welsh tad, Cornish tat `father', hen-dat `grandfather'; Old Icelandic Þjazi `a giant ' (*Þeða-sa?); Latvian tẽta, Lithuanian tė̃tis, tė̃të, tėtýtis `father', Old Prussian thetis `grandfather' (Old Prussian tāws `father', thewis ` paternal uncle', Lithuanian tė́vas, Latvian tēves `father'), Lithuanian tetà `aunt', žemait. titìs `father'; Russian táta etc. `father', Russian-Church Slavic teta etc. `aunt', Old Church Slavic tetъka ds.;

Maybe alb. teta `aunt' a Slavic loanword.

Modern High German Tate, East Frisian tatte `father'; Norwegian taate `sucking bag ', Icelandic táta ds., Norwegian Swedish tātte `women's breast, teat';

    besides Germanic forms with i and u: Old English titt ` nipple, cow's nipple ', Middle High German zitze `teat';

Maybe alb. sisë `teat, breast' a Germanic loanword.

Swedish titta `aunt, old single woman'; Middle High German zutzel `suction loben', Swedish tytta `old wife, woman, aunt', Old High German tutta, tuta ` nipple '; similarly gr. τυτθός, -ον `small, still totally young ', τυτθόν ` a little bit ', inschr. also `βρέφος, παιδίον '; τυννός `small, little'; one distributed also beyond the Indo Germanic Languages child word group.

References: WP. I 704, WH. II 650, Trautmann 320, Vasmer 3, 81.

Page(s): 1056


Root / lemma: taus-

Meaning: still, silent, peaceful

Material: Old Indic túṣyati `be calmed, be satisfied ', tuṣṭá- ` contented, gratified, satisfied ', tūṣṇī́m Adv. `still, closemouthed ' (: Avestan tušni-, Old Prussian tusnan), causative tōṣáyati ` appeases, satisfies, pleases '; Avestan tušni- ` silent' (tušnišad- ` who sits there tacitly silently ');

    Middle Irish tō (*tauso-) `still, closemouthed ', Old Irish tūae ` silence ' (basic form *tausi̯ā?), Middle Welsh taw ` keep silent!', Modern Welsh taw ` silence; closemouthed ', tawel ` closemouthed ', Breton tao ` silence; still!', Old Breton taguelguiliat Gl. as ` waking silently' misunderstood Latin silicernium; guo-teguis `compescuit ', Modern Breton tevel ` keep mum, keep quiet '; 

    Old Swedish thyster ` closemouthed, dumb, still' (*Þusti-);

    Old Prussian tusnan `still', tussīse `it keeps silent ' (*tusē-, as Latin tacē-re), Lithuanian taũsos, tausýtis ` sich legen (vom Winde) ';

    Slavic *tušiti ` calm, appease ' (= Old Indic tōšáyati) in the transitive Russian tušítь ` put out, extinguish, annihilate, erase ', poln. po-tuszyć ` encourage ' (`*calm, appease '), etc.; besides intransitive *tuchnǫti in Russian túchnutь ` die, be extinguished ', slov. po-túhniti ` become still, fade away, disappear '; Russian FlN Tósna (*Тъsna);

Maybe alb. nduk (*in-duk) ` tear, rind ' (common alb. Romance in-prefix)

    Hittite dušk-, duškii̯a- ` rejoice '.

References: WP. I 714 f., Trautmann 332, Vasmer 3, 128, 158, Mayrhofer 1, 517.

Page(s): 1056-1057


Root / lemma: tād-

Meaning: to act on purpose

Note: only gr. and Oscan

Material: Gr. ἐπιτηδές Adv. ` intentionally, deliberately, premeditatedly, calculatedly, witting, knowing, aware, deliberate ' (ἐπιτήδειος ` suitable ', ἐπιτηδεύω ` pursue witting, knowing, aware, deliberate '); Oscan tadait `censeat '.

References: WP. I 705.

Page(s): 1054


Root / lemma: tāg-

Meaning: to put in order

Material: Gr. τᾱγός m. ` leader, commander', τᾱγεύω, τᾱγέω `control, rule, lead', nachhom. τάσσω, Attic τάττω, ἐτάγην, τακτός ` arrange in a line, order, regulate ' (present τάσσω analog. instead of *τάζω), ταγή f. ` battle formation ', τάγμα n. ` troop; order', τάξις f. `order; alignment; post, rank';

    abrit. PN Pra-su-tagus (pre-Celtic Indo Germanic loanword);

    Lithuanian pa-togùs ` decent, modest, respectable, presentable, comfortable ' (εὔτακτος) = Latvian patāgs ` comfortable ', Lithuanian su-tógti ` well fit to something, be compatible with something, understand well, get by with somebody well ';

    Tocharian A tāśśi Pl. ` leader '. 

References: WP. I 704, Trautmann 312, van Windekens Ant. Class. 9, 67 f.

Page(s): 1055


Root / lemma: tāl-

Meaning: to grow; young animals

Material: Gr. τᾶλις -ιδος ` young marriageable girl, bride' τῆλις, -εως, Ionian -ιος f. ` Hülsengewächs, ram horn', τηλεθάω ` blossom, sprout';

    Latin tālea ` chopstick, seedling, block; bar ', dial. for *tālia, as also tālla = tālia ` onion shell '; denominative tāliāre `split, cut, clip';

    Lithuanian a(t)tólas `Nachheu, bumper crop, byproduct', talõkas ` grown, nubile, marriageable'.

References: WP. I 705, WH. II 643, Mayrhofer 1, 498.

Page(s): 1055


Root / lemma: tā-, tǝ-; tāi-, tǝi-, tī̆-; [tāu-], tǝu-, tū̆-

Meaning: to melt, dissipate, decay

Material: A. Osset. thayun `thaw, melt' (*tāi̯ō) = Old Church Slavic tajǫ, tajetъ `melt', *talъ ` melted, fluid', Russian tályj;

    Armenian t`anam ` wet (Aor. t`ac̣i); become humid, wet (Aor. t`ac̣ay)';

    Welsh tawdd ` liquefaction ', toddi, Breton teuzi `melt' (-d- or -dh-forms);

    with b(h)-extension (compare under τῖ-φ-ος) Latin tābēs ` wasting away; decay; putrefaction; fluid resulting from corruption or decay ', tābum ` liquid manure, mucus, epidemic, viscous fluid consisting of putrid matter  ', tābeō, -ēre, tābēscō, -ēre ` rot away| decay; waste away '.

    with k-extension gr. τήκω, Doric τά̄κω ` melt ', τακερός `soft, melting', τηκεδών f. ` emaciation, leanness, consumption, tuberculosis, rot, decay, decomposition ';

    B. i-forms: Old Icelandic Þīðr (*tī-tó-s) ` melted, thawed, dewed ', whereof Þīða ` defrost, transitive. and intransitive', Þīðenn ` melted, thawed, dewed ';

    with bh- (compare above tābēs) osset. ćirwä, c̣irw `yeast' from *tibh-no-; gr. τῖφος n. `marshy place, damp ground'; dak. FlN Τιβίσκος; about Latin Tiberis (*Thubris, Θυβρίς < *dhubris) s. Szemerenyi Arch. Ling. 5, 3 ff.;

    with l-suffix: gr. τῖλος `thin defecation, defecating '; Old Bulgarian tьlěti `modern, rot', tьlja ` rot, decay, decomposition ', Russian tlja ` moth ' (compare under Latin tinea), ` moth ';

    with m-suffix: Old Church Slavic timěno `slime, mud';

    with n-suffix: Old English ðīnan ` become humid, wet ', ðān (*lǝi-no-) `humid, wet, irrigated ', whereof ðǣnan ` moisten ', ðānian, ðǣnian `be or become wet ';

    Old Church Slavic tina `slime, mud'; probably Latin tīnus ` der lorbeerartige Schneeball ' and tinca `tench '; Latin tinea ` moth, woodworm ' (compare above Russian tlja) probably from a *tino-, *tinā ` mold, mustiness, decay ';

    with r-suffix: Armenian *tīro-, -ri- in t`rik` `crap, muck, droppings, dung', t`rem `knead the flour, dough', t`rmem `wet slightly, dampen, moisten, soak, drench', t`rjem `dampen, moisten, wet, sprinkle, spray, pour, irrigate '; Lithuanian týras, tỹrė `porridge, mash', týrai ` covered morass, moor, heath, moorland ', Latvian tīrelis `morass'; 

    with s-suffix: Old High German theisk, deisk ` filth| manure, dung| excrement, rubbish '; Church Slavic těsto, Serbo-Croatian ti jesto `dough', because of Slavic tiskati `press' from toisk-to-; Old Irish tōis-renn, tāis ` massam (farinaceam) ', Welsh toes, Breton tōaz m. `dough' (*tǝi-s-to-); Old High German theismo, deismo, Old English ðǣsma m. `sourdough'; gr. σταῖς or σταίς, Gen. σταιτός ` wheat flour with water mixed to the dough ' (- reconverted with metathesis under influence of στέᾱρ from *stait);

    with Baltic ž-forms Lithuanian tižùš ` slippery, slimy', tyžtù, tìžti ` become slippery '?

    C. u-forms: Old Icelandic Þeya, Old High German douwen, deuwen `thaw, begin to melt, dissolve ', transitive (fir-) douwen ` digest ', Old Icelandic Þeyr `Tauwind ', Þā (*Þawō) ` field free of ice and snow ', Old English ðawian (*Þawōn) `thaw', Old Icelandic Þāna `melt intransitive' = Old English ðawenian ` wet, moisten, water ' (*Þawanōn); Old Icelandic Þǣsir `qui lenem facit ', Norwegian tæsa `thaw, melt transitive.' (*Þawisjan).

    In Germanic also Þwī̆- in Old English ðwīnan ` dwindle, abate ', causative ðwǣnan ` soak, water/irrigate ', Old Swedish Þwīna `dwindle away before the disease, longing, yearning ', Þwæ̆na (from *Þwĕna =*Þwĭna) ds. (similarly also Old High German thwesben ` extinguish, annihilate, erase, exterminate '?); Germanic *Þwĭnam probably reshuffling from Þīnan (see above) after the group from Old English dwīnan, ā-cwīnan.

    D. Here still proto brit. FlN *Tamā > English T(h)ame, *Tamēssā > English Thames, etc., *Tani̯ā > English Tain, Tean, *Tau̯ā > English Taw, Tay, in addition *Tilā > English Till, Venetic Tiliaventus, Illyrian Tilurius, Tirol Ziller etc.

Note:

Illyrian Tilurius (common Illyrian = Old Icelandic -r- formant)

Note:

Old Irish: tinaid, -tin 'melt, disappear'

Proto-Indo-European: *teyh1- 'become hot'

Page in Pokorny: 1053f.

IE cognates: Hitt. zēari 'boils' = alb zien 'boils', OE ðīnan 'moisten'

References: WP. I 701 ff., WH. II 639 f., 680, 683 f., Trautmann 312 f., 323; Vasmer 3, 84, 100, 105, 106, 110, Max Förster Themse 728 ff.

Page(s): 1053-1054


Root / lemma: tegu-

Meaning: thick

Material: Old Irish tiug, Welsh Cornish tew, Breton teo `thick'; Old Icelandic Þykkr, Þjokkr, Þjukkr `thick', Old English ðicce `thick, dense', Old High German dicchi ds., Old Saxon thikki `ds., frequent, often'.

References: WP. I 718.

Page(s): 1057


Root / lemma: teg-

See also: see above S. 1013 f. under (s)teg- and S. 1055.

Page(s): 1057


Root / lemma: teig-

See also: see above S. 1016 f. under (s)teig-.

Page(s): 1057


Root / lemma: teigʷ-

See also: see above S. 1018 under (s)teigʷ-.

Page(s): 1057


Root / lemma: tei-

See also: see above S. 1015 under (s)tei-.

Page(s): 1057


Root / lemma: tek-1

Meaning: to produce; to bear

Material: Old Indic tákman- n. (Grammatical) ` offspring, descendant, child'; takarī́ f. ` ein Teil der weibl. Genitalien ';

    gr. τίκτω (*τι-τκ-ω), ἔτεκον, τέξω, -ομαι, τέτοκα ` to give birth to children, beget ', τέκος n. `child; the young of an animal; harvest, scion, shoot', τέκνον n. `kid, child' (: Germanic *Þegnáz), τόκος ` the parturition, progeny, interest', τοκίζω ` lend at interest ', τοκεύς `father, mother, Pl. parents', Ionian ἐπί-τοξ, ἐπί-τεξ ` approach the delivery ';

    Old Icelandic Þegn `free citizen, free man', Old English ðegn ` nobleman, warrior, hero, servant', Old Saxon Old High German thegan ds., Modern High German Degen.

References: WP. I 715, Mayrhofer 1, 466.

Page(s): 1057


Root / lemma: tek-2

Meaning: to reach, stretch out the hand, get

Material: The meaning `bid, beg, ask' only Germanic: Old Saxon thiggian `invoke', Old High German dicken, diggen stem verb ` bid, beg, ask', Danish tigge, Swedish tigga `beg', Old Swedish Þiggja ds.;

    Old Icelandic Þiggja `receive, accept', Þǣgr (*Þēgia-) `pleasant', Old Swedish Þiggia and Old Danish tigge also ` attain, achieve ', Old English ðicgan stem verb ` attain, achieve, accept, consume', Old Saxon thiggian ds.;

    Old Irish techtaim `I have', Breton tizaff ` receive ' (due to a *tektā ` the received, property'), Welsh teg `beautiful, pretty' (compare to meaning Old Icelandic Þǣgr), Old Irish ētig = Welsh annheg `ugly' (*n̥-teki-); o-grade probably Old Irish toich ` natural' (different under top-);

    Lithuanian tenkù, tèkti ` range, extend, stretch, endure, suffice, have enough; be granted, be given '; Ukrainian taknuty `feel; touch on'.

References: WP. I 715, Kuiper Indo Germanic Nasalpräs. 186 f.

Page(s): 1057-1058


Root / lemma: tek-3

Meaning: to weave, plait

Material: Osset. taxun `to weave', an-dax ` filament ' (x from k); Armenian t`ek`em ` turn, twist, rotate, braid, weave into a braid, wind, coil, bind, wrap ', t`iur (*tēk-ro-) ` twiddled, twisted, rotated, revved, revolved ';

Note:

Common Armenian = Illyrian = Old Icelandic -r- formant

 

Old High German tāht `wick, cord', Modern High German Docht = Old Icelandic Þāttr `cord in a rope', Swiss dǣgel, dohe, Bavarian dāhen, Alsace dōche `wick' (proto Germanic *Þēh-, Þēg-); also Old Icelandic Þǣgja `press' actually ` turn together '? about Old Church Slavic tъkati `to weave' see above S. 1032.

References: WP. I 716, WH. II 678 f.

Page(s): 1058


Root / lemma: tek̂Þ-

Meaning: to plait; woodwork; carpenter

Material:

Hittite: taks-, takkes-, taggas- (I/II)  ' zusammenfügen ' , taksan- n.  ' Mitte, Fuge ' , taksan (adv.)  ' zusammen '  (Friedrich 204)

Tokharian: B tāks-  ' chop up, grind up '  (Adams 286)

Old Indian: takṣati, 3 pl. tákṣati, ptc. taṣṭá- `to form by cutting, plain, chisel, fashion, form, create ' ; tákṣan- m. `wood-cutter, carpenter '  

Avestan: ptc. tašta-, tāšta-; tašan- `Bildner, Schöpfer ' ; tašaiti- `zimmert mit Messer oder Axt zu, verfertigt, gestaltet ' , taša- m. `Axt '  

Other Iranian: NPers taš `Axt ' , MPers tašītan `zimmern ' ; OPers us-tašanā `Treppenhaus '  

Old Greek: téktōn, -onos m., fem. téktai̯na `Zimmermann, Handwerker, Künstler, Urheber ' ; tékhnǟ f. `Kunstfertigkeit, Handwerk, Gewerbe, Kunst; Kunstgriff, List '  

Slavic: *tesā́tī, *tẽšjǭ; *teslo, *teslā; *tesъ (eсть в чеш.)

Baltic: *teè- (*teè-a-) vb., *taè-ī^- vb., *taè-a- c.,

Germanic: *ʮixs-al-ō(n-) f., *ʮixs-ōn- f., *ʮixs-a- vb.

Celtic: *tōkslo- > OIr tāl `Axt '  

 

Old Indic takṣati ` trims, refines, timbers, does carpentry, does woodwork ', lengthened grade tā́ṣṭi ds., participle taṣṭá-, common Old Indic -ĝh- > -kṣ- : Avestan -ĝh- > -xš-, -š- Avestan taašta- and tāšta-; also tašta- n. ` cup, bowl';

Maybe alb. tas `deep bowl' Turkish loanword?

Old Indic tákṣaṇ- m. `carpenter' (= Avestan tašan- `molder, creator, god', gr. τέκτων), fem. takṣṇī́ (: gr. τέκταινα), táṣṭar- `carpenter' (compare Latin textor ` weaver ');

    Avestan tašaiti ` timbers, does carpentry, does woodwork, cuts, makes', taša- m. `axe', np. taš ds., mp. tāšīδan `do carpentry, do woodwork ', Old Persian us-tašanā `staircase' (*`construction');

    gr. τέκτων `carpenter', fem. τέκταινα, τέκμαρ, -ωρ `mark, token, sign', τ&##8051;χνη ` handwork, art, artifice' (*τεξνᾱ from old *τεκτ[ε]σνᾱ); common Old Indic -ĝʷh- > -kṣ- : Anatolian – Tocharian – Greek -ĝʷh- > -kt-: -tk- see Root / lemma: ĝhðem-, ĝhðom-, Gen.- ablative ĝh(ð)m-és : `earth'

    Latin texō, -ere, -ui -tum `flax, wattle, braid, weave', incidentally `to build', textor, -ōris ` weaver '; tēla ` texture ' (*tek̂slā = Slavic tesla, Old High German dehsala), subtīlis (*-texlis) ` fine-spun| fine; slender| delicate| exact; minutely thorough; strict| literal ', subtēmen ` weft/woof| transverse threads woven between warp threads; threads of the Fates '; testa f. ` object made from burnt clay; earthenware jar; fragment of earthenware| shard ', therefrom testūdō ` tortoise; testudo; movable shed ' (compare above Avestan tašta-), perhaps also tēlum ` long-range weapon, missile ';

    Old Irish tāl `axe' (*tōkslo-);

    Old High German dehsa, dehsala ` farming tool shaped like a pick-axe, hoe, hatchet, hack, mattock', Old Icelandic Þexla f. ` mattock, farming tool shaped like a pick-axe, hoe'; Middle High German dehsen `flax break, rupture', dehse ` spindle', Old English ðeox `spear, javelin'; Germanic *Þahsu- in Old High German dahs, Norwegian svin-toks `badger ';

    Lithuanian tašaũ -ýti `hew' (originally iterative); Laatvian tešu (*teksi̯ō) and tèšu (*tēksi̯ō), test and tèst `hew'; Old Church Slavic tešǫ, tesati `hew', Russian-Church Slavic tesla `axe', Czech tes `Zimmerholz ', Russian tës ` sawed board ';

    Hittite takš-, takkeš- ` piece together a jigsaw puzzle, fit together, undertake '.

References: WP. I 717, WH. II 655, 656, 678 f., Trautmann 319 f., Vasmer 3, 99 f., Mayrhofer 468, 491, Durante, Ricerche lingunder 1, 234 ff., Pedersen Hittitisch 141 Anm. 1; Specht Indo Germanic Dekl. 239 f., Leumann Kratylos 1, 29.

Page(s): 1058-1059


Root / lemma: tekʷ-

Meaning: to run; to flow

Material: Old Indic tákti ` hurries, shoots along, launches, sends, dispatches ', taktá-, táku- `hurrying, rash, hasty', takvá- ds.; avatká- `flowing down'; Avestan taèaiti ` running, hurries; flows ', participle -taxta-, np. tāxtan `run', hantaèina- `confluent, flowing together ' (= Lithuanian tẽkinas ` running '), Avestan vi-taxti- f. ` the dissolving, melting ' (= Infinitive Slavic *tekti); here perhaps as ` shooting along ': Iranian (skyth.) *taḫša- (New Persian taxš) `arrow, bow', from which gr. τόξον ds., Latin taxus ` yew' (Benveniste Mél. Boisacq 1, 37 ff., Mayrhofer 1, 467 f.);

Note:

Latin taxus : Italian tasso : Spanish tejo : Portuguese teixo : Furlan tas, tac : Czech tis : Serbian tis : Bulgarian tis : Albanian tis : Hungarian tiszafa ` yew'.           

It seems South Slavic languages have been affected by the Illyrian abbreviation.

    Avestan taka- m., np. tak `run, flow' (= Lithuanian tãkas, Slavic tokъ); Avestan taèar- n. `run, flow, pathway', taèan- `hurrying'; taèi-āp- `running water (containing)', Iranian *taḫra- `quick, fast';

Note:

Common alb. = Old Icelandic = Armenian = Avestan -r- formant

    alb. ndjek `pursue' (*in-dek) (common Latin Romance prefix in-);

Maybe alb. (*in-deh) ndjeh `set the dog free to pursue', ndjej ` smell, perceive, feel (the hunt?)', ndjenjë ` feeling '.

    Old Irish techid ` flees ' (Perf. ō-grade tāich), ateoch ` beg ' (*ad-tekʷō `take my shelter '); brit. PN Vo-tepo-rīx; Middle Welsh go-dep `shelter ', tebet `escape'; Breton tec'het `flee', Middle Welsh 3. Sg. Konj. ny ry-decho ` who does not flee ' (brit. ch from ks, s-subjunctive stem); Irish intech n. `way' (*enitekʷom, compare Old Church Slavic tekъ `run, flow');

Maybe alb. djep `cradle' (common alb. Slavic -j- infix)

    Gothic Þius `servant, farmhand' (= Old Indic takvá-, actually ` runner', compare Latvian teksnis `server, attendant '), Proto Norse ÞewaR `liege, vassal ', Old English ðēo(w), Old High German deo ` farmhand, servant', Fem. Gothic Þiwi, Old Icelandic Þȳ, Þīr, Old Saxon thiwi, thiu, Old English ðēowu, ðēowe(n), Old High German diu, diuwa ` bondmaid, maid ' (*tek-u̯ī́, development move of Fem. to *teku̯ó-s, or to *tekú-s: Old Indic táku-); with derivative as Gothic widuwairna ` orphan ' *Þewernōn in Old Icelandic Þerna ` slave ', Old Saxon thiorna, Old High German diorna `virgin', Modern High German Dirne;

n-extension in Old English ðēowen ` bondmaid ', Old Icelandic Þjōnn `servant', whereof *Þewanōn ` serve ' in Old Icelandic Þēna, Þjōna, Old High German dionōn, dionēn ` serve '; Gothic anaÞiwan `subjugate, make a slave ', Old English ðēowian, Old Icelandic Þjā ds.; lengthened gradees collective Gothic Þēwisa n. Pl. `servant, serf ' (*tēku̯eso-);

    Lithuanian tekù, -ė́ti `run, flow, flee, slip, drrip, stream, flow; rise (of the sun); marry (the wife)', Latvian teku, tecêt `run'; Old Prussian tackelis, Lithuanian tekė̃las, Latvian teciêls m. `grindstone, whetstone'; Lithuanian tėkmė̃ `wellspring, river', į́toka ` estuary '; Latvian teksnis m. `attendant '; Old Church Slavic tekǫ, tešti ` τρέχειν ', Serbian tèèēm, tèći `flow', etc.; Lithuanian tãkas ` path, track ', Latvian taks ds., Lithuanian į̃takas ` estuary '; Old Church Slavic tokъ ` ῥύσις ', potokъ ` χείμαρρος '; Tocharian В cake `river'; Hittite u̯а-tku-zi ` jumps '.

References: WP. I 715 f., Trautmann 316 f., Vasmer 3, 89, 113 f., Mayrhofer 1, 466 f.

Page(s): 1059-1060


Root / lemma: teleĝh-

Meaning: to hit

Material: Old Indic tarh- (tr̥ṇédhi, Perf. tatarha, participle tr̥dhá-) `shatter, crunch '; Lithuanian su-talžti ` welt, whip, flog, beat ', tálžyti `thrash', télžti `thrash, throw'; Latvian talzīt, talstīt ` welt, whip, flog, beat '; with disyllabic root form Lithuanian telẽži-ju, -yti `vast, grand welt, whip, flog, beat ', tàlažuoti ` babble, chatter ' (meaning as Modern High German Klatschen), talãžius ` babbler '.

References: WP. I 741, Mayrhofer 1, 522;

See also: compare under telek-.

Page(s): 1062


Root / lemma: telek-

Meaning: to push, hit

Note: only Celtic and baltoSlavic

Material: Welsh talch `piece, fragment, meal grain ', Old Cornish talch `furfures ' (*telko-); proto Slavic. *tьlkǫ, *telkti in Old Church Slavic tlъkǫ, tlěšti `κρούω ' (Indo Germanic *telkō), to Lithuanian tìlkstu, tìlkti `be tame, domesticated ', ap-tìlkęs žmogùs `cunning person'; vowel gradation Slavic tolkъ m. ` pounding, thumping ' and Slavic tolkъno n. in Russian toloknó ` shoved oatmeal '; Balto-Slavic *talkā f. ` common work' in Lithuanian talkà, Latvian tàlka `zusammengebetene Arbeitsgemeinschaft ', Russian toloká ds., also `threshing floor, pasture' etc.

Maybe alb. (*toloká) toka `land' from Ukrainian: toloká `occasional help by fellow villagers, fallow land, pasture' [f ā], tóloku [Accs]

References: WP. I 741, Trautmann 321 f., Vasmer 3, 116 f.;

See also: compare above teleĝh-.

Page(s): 1062


Root / lemma: tel-1, telǝ-, tlē(i)-, tlā-

Meaning: to transport, carry; to bear, suffer

Material: Old Indic tulā́ f. ` scales, weight ', tulayati ` collects, weighs, lifts ' (with vowel gradation innovation in addition tōláyati ds.), tulima- ` weighable ', túlya- ` identical, comparable '; Armenian t`oɫum ` allow, leave, suffer, endure ';

Maybe alb. (*telima) dhimje ` pain, suffering ', dhemb ` hurts '

    gr. ταλάσσαι and τλῆναι (Doric ἔτλᾱν), participle τλά̄ς, τλᾶσα, Fut. τλήσομαι, Doric τλά̄σομαι, Perf. τέτλᾰμεν, τέτλᾰθι, τετληυῖα, τετληότος `bear, endure, suffer, tolerate ', participle τλητός, Doric τλᾱτός ` suffering, firm, steadfast; endurable' (= Latin lātus, Welsh tlawd `arm', Indo Germanic *tl̥̄-tós), τάλᾱς, -αντος and (after μέλᾱς) -ανος, -αι⛥α ` enduring, tolerating, suffering ', τάλαντον (originally to τάλᾱς, n. τάλαν becoming Pl. τάλαντα ` scales; a certain weight ', ἀτάλαντος `of the same weight, equivalent, alike ', πολύτλᾱς ` who has been pending a lot; very patient';

PN ῎Ατλᾱς, -αντος; τ╓ήμων, Doric τλά̄μων ` enduring, suffering ', ταλαός ds., in compound ταλα-; e.g. ταλα-πενθής ` enduring affliction ', ταλά-φρων ` of enduring spirit, persistent ', next to which ταλασί-φρων and ταλαί-πωρος i.e. ` afflicted, unlucky '; τάλαρος m. ` basket, pannier, cheese basket etc.', *ταλάτης `* wer mühevolle Arbeit zu ertragen hat, spez. von der Spinnerei als Arbeit der Frauen ', whereof ταλάσια ἔργα, ταλασίᾱ ` wool spinning mill '; ὄ-τλος `pain' (prefix ὀ-);

reduplication PN Tάνταλος, τανταλ-εύω, -ίζω, -όω ` allow to float, turn, swinng '; gradation -о- in τόλμη, τόλμᾰ `boldness, the cart, chariot ', τολμήεις ` suffering, steadfast, bold', τολμάω `endure, suffer; venture';

e-grade τελάσσαι τολμῆσαι, τλῆναι Hes., τελαμών ` bearer, sling, strap, etc.', further as ` lift = lift upwards' ἀνα-, ἐξανα-τέλλειν ` rise, of stars ' (ἀνατολή `rising of the stars '), ἐπιτέλλεσθαι, ὑπερτείλας ὁ ἥλιος, transitive (`aufheben und jemandem aufladen, auferlegen ') ἐντέλλειν, -εσθαι ` apply, orrder', ἐπιτέλλειν, -εσθαι ds., furtheer: τέλος n. ` payment, tribute, tax, distribution, expenses ', εὐτελής ` inexpensive, costing a little ', πολυτελής ` requiring a lot of expenditure, precious', ἀτελής `free from tributes and products, tax-free ', probably also (with formants as ἄχθος, πλῆθος, perhaps through mediation of a verb *τέλ-θω) τέλθος n. ` payment, sacrifice, oblation';

    venet. tolar 3. Sg. depondent ` offers ';

    Latin tollō, -ere (sustulī, sublātum) ` lift| raise; destroy; remove| steal; take/lift up/away ' (*tln̥ō, transfigured from *tl̥-nā-mi), tolūtim `im Trabe ' (actually ` lifting the feet '), tolerō, -āre ` bear| endure| tolerate ', tulī, old tetulī Perf. to ferō, Old Latin Konj. tulam `bear, carry, bring', lātus ` borne, carried; suffered ' (= gr. τλᾱτός, Welsh tlawd); (common lat. tl- > l- shift)

    Middle Irish tlenaim `steal' (*tl̥nāmi), Welsh tlawd `arm' (`*suffering '), Irish tlāith `weak, gentle' (*tlā-ti-); Old Irish tol f. `volition' (*tolā), whereof tolnathar ` pleased ' ; at most Old Irish tailm, Gen. telma, Breton talm ` loop, noose, snare, slingshot ', Welsh telm `Dohne ' (: τελαμών?);

    Gothic Þulan, -aida `bear, endure, suffer, tolerate ', Old Icelandic Þola, Old English ðolian, Old High German dolēn ds., Old Icelandic Þol n. ` patience ', Old High German dult, Old English geÞyld, Modern High German Geduld, dulden ` suffer, tolerate '; 

    Latvian iz-tilt `bear, endure', perhaps (compare Gothic barn `kid, child', actually `as borne, carried foetus ') Lithuanian tẽlias, Latvian tel'š, telẽns, Old Church Slavic telьcь, Russian telënok (Pl. teljáta) `calf'; different Būga Kalba ir s. 292 f.

    Tocharian А В täl- `heave, bear, carry', causative tlässi, preterit A cacäl, В cāla.

References: WP. I 738 ff., WH. II 688 f., Trautmann 317, Vasmer 3, 90, Mayrhofer 1, 516.

Page(s): 1060-1061


Root / lemma: tel-2, telǝ-, telu-

Meaning: flat, flat ground, board

Material: Old Indic tala- n. `surface, plain, area, plain, palm, sole', secondary talimam- n. ` floor ', tā́lu n. ` palate'; Armenian t`aɫ `region, district ', t`aɫar ` earthenware, earthen vessel', t`aɫem ` inhume, bury', very doubtful t`it`eln `leaf, sheet, slab of metal ';

    gr. τηλίᾱ ` dice board, kitchen board, cooking plank ';

    Latin tellūs, -ūris f. ` earrth| ground; the earth; land| country ', meditullium ` middle| center| mid-point; interior| part of country remote from sea ' (*telnos; tellūs after reshaped rūs); whether tabula f. `board' etc. from *tal-dhlā?

Note:

Latin tellūs, -ūris f. `earth' the same ending as Illyria

    Old Irish talam (*telǝ-mō) Gen. talman `earth', Middle Irish tel, t(a)ul n. `forehead, shield boss ', Welsh Cornish Breton tal `forehead'; in Irish *tal is merged with a variant Irish tel, tul ` shield boss ', see below *tēu- `to swell';

    Old Icelandic Þil(i) n. ` boarding; wooden partition ', Þilja f. ` floorboard, plank', Þel n. `ground, bottom', Old English ðille ` floorboard ', ðel ` ship plank, metal sheet ', Old High German dil, dilo ` boarding; wooden partition, plank, floorboard ', dilla (= Old Icelandic Þilja, Old English ðille, whether these f.) `board, floorboard, ship deck ', Finnish (from the North) teljo ` thwart ';

    Old Prussian talus ` floor of the room '; Lithuanian pã-talas `bed', tìlės f. Pl. ` floorboards in the barge'; Latvian tilandi m. Pl. ds., tilinât, telinât ` spread out evenly ', tilât, tiluôt `ds., lie spread out '; Old Russian tьlo `bottom'; potolók (*tolu-ko-) ` ceiling';

    with formants -to-: Lithuanian tìltas, Latvian til̃ts `bridge' = Old Indic taṭa- m. (Middle Indic for *tr̥ta-) `bank, border, shore' 

References: WP. I 740, WH. II 640 f., 655, Trautmann 321, Vasmer 3, 110, Mayrhofer 1, 469, 487, 499, Specht Indo Germanic Dekl. 23.

Page(s): 1061


Root / lemma: tel-3

Meaning: to be still

Material: Old Irish tu(i)lid, con-tu(i)li `sleeps' (Iterative *tolei̯ō), cotlud `sleep' (*kom-toli-tu-s);

    Lithuanian tyliù, tylė́ti ` keep mum, keep quiet ' (Balto-Slavic *tilētēi with secondary lengthening of i to ī) and (ap-, nu-, pri-) tįlù, tìlti ` become silent ', causative tìldau, tìldyti ` make silent ', tylùs ` silent' (Indo Germanic *tel-); Old Church Slavic tьlějǫ, tьlěti ` decay, die, wilt, wither ', Serbian zà-tljâm, zà-tljati ` want to fall asleep '; in addition the causative Slavic *toliti in Old Church Slavic u-toliti ` calm, appease ', Church Slavic toliti ` appease; placate; reconcile '.

Maybe alb. tulitem, tulatem ` calm ' Slavic loanword.

References: WP. I 742 f., Trautmann 321, Vasmer 3, 114 f.;

See also: perhaps s- loose variant to stel- (Old High German stilli `still') above S. 1019.

Page(s): 1061-1062


Root / lemma: tel-4

See also: see above S. 1018 under (s)tel-1.

Page(s): 1062


Root / lemma: telp-

Meaning: space; spacious

Material: Old Indic tálpa- m., tálpā f. ` lair, retirement home, settle';

    Old Irish -tella (analogical -talla) ` es ist Raum, Möglichkeit vorhanden für etwas ';

    Lithuanian telpù, til̃pti ` have room, space ', talpà f. ` sufficient area ', talpìnti, vowel gradation tùlpinti ` make room '; Latvian tęlpu, tìlpt ` have room, space ', tilpe f. `Kramkammer '; proto Slavic. *tilpa respectively *tьlpa in Old Church Slavic tlъpa, Russian tolpá f. `heap, troop, multitude, crowd';

    Tocharian A tsälp- ` gehen, hinübergehen, erlöst werden '.

References: WP. I 741 f., Trautmann 317, Vasmer 3, 117, Mayrhofer 1, 489.

Page(s): 1062


Root / lemma: tem(ǝ)-

Meaning: dark

Note:

Root / lemma: tem(ǝ)- : `dark' derived from Root / lemma: dhem-, dhemǝ- : `to smoke; to blow'.

Material: Old Indic támas- n. ` gloom, darkness ' = Avestan tǝmah- ds., New Persian tam ` Star des Auges ', Old Indic tamasá- ` swart ' (= Avestan tǝmaŋha- ` dim'), tamsra- `dark, gray-blue '; támisrāḥ (= Latin tenebrae), newer támisrā f., tamisra-m ` darkness'; támasvān (-vant) ` dim' = Avestan tǝmahvant- ` blind '; tamrá- ` darkening ', tāmrá- ` dark red, oxblood, indigo, copper-colored ', timirá- `dark, dim'; támāla- m. `Xanthochymos pictorius ' (tree with very dark bark); from tamāla-pattram ` Xanthochymos pictorius leaf' derive gr. μαλάβαθρον, Latin mālobat(h)rum; Avestan tąϑra- Nom. Pl. `darkness', np. tār ` dim' = *tam-sra-;

Maybe alb. terr ` darkness ', errët `dark'

    gr. (Aeolic) VN Τέμμῑκες (*tems-);

    Illyrian mountain-N Τόμαρος by Dodona;

Note:

Common alb. = Illyrian = Old Icelandic = Armenian = Avestan -r- formant

Maybe alb. dhjamë, Pl. dhjamra ` fat burnt as sacrifice'.

    Latin tenebrae ` darkness (pl.)| obscurity; night; dark corner; ignorance; concealment; gloom ' (dissimilation from *temafrā = Old Indic támisrāḥ Pl.), temere ` rashly| blindly ' (Locative *temesi ` [groping about] in darkness '), temerō, -āre ` violate; defile| pollute; violate sexually '; Middle Irish teim, temen `dark, gray', Old Irish temel ` darkness ', Middle Breton teffal ` dim'; Old High German demar n. `dawn, twilight'; Old Saxon thimm `dark' (*Þimzá-); Middle Dutch deemster, Old High German dinstar (and probably also Old High German finstar) ` dim' (*temsro- = Old Indic tamsra-); Low German dīsig, Dutch dijzig `foggy, dark' (*Þemsiga-); lengthened grade probably Old Icelandic Þām `obscuritas aeris ', Norwegian taam ` unclear air, thin blanket of clouds ';

    Lithuanian témsta, témti ` become dim '; tamsà ` darkness ', tamsùs `dark', vowel gradation Latvian tima, timsa and tùmsa `darkness', Lithuanian tim̃sras ` dark red '; Latvian tumst (Infinitive tumt) ` it gets dark '; Old Church Slavic tьma ` darkness ', Old Church Slavic tьmьnъ `dark'; Russian témrivo ` darkness '; whether Slavic těnь `shadow' derived as *tem-ni-s?

    Tocharian В tamāsse `dark'.

References: WP. I 720 f., WH. II 656 f., 664, Trautmann 322, Vasmer 3, 92 f., 162.

Page(s): 1063-1064


Root / lemma: tem-1, tend-

Meaning: to cut

Material: Gr. τέμνω, hom. Ionian Doric τάμνω (hom. τέμει) `cut, bite' (ἔταμον and ἔτεμον, τεμῶ, τέτμηκα, τμητός); τομός `incisive, sharp', τόμoς `break, section, part; band, strap (book) ', τομή `cut'; τέμαχος ` sliced piece of salted fish', τέμενος ` (separated) divine or royal district '; τμῆσις `cut'; τάμισος `rennet' (because, it γάλα τέμνει, that is  σχίζει, hence also γαλα-τμον λάχανον ἄγριον Hes.); ταμίας ` administrator, 'governor '; other formations τμήγω (by Balbilla τμά̄γω) `cut, bite' (3. Pl. Aor. Pass. τμά̆γεν); τένδω, τένθης see below; Phrygian Τῆμνον ὄρος (: Church Slavic těmę);

    Latin aestumō, -āre `value| aassess; estimate; reckon; consider| judge (situation); esteem ' due to *ais-temos ` incisive ore '; about Latin temnō see below stemb-; Old Irish tamun `stump', tamnaid `cliped, cut';

    Balto Slavic *tĭnō, *tinti from *temnō (gr. τάμνω), *temǝtī in Lithuanian tinù, tìnti ` sharpen ', slov. tnèm tę́ti `hack', Old Czech tnu, tieti `hew, hit', Old Russian tьnu (tьmetъ is printing error), tjǫti `hit', whereupon also *tonъ instead of *tomъ (= τόμος) in Lower Sorbian ton `cleared forest ' etc.; Church Slavic těmę ` hairline '; 

    d-extension (originally d-present): gr. τένδω ` bite, eat, nosh ', dh-present Attic τένθω ds., τένθης ` nosher, person who snacks, person who nibbles (mainly on sweets) '; Latin (iterative) tondeō, -ēre, totondī, tōnsum ` cut| shear| clip ' (in addition tōnsa ` shorn| clipped| cut| lopped ', tōnsilla ` tonsils '); Middle Irish tond, tonn, (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Welsh ton f. `skin'; Middle Irish teinnid, tennaid `split', teinm n. `split, tear' and Scots Gaelic tèum = Welsh tam, Cornish tam, Breton tamm `morsel, mouthful, piece' (*tn̥dsmn̥-).

References: WP. I 719 f., WH. II 657, 689 f., 691, Trautmann 324, Vasmer 3, 92, 111, 133.

Page(s): 1062-1063


Root / lemma: tem-2

Meaning: enthralled, confused

Material: Old Indic tā́myati ` be dazed, numbed, senseless, unconscious, exhausted', participle Perf. Pass. tāṃtá-, causative tămáyati ` suffocates ' (Old Church Slavic tomiti), támati ` suffocates (intransitive), be immovable, be hard ', támiṣīcī f. ` repressive, benumbing ', timitá- ` immovable, motionless ', (i after stimitá- ds. from *stāi- `condense, thicken '); Armenian t`m(b)rim ` become numbed' (*tēmiro-);

    Latin tēmētum ` intoxicating drink, mead, wine ', tēmulentus ` drunken ', abstēmius `abstemious| abstaining from drink; sober| temperate; moderate; fasting; saving '; Middle Irish tām (*tōmu-) `disease, malady, faint, swoon, death'; támaid `dies'; Middle Welsh taw `death'; Modern High German damisch, dämlich ` numbed, dazed', West Faliscan dümmeln `choke; suppress, crush'; Russian-Church Slavic tomiti `torment, smite; distress; exhaust'.

Maybe alb. dehem ` become drunk '

References: WP. I 720, WH. II 657, 664, Trautmann 313, Vasmer 3, 118, Mayrhofer 1, 495, 503;

See also: probably to consecutive (tem(ǝ)-). 

Page(s): 1063


Root / lemma: temp-

Meaning: to extend, stretch, span

Note: extension from *ten- ds.

Material: New Persian tāb-aδ, Infinitive tāftan and tāb-ī-δan `turn, spin ', intransitive ` revolve, swing, be tormented ' (from one to *tap = Indo Germanic *tm̥p- analogically refined Кaus. *tāpayati), wherefore probably as Iranian loanword gr. τάπης, δάπις `cover, rug, carpet ';

    Armenian t`amb `(*stuffed saddle cushion), saddle; the soft meat in animal legs '; gr. PN Τέμπη (: Latin tempus ` temple ');

    here Latin tempus, -oris n. ` temple, flattened region on either side of the forehead '

Maybe alb. Geg (*tempus) tamth, Tosc tëmth ` temple ' Latin loanword.

(compare Old Icelandic etc. Þunn-vangi m. ` temple, flattened region on either side of the forehead ') = Latin tempus ` stretch of time ', in addition temperāre ` combine| blend| temper; make mild; refrain from; control oneself ' (hence `mix'); templum ` temple| church; shrine; holy place '; perhaps antemnā f. ` yard of a ship; yardarm; sail (poet.); antenna (Cal) ' from *an(a)-temp-nā; templa, -ōrum ` die gespannten Querhölzer, auf denen die Schindeln befestigt werden '; contemplāri ` observe/note/notice| gaze/look hard at| regard; contemplate/consider carefully ', temptō, -āre (iterative to *tempō) ` test| try; urge; worry; bribe ' (see Persson Beitr. 488 ff.);

    Old Icelandic Þambr `swollen, thick', Þǫmb Subst. ` swollen belly, bowstring ';

    Lithuanian tem̃pti ` tighten, stretch through pulling ', Iterative tampýti ds., tim̃pti ` be stretched ', tìmpa `sinew', temptýva ` bowstring ' = Old Church Slavic tętiva `sinew', Lithuanian į̃tampas ` strain, tension, exertion ' (vowel gradation į́tumpas `beginning to jump'), tamprùs `tenacious, elastic'; Latvian tìeptiês ` be stubborn, persistent';

    Old Church Slavic tǫpъ ` blunt; dull; obtuse, thick '? perhaps from ` swollen, inflated '; Russian tepstí ` tighten ';

    Tocharian A tampe `power', AB cämp- ` to be able, to be capable of '.

References: WP. I 721 f., WH. I 54, II 659 f., 662, Trautmann 317 f., Vasmer 3, 95, 101, 153, Frisk Göteborgs Högsk. Ȧrsskr. 57, 1951: 4.

Page(s): 1064-1065


Root / lemma: tend-

See also: see below tem-1.

Page(s): 1067


Root / lemma: tenǝgos, tenǝgos

Meaning: ground in water

Material: Gr. τέναγος n. `ford'; Latvian tīgas (*tingas) ` depth between two shallows '.

References: WP. I 724.

Page(s): 1067


Root / lemma: tengh-

Meaning: to extend, stretch, span

Note: Aryan *thengh-, yet probably nevertheless extension from ten-1 ds.

Material: Avestan ϑang- (ϑanjasā̊ntē, ϑanjayentē, participle ϑaxta-) ` pull, tighten the bow'; but ϑanvarǝ, Abl. ϑanvanāt̲ `bow (as firing weapon)' according to Mayrhofer originated through contamination with *danvan- (= Old Indic dhánvan-, above S. 234); osset. t`ịnjịn ` expand, stretch '; Armenian t`anjr, Gen. t`anju `dense, thick' (*tn̥ghi̯u-);

    Latin tēmō, -ōnis m. `shaft' (*tenksmō); Old Church Slavic *tęgnǫti ` pull ', rastęgǫ, rastęšti ` draw/pull/tear apart| wrench| separate| (sub)divide; sell in parcels; distract ', Russian tugój `tight, firm, strong, heavy ', poln. tęgi ds., Old Church Slavic tǫga `συνοχή, περίστασις ', slov. tǫ́ga ` sluggishness, melancholy, gloom ' etc.; the meaning ` heavy ' also in Slavic *tęgъkъ: Old Church Slavic otęgъèiti `βαρεῖν ', tęžьkъ `βαρύς ', tęgostь `βάρος ', tęgota ds. etc.; also Old Church Slavic istęsklъ ` wasting away| emaciated ', istęsknǫti `melt| dissolve; dry up| evaporate; waste away| dwindle away' with sk-suffix; here Old Church Slavic tęža ` litigation ';

    Lithuanian tingùs `idle' (= Slavic *tęgъ in tęgostь etc., and: Old Icelandic Þungr), tìngiu, tingė́ti `be idle, reluctant', tìng-stu, -au, -ti ` become sluggish';

    Old Icelandic Þungr ` heavy ', Þunge m. `burden, load', Þyngia ` grouch', Þyngð `awkwardness, embarrassment ', Þyngsl ` distress, crowdedness'; Old High German dīhsala, Old English Þīxl, Old Icelandic Þīsl `shaft' (proto Germanic *Þenχslō actually `pull rod '); Tocharian A täṅk-, В tank- `hinder'.

References: WP. I 726 f., WH. II. 658, Trautmann 318, Vasmer 3, 166.

Page(s): 1067


Root / lemma: teng-1

Meaning: to soak, wet

Material: Gr. τέγγω ` wet, dampen, moisten'; Latin tingō (older tinguō, that after unguō : unxi for older *tengō eingetreten is), -ere, -nxi, -nctum ` wet/moisten/dip/soak; color/dye/tinge/tint| stain (w/blood); imbue; impregnate  '; Old High German thunkōn, dunkōn ` dip, immerse in a liquid '; Swiss tink `humid, wet'.

References: WP. I 726, WH. II 684.

Page(s): 1067


Root / lemma: teng-2

See also: s. S. 1088 (tong-).

Page(s): 1067


Root / lemma: tenk-1

Meaning: to extend, stretch, span

Note: (root-extension from ten-1 ds.); only Germanic

Material: Gothic Þeihs (*ténkos), Pl. Þeihsa n. `time, strech of time'; with grammatical variation Old Icelandic Þing n. ` court meeting, property, object ', Old English ðing ds., Old Saxon thing, Old High German ding, Modern High German Ding, langob. thinx ` juridical gathering, assembly, convention, congregation, meeting', Old Germanic GN Mars Thinxus (Germanic*Tius Þingsaz `the god of the congregation, meeting'); Old English ðingan ` make a pact, covenant ', Modern High German dingen.

References: WP. I 724 f., Kluge-Goetze 137; identical with:

Page(s): 1067


Root / lemma: tenk-2

Meaning: to clot, thicken; solid, thick

Material: Old Indic tañc- tanákti ` pulls together', with ā- `makes curdle, coagulate, harden ', ātángana-m ` means of coagulation, rennet', takrá-m ` buttermilk ' (*tn̥k-ló-m: *ténk-lo-m in Icelandic Þél), New Persian talxīna `sour milk'; Avestan taxma- `valiant, proficient, energetic, heroic ', compounds tąšyah-, Sup. tanèišta-; np. tanjīδan `pull together', afghan. tat `dense, thick' (*tahta-);

    Middle Irish tēcar ` protection', tēcht (*tenkto-, compare Old Icelandic Þēttr) `clotted, congealed, coagulated', tēchte `proper, right', Welsh teithi `characteristics', Middle Welsh brenhin teithiawc `rex legitimus ' (from `tight, firm'), Old Irish con-tēci ` congeals, curdles ' (= Gothic Þeihan, Indo Germanic *ténkō), téchtaid ds. (*tenktō);

vowel gradation tocad, Welsh tynged `luck', Breton toñket `fate, destiny', PN Tunccetace, Latin Gen. in Wales; zero grade Welsh tanc f. `peace' (*tn̥kā), tangnef ds.; compare Old Danish taknem ` grateful ' under tong-; gall. PN Tanco-rīx `Friedensfürst ';

    (truncated *takla) Modern Icelandic Þēl n. ` buttermilk '; Old Icelandic Þēttr `dicht', Middle High German dīhte, Modern High German dicht and dial. deicht (proto Germanic *Þenχtu-); Modern Icelandic Þētti `sour milk'; Gothic Þeihan `thrive', Old High German gidīhan, Old English geðēon ds., participle Old English geðungen, Old Saxon githungan ` complete ', in addition the causative Old Saxon thengian ` complete ' (of present *Þīhan from junction in the ī-grade), Gothic gaÞaih, German gediegen ` solid ', Middle Low German dege ` prospering; flourishing, advance';

fusion with cognate from Lithuanian tinkù tìkti ` be good for, be suitable for, suit, fit', patinkù `taste, like, please', Iterative táikau, -yti ` piece together a jigsaw puzzle, fit together, bring in order ', tìkras `right', that belongs to Lithuanian tiẽkti, teĩkti), Modern High German Bavarian deihen ` parch, become dry and thick ', compare with gradation *Þanχ- Modern High German steir. dahen `dry, make dry ' and the name of the clayey earth Gothic Þāhō, Old English ðōhæ, ðō, Old High German dāha, Modern High German Ton (*Þanχōn), Old Icelandic Þā `loam, mucky ground ', Old Saxon thāhi ` earthen ';

    Old Icelandic Þengill, Old English ðengel `prince, lord, master, mister' (*Þаngilaz);

    Old Icelandic Þang, Middle Low German dank ` seaweed ', Old English ðung `Aconitum napellus ', Low German wodendung ` hemlock, poisonous plant used as strong sedative ' (`*thick mass'?);

    Lithuanian tánkus `dense, frequent, often';

   Ukrainian t'aknuty ` use, take advantage of ', slov. tek ` prospering; flourishing '; presumably Old Church Slavic tǫèa `rain', slov. t'ǫèa `hail', and likewise; whether Gothic Þeiƕō `thunder' belongs to it, with ` storm cloud ' deferred meaning, is extremely dubious.

References: WP. I 725 f., Trautmann 313 f., Vasmer 3, 158 f. Marstrander ZcP. 7, 369 f., J. Loth RC. 41, 225 f.;

See also: root-extension from ten-1 ` stretch '.

Page(s): 1068


Root / lemma: ten-1, tend-

Meaning: to extend, stretch, span

Grammatical information: ten- forms in Indo Germanic an unthematic root aorist (ved. átan, átata `he has outstretched') and a perfect tense (ved. tatā́na, tatné, Latin tetini). The present tense was shaped with -eu-extension (ved. tanóti, tanuté, gr. hom. τάνυται) or -i̯e/o-suffix (gr. τείνω); compare tenu-s `thin' and the extensions tengh-, tenk-, temp-, tens- .

Note:

Root / lemma: ten-1, tend- : `to extend, stretch, span' derived from the extended Root / lemma: dhē-2 : `to put, place'.

Material: Old Indic tanṓti ` stretches, is tight, extends, lasts ', Avestan pairi-tanava 1. Sg. Konj. Akt. `I will keep apart ', pairi-tanuya 1. Sg. Opt. Med.; Old Indic ut-tāna- ` outstretched ' = Avestan ustāna- ds. (*tn̥nó-, compare Old Indic tani-man- n. ` slimness ', also Lithuanian tìnti, Latin tenē-re); np. tanīδan `turn, spin '; as d-present (as Latin tendō) Old Indic tandatē ` decreases, tires ' (tandrā́ ` exhaustion, weariness, fatigue ');

    participle Old Indic tatá- m. ` stretched ' (= gr. τατός, Latin tentus); tati- m. `row, cord, sacrificial plot ' (= gr. τάσις ` tension, stretch ', Latin in-, con-tentiō), next to which zero grade tánti- `cord, string, row', tantu- ` filament, cord, string, warp of texture '; tan- ` spread, expansion, propagation, continuation, reproduction, progeny ', Instrumental tanā́ ` extend/prolong/draw out/last/renew; keep on; do without pause ', tána- m. ` descendant ', tána-m, tánā, tánas- n. ` progeny '; tántra-m ` piece of paper, sheet of paper, warp in the loom' = np. tār (Avestan *tąϑra-) ds., afghan. tōr `net'; Old Indic tāna- m. `clay, filament ' (compare gr. τόνος); perhaps here tanū́- f. `body, person, self ' = Avestan tanū- f. ds. (Mayrhofer 475);

    gr. τάνυται `be stretched ' (= Old Indic tanutḗ), τανύω (ἐτάνυσα etc.) `straighten, stretch'; τείνω ds. (τατός), τιταίνω ds.; ταινίᾱ `(long) stripe, bandage' (due to an Adj. *τανι̯ός); τέτανος ` tension, twitching '; τετανός ` stretched, long, tight'; τένων, -οντος `sinew', &##964;ένος n. `sinew, tightly drawn ligament ' (= Latin tenus, -oris, compare also Old Indic tánas- n.), ἀ-τενής `very outstretched, tight' (ἀ- probably with Ionian reduction = sm̥-), whereof ἀτενίζω ` hefte den Blick angespannt auf etwas '; τόνος ` Spannung, Anspannung; auch der Stimme, Hebung des Verses, musikalischer Ton ' (: Lithuanian tãnas); τάσις f. `strain, tension ' (*tn̥tis); about τανύ- ` spreading out, extending, outstretching ' see below tenu-s;

    alb. ndënj ` outspread, extend, spread out, pull, spanne die Saiten'; (*in-tend common Romance alb. verb in- prefix) katund, këtunt (*ke-tn̥-t-) `village' (`*ausgespanntes tent');

Maybe in -r- formant:

Alb. (*in-den) nder, ndër ` outspread, hang '

    Latin tendō, -ere, tetendi, tentum, newer tēnsum ` pitch tent| encamp; pull tight; draw (bow); press on| insist; exert oneself ' (originally d-present) = Umbrian an-, en-tentu `intenditō ', ustentu `ostenditō ' etc., Latin tentus, (in-)tentiō; teneō, -ēre, tenui (Old Latin tetinī = Old Indic tatanē), tentum `hold, stop etc.' (originally Durativ, transitive and intransitive `hold a little bit tense ', hence tenēre also ` hold| keep; comprehend; possess; master; preserve ' = be vast, spacious), at-tinēre, pertinēre, continuus; tenēre aliquid originally with Akk. of destination ` hold on/to/near/back/together/fast; restrain| keep (in custody)| retain; delay ' (tenē-re belongs to Old High German donēn `be vast, spacious, outstretched ' and Lithuanian tìnstu, tìnti `to swell'); tenus, -oris n. `cord with a loop, noose, snare ' (= gr. τένος), tenor, -ōris m. ` course| tenor; sustained and even course of movement ', tenus preposition m. Abl. Gen. Akk. ` as far as| to the extent of| up to| down to ', protinus ` straight on| forward; immediately; without pause; at once ' (compare Old Indic nū́tanāḥ, -tnāḥ `present, current', Latin diū-tinus, Lithuanian dabartìnis `present, current, long'), tenāx ` restrainging; (fetters/embrace); steadfast| persistent; obstinate| stubborn '; Umbrian tenitu `teneto ';

Maybe alb. tendos ` strech ' a Latin loanword.

    Old Irish tan `time, stretch of time' (*tenā), (in tain `when, if') (: Latvian tina), Old Irish tét ` string ' (*tn̥tā) = Welsh tant ds. (compare Old Indic tantu-, Icelandic Þind) = Breton ar-dant ` Pflöcke am Wagen zur Befestigung des Seiles '; Old Irish tēit `goes' (*ten-ti, old Aorist root, originally ` stretch ');

Maybe alb. në se (*in te) `when, if'= Old Irish in tain `when, if' (common alb. t- > s- shift)

    Gothic uf-Þanjan `be extended, be outstretched', Old Icelandic Þenja ` rest, stretch', Old English ðenian, ðennan ` stretch, tighten', Old High German den(n)en ` stretch '; Old Icelandic Þinull ` Tau, dasein Netz einfaßt und dazu dient, es zu spannen ', Old Icelandic Þind, Norwegian tinder f. ` phren' (Old Irish tēt, Old Indic tántu-); dh-present Old English ðindan `to swell, be irate ';

in addition Old Icelandic Þund f. `river'; Old English ðunian ` rise, stretch, swell ', alike Old High German Middle High German donên ` extend, swell, abound, be plentiful'; don ` stretched ', Middle High German done, don `strain, tension ', Old High German dona, Old Saxon thona `twig, branch, tendril ', Modern High German Dohne, Old English ælf-ðone `Albranke, Solanum dulcamara '; Old Icelandic Þǫn f. ` Holzstäbchen, mit dem Felle zum Trocknen ausgespannt werden ', Swedish tana `sinew', Old Danish tan ` phren';

    Lithuanian tìnstu, tìnti `to swell', tãnas `swelling, lump, growth', tvìnti `to swell'; Lithuanian tiñ-klas `net', Old Prussian sasin-tinclo ` hare's snare', Latvian tinu, tît `flax, wattle, braid, wind, coil', tina `ein Setznetz ' (: Old Irish tan), tineklis ` something twisting, erroneous '; Lithuanian tandus `idle';

    Old Church Slavic teneto, tonoto `rope'.

References: WP. I 723 f., WH. II 662 ff., Trautmann 323 f., Vasmer 3, 93, Mayrhofer 1, 475, Bergin Ériu 12, 227 ff.

Page(s): 1065-1066


Root / lemma: ten-2

See also: see above S. 1021 under (s)ten-1.

Page(s): 1067


Root / lemma: tens-

Meaning: to extend, stretch, span

Note: extension from ten-1 ds.

Material: Old Indic taṁsayati ` moves to and fro, shakes ', taṁsati (uncovered), Aor. á-tasat `pull, tug, set in motion by force ', tásara-m ` shuttle, device that holds the horizontal thread and passes it through the vertical threads (Weaving) ', vítasti- m.; Avestan vitasti- `span';

    Latin tōlēs, -ium `craw in the neck', Diminutive tō;nsillae ` tonsils ', prōtēlum ` team/tandem of oxen/draught amimals; series| succession ', whereof prōtēlāre ` drive/cause to retreat before one; drive forth| hound out| rout; beat back/off ' (prōtēlāre ` drive forth ' as tēlīs ` drive forward/forth; drive away/out/off; defeat '); tēnsa ` wagon on which the images of the gods were carried to public spectacles ', the subst. Fem. of participle tēnsus;

    Gothic atÞinsan ` attract, draw; raise, grow, cultivate ', anld. thinsan ` pull, rend ', Old High German dinsan ` pull, drag', Hessian dinse, dans ` pull ', participle Modern High German gedunsen, Old High German dansōn ` pull, stretch ';

    Lithuanian tęsiù, tę̃sti ` through pulling stretch, extend, lengthen, make longer, stretch, prolong ', pratęsà ` postponement, delay, putting off ', užtęsas ` shroud ', Intransitive tįstù, tį̃sti ` be stretched ', tąsaũ -ýti (: Old Indic taṁsayati) `pull, stretch, extend ', Old Prussian tiēnstwei `stir, tease, irritate', 2. Pl. imperative tenseiti, participle entensīts ` collected ', teansis `shaft'. 

References: WP. I 727, WH. II 666, 688, 691, Trautmann 318 f., Mayrhofer 1, 465, 491, 532.

Page(s): 1068-1069


Root / lemma: tenu-s, tenu-s

Meaning: thin

Grammatical information: fem. tenu̯ī

Note: to ten-1 ` stretch '

Material: Old Indic tanú-, fem. tanvī `thin, tender, fragile, flimsy, insignificant ' (tánuka- ds. = Slavic tьnъkъ); substantivized Old Indic tanū́- f., tanuṣ- n., Avestan tanū- f., tanus- n., np. tan ` body';

    gr. τανυ- `long', fem. τανεῖαι `long balk, beam'; τανα(F)ός ` stretched, long'; perhaps rather to 1. ten-, s. Specht KZ 59, 35, Sommer Zur Gesch. d. gr. Nominalkomp. 127;

    Latin tenuis `thin, fine, tender' (from fem. *tenu̯ī = Old Indic tanvī́); gr. ταναFός could be assimilated from *τεναFός;

    Old Irish tan(a)e (with secondary -e), Cornish tanow, Breton tanao, tano `thin' (proto Celtic *tanau̯o-; Welsh teneu owed -e- to the influence of Latin tenuis);

    Old High German dunni, Old Saxon thunni, Old Icelandic Þunnr `thin' (nn from nu̯); here also *Þennō, *Þunnō f. ` forehead, temple ' in Old High German tinna, Middle High German tinne, tunne ds.; in den compounds. Old High German tinna-bacho ` temple ' and Old High German dun-wangi, -wengi n., Old English ðun-wang(e) f., Old Icelandic Þun-vangi m., Swedish tinning ` temple ';

    Lithuanian tę́vas, Latvian tiêvs ` slim ';

    Old Church Slavic tьnъkъ `thin' (assimilation *tъnъkъ, Russian tónkij).

References: WP. I 724, WH. II 666, K. Jackson Lang. and Hist. 376, Trautmann 319.

Page(s): 1069


Root / lemma: tep-

Meaning: warm

Material:

Hittite: tapassa- c.  ' Fieber, Hitze ' , tapassija- (I)  ' erhitzen ' , tapasuwant-  ' fieberschwanger '  (Friedrich 211; < IIr.?)

Old Indian: tápati `to give out heat, be hot; to make hot or warm ' , ptc. taptá-; tápas- n. `warmth, heat ' ; tápu- `burning hot '  

Avestan: tāpaiti `is warm ' , ptc. tapta-; tafnu- m. `Fieberhitze, Fieber ' , tafnah- n. `Hitze, Glut; Fieber '  

Other Iranian: NPers tāftan `brennen, wärmen, leuchten '  

Slavic: *teplъ, *toplъ; *topī́tī

Germanic: *ʮa[f]-i- c., *ʮa[f]-ja- vb., *ʮa[f]-jōn- f., *ʮi[f]-ō- vb.

Latin: tepēre, -uī `warm, mild sein ' , tepidus, -a `warm, -lau ' , tepor, -ōris m. `milde Wärme '  

Celtic: *tepent-; *tepnet-; *tepstu-; *tepesmjā; *tepesmo- > OIr tē, pl. tēit `heiss ' ; tess `Hitze ' , MIr ten, tene, gen. -ed `Feuer ' ; timme `Hitze ' , Ir time `Wärme, Furcht ' ; Cymr tan `Feuer ' ; tes `Hitze ' ; twym `Hitze ' , OCorn toim `heiss ' , Corn tan  ' Feuer ' ; tanet (in Zs.) `Feuer ' ; tes `Hitze ' , MBret toem `heiss ' , Bret tan  ' Feuer ' ; tanet (in Zs.) `Feuer ' ; tez `Hitze ' ; tomm `heiss '  

 

Old Indic tápati ` warms up, burns', participle taptá- ` warmed up, heated up ', tápas- n. `heat, blaze, glow', tápu- ` burning, hot', causative tāpáyati ` warms up, heats up '; Avestan tāpaiti `is warm', causative tāpayeiti ` warms up, heats up ', Inchoh. tafsaiti (*tepǝsk̂eti) ` becomes hot ', participle tapta- ` warmed up, hot', tafnu- m. ` heat, fever', tafnah- n. `heat, blaze, glow; fever'; np. tāftan `burn, warm, gleam, shine';

    alb. Tosc ftoh, Geg ftof `make cold, extinguish from, injure with words' (*vëtēp-sk̂ō `entwärme');

Note:

Common alb. - lat. f- prefix

    Latin tepeō -ēre ` be warmm/tepid/lukewarm; have body warmth; feel love warmth/glow; fall flat ', tepidus `warm', tepor ` warmth| mild heat '; presumably Oscan tefúrúm `a kind of (blaze-) sacrifice, oblation' (*teps-ro-); Umbrian Abl. Sg. with postposition tefru-to, Akk. Pl. Umbrian tefra `carnes cremandas ';

    Old Irish tē `hot', Pl. tēit (*tepent- = Old Indic participle tapant-); ten and tene, Gen. -ed `fire' (*tepnet-), Welsh Cornish Breton tan ds., Cornish Breton tana `kindle, inflame'; Old Irish tess, Welsh Cornish tes, Breton tez `heat' (*teps-tu-, to es-stem Latin tepor, Old Indic tapas-); Middle Irish timme `heat, fear'(*teps-mi̯ā); Welsh twym `heat', Old Cornish toim `hot', Middle Breton toem, Modern Breton tomm `hot' (*tepesmo-);

    Norwegian teva ` pant before heat ', Old English ðefian `pant, gasp', Old Icelandic Þefr m. smell, odor, taste', Þefa `smell' transitive, Þefja `smell' intransitive; (basic image of the warm steam of food);

    Old Church Slavic *teplъ (in teplostь `θερμότης '), Czech teplý, Russian tëplyj and (with о after topiti) Old Church Slavic toplъ `warm'; causative Serbian tòpiti `melt', Russian topítь ` heat; melt '; Prussian PN Taplawken actually `Warmfeld ';

    Hittite tapašša- `fever, heat' (Old Indic loanword?).

References: WP. I 718 f., WH. II 667 f., Trautmann 319, Vasmer 3, 111, Mayrhofer 1, 477, 569.

Page(s): 1069-1070


Root / lemma: terd-, tred-

Meaning: to drill

Note: (see also ter- `malmendes insect'), extension from *ter- `rub, pierce'

Material: Old Indic tr̥ṇátti, causative tardayati (tardati Grammatical), Perf. tatárda `pierce, split', tardman- n. `hole, aperture ', tardá- m. `an insect', tr̥dilá- ` perforated, pierced ', tradá- `the opened (through drilling) ';

 

Lithuanian tréndu, -ė́ti ` be eaten away by moths, worms ', trandė̃ under trandìs ` maggot, woodworm '; vowel gradation Latvian trûdi ` mould, dank decay ', trûdêt ` fade under influence of air, weather out, decay '; Lithuanian trìdė `diarrhea '; Old Church Slavic trǫdъ ` igniter, tinder ' and `kind of disease, malady, δυσεντερία ' (compare above S. 1073 Lithuanian tríedžiu `have diarrhea': Welsh trwyddo `bore'), Czech trud ` Zitterich am Gesicht '.

References: WP. I 736, Trautmann 328, Vasmer 3, 144, Kuiper Indo Germanic Nasalpräs. 96 f., 183 f., Mayrhofer 1, 521 f.

Page(s): 1076


Root / lemma: terk-, trek- (tork-, trok-)

Meaning: to turn

Note: probably extension from ter-3 `rub, grind spinning '

Material: Old Indic tarkú- m. ` spindle', niṣṭarkyá- ` what can be turned up '; figurative tarkáyati `assumes, reflects ';

    gr. ἄτρακτος m. f. ` spindle (figurative: arrow, sprit)' ἀ = n̥ `in', as (`rod for opening up '), ἀτρεκής `open' (`frank'); alb. tjerr `spin' (*tērknō); (common alb.-Germanic -rn- > -rr- shift) : common alb. - Slavic -j- infix)

maybe alb. (*tērknō) tirk, pl. tirqe ` white felt, felt gaiters '

    Latin torqueō, -ere, torsi, tortum `turn| twist; hurl; torture; torment; bend| distort; spin| whirl; wind ' (qu is k + formant u̯, compare Old Indic tarkú- ` spindle'), torquēs, torquis ` collar/necklace of twisted metal (often military); wreath| ring| chaplet ', tormentum `a catapult; a cannon; a fowling piece ' (*torqu[e]mentom), tormina `stomach ache', torculum `wine/oil press ', nasturtium `tropical plant having bright yellow to red flowers whose seeds and leaves are edible';

    Irish trochal ` slingshot '; perhaps Welsh torri `break, rupture' (*tork-s-), Middle Breton terryff ds.;

    Old High German drāhsil `lathe turner', Modern High German drechseln, probably also Old English Þrǣstan `turn, bind together, press, afflict ' (as Germanic *Þrēχsti̯an); if also Old Icelandic Þari ` seaweed ' (from *Þarhan-) actually `band, strap'? 

Maybe alb. dredh (*derk)` turn, twist ' common alb. -k > -th.

    Old Prussian tarkue ` bandage strap (in the horse's harness)' read tarkne = *tarkìnė; Old Church Slavic trakъ `band, strap, belt', Russian tórok m. ` saddle straps ', poln. troki m. Pl. `strap, bond, chains ';

    Tocharian AB tsärk- `torment, smite', A tark- ` earring ', В tärk- `turn'.

    A meaning ` coiled, across, athwart, distorted, crosswise ' shows tu̯- changing through anlaut family of Old High German dwerah, dwerawēr ` slantwise, across, athwart ', Modern High German zwerch, quer ‘across, athwart’ and Middle High German twerge ` transverse ', zwerg ` across, athwart ', Old English ðweorh ` inverted ', Old Icelandic Þverr ` across, athwart, obstructive', Gothic Þwaírhs `angry, irate'; the anlaut tu̯- is defined perhaps through hybridization with *tu̯er- `turn'. 

References: WP. I 735 f., WH. II 692 f., Trautmann 314, Vasmer 3, 125, Mayrhofer 1, 484 f.

Page(s): 1077


Root / lemma: ter-1

Meaning: to tremble, dabble

Material: Old Indic taralá- `trembling, twitching, restless'; alb. tartaɫis ` wriggle ' (from reduplication *tar-tar-).

Maybe alb. tarrallis ` shake '.

References: WP. I 727 f., Mayrhofer 1, 481;

See also: extensions: trem-, tres- (Kombinationsform *trems-), trep-.

Page(s): 1070


Root / lemma: ter-2, teru-

Meaning: feeble, fragile, weak

Note: (to ter- `rub' as `ab-, faded, weakened ')

Material: Gr. τέρην `tender', Sabinian terenum ` soft; flexible; calm; gentle; pliant| tender; smooth; mild| weak; effeminate ', Latin (after tenuis reconverted with metathesis) tener, -a, -um ` tender (age/food); soft/delicate/gentle; young/immature; weak/fragile/frail ';

    from the u-basis: Old Indic táruṇa-, dial. tálina- ` young, tender' (m. f. ` youngling, girl', n. `sprout, stem '), Avestan tauruna- ` young ', osset. tärịn `knave, boy';

    gr. τέρυ ἀσθενές, λεπτόν Hes., τέρυες ἵπποι ` snatched away horse' (τερύσκετο ἐτείρετο Hes.: τέρυ = μεθύσκω : μέθυ), τερύνης τετριμμένος ὄνος, καὶ γέρων Hes.;

    Latin tardus ` slow| limping; deliberate; late ' as do-derivative of a reduced-grade *teru-?; Old Irish terc ` sparse, small';

    zur τέρην-group as ` young, tender; young boy, the young of an animal ' also torno-s in Lithuanian tar̃nas `servant', Old Indic tarṇa-, tarṇaka- m. ` the young of an animal, calf'; Armenian t`orn, Gen. t`orin `grandchild, grandson';

    alb. trim `valiant, gamy; m. young man', Pl. trima ` armed Gefolgsmänner' (tr̥mo-), if `young boy, jugendkräftig' die meaning-development war;

 

Note:

This seems wrong etymology since alb. maybe alb. trim `brave, not scared' is related to alb. alb. Tosc trëmp, Geg trem `I scare'; Latin tremō, -ere `tremble' from Root / lemma: trem-, trems- : `to thump; to tremble' (see below).

Armenian t`arm ` young, fresh, green', perhaps Old Icelandic Þyrma `spare, look after' as derivative of a *Þormaz `weak, tender'; is Latin termes, -itis ` cut-off twig, branch (esp. of olive) ' the lengthened grade in addition? -men-formants in gr. τεράμων ` soft, slight cookable ', ἀτεράμων `hard, raw', hom. ἀτέραμνος `hard, flintlike, firm '; presumably Gothic Þarihs ` ungewalkt, neu (von Tuch) ', actually `fresh'.

References: WP. I 728, WH. II 648 f., 665, 670 f., Mayrhofer 1, 483.

Page(s): 1070-1071


Root / lemma: ter-3, terǝ- and teri-, trī-

Meaning: to rub

Note: also teru- : treu- (extended with b, g, gh, ĝh, k, p); here ter-2 `tender' (actually ` faded ', compare Latin mollis : molō), and ter-6 in words for `biting insect'

Material: A. Old Indic turá- ` sore ' or ` sick ', ā́tura- ds.;

    gr. τείρω ` rub, harass, afflict, sadden ', τίτρημι, newer τιτράω `grind, pulverize, pierce' (Fut. τρήσω; τρητός ` pierced', τρῆμα `hole'), τετραίνω ds. (compare Lithuanian trinù); κυκλοτερής ` round twiddled, twisted ', τέρετρον `borer', τερέω ` drill, wimble, bore a hole, work a lathe'; ἔτορε ` pierced ' (participle present ἀντι-τορεῦντα, Perf. τετορημένος), τόρος `chisel' (compare also τορός ` loud piercing ' under *toro-s `loud'), τορεύς ` graving tool, chisel', τορεία ` the making of cameo in stone or metal ', τορεύω `carve'; τόρνος ` compass, rotary iron; circular movement ' (τόρονος τόρνος. Ταραντῖνοι Hes., compare lak. τορονευτός); τόρμος `hole'; about gr. ἀτάρτηρος ` inconsiderate ' (?) s. Frisk 176; 

    alb. tjer `spin' (*terō); (common alb. Slavic infix -j-).

    Latin terō, -ere, trīvī, trītum ` rub| wear away| wear out; tread', the prefixed present forms from the basis trēi-, trī-, likewise dētrīmentum (synonymous termentum by Paul. Fest. 498 L.) ` failure, damage', trīticum `wheat', triō m. ` oxen (pl.) used for plowing; constellations Great/Little Bear (7 stars/oxen) ', trībulum ` a threshingsledge, wooden platform studded with iron teeth ', trībulāre ` press| squeeze; exact (dues/payment); trouble', tetricus ` harsh| gloomy| severe ', intertrīgō ` chafing (of skin)'; teres, -etis (actually `glattgerieben') ` smooth; tapering ', terebrā `borer'; trīcae ` trifles (pl.)| nonsense; vexation| troubles ' (Pl.) to *trī-kā ` tribulation; distress| trouble  '; 

    toch AB trik- ` in die Irre gehen, fehlen ', В traik- ` in die Irre führen ', participle Perf. Pass. tetrīku;

    from the same basis trēi-, trī- (as trīvī etc.) Middle Irish trēith `weak', and gr. τρί̄βω (τρί̄ψω, ἐτρί̆βην) `rub, grind, pulverize, weaken etc.', τρῐβή ` the grating ', τρίβος m. f. ` worn out road; the grating, delay '; compare Church Slavic trěbiti `clean, clear ' from proto Slavic *terb- (τρί̄βω : Latin trī- = Slavic terb- : Latin ter-); in addition Middle Irish trebaid (*tr̥b-) ` plows, inhabits ', Old Irish trebar `smart' (reduced partly with treb, S. 1090,);

    Old Irish tarathar, Welsh etc. taradr `borer'; Middle Irish tuirenn (*torinā) `wheat';

    Old High German drāen `turn, work the lathe', Old English ðrāwan `ds.'; intransitive ` turn round ' (English throw `throw'), Old High German drāt, Old English ðrǣd, Old Icelandic Þrāðr ` wire, filament ' (*Þrēðu-z actually ` the rotated '), Old High German drāti `quick, fast, rash, hasty' (actually `be spinning swiftly ');

besides Germanic *Þr-el- in Low German drillen `bore, torment, smite', Middle High German gedrollen ` twiddled, twisted, rotated ', Modern High German drillen ` coil, bore, torment, smite', Old Frisian thralle Adv. `quick, fast', Middle Low German dral ` twiddled, twisted, be whirling ', Middle High German drel, Modern High German dial. drell, drall `tight, firm, strong', wherewith Old English ðearl `stern, hard' perhaps identical is (*tor-los); Old Icelandic Þarmr, Old English ðearm, Old High German daram ` intestine ' (= gr. τόρμος `hole');

with Þrē- the changing by vowel gradation Þrō- in Gothic ÞrōÞjan ` train, practice ' = Russian tratitь `consume', Czech tratiti ` loose, ruin', to Lithuanian trótinti `stir, tease, irritate, banter', žem. trúotas `whetstone', Latvian truõts ds. (Trautmann 326, Vasmer 3, 133);

Maybe alb. tret ` emaciate, digest ' a Slavic loanword.

    Gothic Þriskan, Old Icelandic Þriskja, Þryskva, Old English ðerscan, Old High German drescan `thrash', to Lithuanian sutrẽškinti causative ` smash to pieces ', also Middle Irish tresc `offal, sediment, sludge ' (whether not Old Icelandic loanword);

    compare Lithuanian treškė́ti `crack, crackle ', Church Slavic trěskъ `noise| crash, lightning| flash; thunderbolt; crushing blow ', vowel gradation troska ds. etc.;

    Lithuanian tiriù, tìrti ` research'; Old Church Slavic tьrǫ, trěti `rub' (proto Slavic. *tьro, *terti); vowel gradation Church Slavic istor `damage', Russian tor `forbidden way' (: gr. τόρος `borer, chisel') from proto Slavic. *tara- m. `rubbing, abrasion';

Balto-Slavic *tīrti- f. `grinding', in Old Czech trt ds., infinitive Church Slavic trъti, Serbian tȑti = Lithuanian tìrti; as Slavic infinitive *terti based on a disyllabic basis, as also Balto-Slavic *tīrta- ` pulverized, ground into fine particles; crushed ' in Serbian tȑt = Lithuanian tìrtas ` explored ';

with n-suffix: Lithuanian trinù (*trenō), trìnti `rub', Latvian trinu, trìt `rub, sharpen '; with figurative meaning also Old Prussian trinie ` threatens ', trintawinni f. ` avenger' and Lithuanian trenė́ti `modern';

    B. root form teru- : treu-:

    Old Indic táruṇa-, gr. τέρυ etc., see below *ter-2 `tender'; gr. ἀτειρής (*ἀ-τερF-ης?) perhaps ` indestructible '; τρύ̄ω ` rub, exhaust, tire out ', τερύσκετο ἐτείρετο Hes.; τρύσκει τρύχει, ξηραίνει Hes., τρῦμα, τρύ̄μη `hole', τρῡτάνη ` the tip in the scales '; τιτρώσκω `I defeat, damage, wound' (Fut. τρώσω), τρώω (*τρωFω) `pierce, wound, injure ', τρῶσις, Doric Ionian τρῶμα `wound' (because of Attic τραῦμα ds. with ō from ōu); 

    Welsh taraw (*toraw) `hit', trewis ` he knocked ', Middle Welsh tereu `hits, knocks', Middle Breton tarauat `rub', Old Breton toreusit `attrivit ' (*torōu̯-: gr. τορεύω), compare Modern Breton Vannes torein `hit' (Loth. RC 37, 47 f.);

    Lithuanian truniù, -ė́ti ` decayed ', Lithuanian trriùškinu, trùškinu `crunch ', truškù, -ė́ti ` crackle, rustle, through breakage of wood ' (compare gr. τρύσκω `rub');

    Old Church Slavic trovǫ, truti, vowel gradation causative traviti ` consume ' (Indo Germanic *treu̯ō: *trōu̯ei̯ō); Old Church Slavic trava f. `garden' (vowel gradation trěva from *trēuā), Russian travá `grass' (in addition the Modern High German FlN Trave);

Maybe alb. trevë `region' a Slavic loanword.

vowel gradation proto Slavic. *trūi̯ō `rub' in Church Slavic tryjǫ, tryti (compare gr. τρύ̄ω ` rub ': τρῡσί-βιος ` exhausting life '); here also Church Slavic trizna ` funeral ceremony ' (from *tryzna);

    Old English ðrōwigean (*ðrōwōjan) `suffer, bear, endure, brook ', Old High German drōa ` load| burden, suffering ', druoē̆n, druota `pati ';

Old English līcðrōwere ` leper, outcast, one who is rejected by society', Old Icelandic līkÞrār ` having leprosy, scabby '; Old Icelandic Þrā f. (*Þrawō) ` intense, distressing desire', Þrā and Þreyja `long, want, crave ', Þrā n. ` contrariness, determination/perseverance; persistence; obstinacy| stubbornness| defiance ', Þrār ` persevering| obstinate; pertinacious ', Old English ðrēa, ðrawu f. `affliction, tribulation; threat ', Old Saxon thrāwerk `affliction' = Old English ðrēaworc ` woefulness ', Old High German drawa, thrauwa, drōa ` threat, menace ', Old English ðrēan `threaten, beset, plague', Old High German drawen, drewen, drauwen, drōen, Modern High German drohen, dräuen;

with the meaning- development `rub - squeeze, press': Old English geðrūen ` pressed together, condensed ', ðrȳn `press'; 

    Tocharian A tsru ` little ' (*teru̯o-).

    C. As extension on the i-basis can apply: *trēid- in Welsh trwyddo `bore', Lithuanian tríedžiu `have strong diarrhea'; compare under S. 1076.

    D. extensions from ter- and treu-:

    1. terb-: s. S. 1071 under.

    2. terg-: Latin tergō, -ere, tergēo, -ēre ` rub| wipe; wipe off| wipe dry; clean| cleanse ', mantēlum, mantēle `towel, tablecloth ' (*man-terg-sli-, to manus S. 740), changing through vowel gradation Umbrian Akk. Sg. mantrahklu, mandraclo ` tablecloth ' (*-trāg-kla); Gothic Þaírko n. `hole', zero grade Middle Low German dork ` bilge, lower part of a ship', Old English ðurruc ` a measure of corn| 4 bushels', `caupolus ';

    *trōg-, *trǝg- in gr. τρώγω `gnaw to pieces, crunch, nibble, eat raw ' (Aor. ἔτραγον), τρωγάλια ` the nibbling ', τρώγλη `hole, cave', τρώξ ` grain worm ', τράγος ` he-goat; billy goat '; Armenian t`urc, Gen. t`rcoy ` jaw ' (Nom. instead of *t`ruc from *trōĝ- through derailment after the Gen. t`rcoy?) and aracem `graze' (*trǝĝ-); Tocharian AB trāsk- `chew'.

    3. terĝh-: Old Church Slavic trězati, trьzati ` rend ', with velar tъrgati, trъgnǫti ds.

    4. terp-, trep- (only Balto Slavic): Latvian tā̀rps `worm', Lithuanian tárpas ` fracture, cleft, gap', tar̃p, ter̃p ` between '; Lithuanian trapùs ` brittle, slightly crammed ', Latvian trapjš, trapans ` friable ', trapains ` rotten, decayed; brittle, weathering out ', trapêt, trepêt ` weather out, become rotten, friable '; unclear Old Church Slavic trapъ `pit, pothole' (*torp-), Serbian trap ` turnip pit '. 

    5. treugh-: perhaps gr. τρύ̄χω `τρύω', τρῦχος n. ` the ragged, rag', τρῡχηρός ` tattered, ragged '; Old Irish trōg, truag ` woeful, wretched, miserable, unlucky '; Welsh Middle Breton tru ` woeful, wretched, miserable ', gall. PN Trougillus, Trōgus.

    6. treuk-: Welsh trwch ` cropped, truncated, cut off ', trychu `cut, clip' (*truk-s-); Old Icelandic Þrō, Pl. Þrø̄r f. `trough', Old English ðrūh, Gen. ðrȳh f. m. n. `ds., gully, coffin', Old High German drūh drūch) ` fetter, Tierfalle ', Modern High German Drauche ` dragnet, wolf or fox trap ', Old Saxon thrūh `manacle';

with grammatical variation Icelandic Þrūga, Norwegian dial. trūga, tryge, trjug `kind of snowshoe'; Old Icelandic Þrūga `threaten' (see to meaning above Middle High German drohen); intensive Old Swedish Þrykkja, Old English ðryccan ` urge, push, press', Old High German drucken, Modern High German drücken;

    Lithuanian trúk-stu, -au, -ti ` rend, break, rupture, burst ', trũkis `crack, break, col, gap', Latvian trũk-stu, -u, -t `crack, break, rupture; lack, blunder ', trũkums `break; lack'; traũks ` dish, vessel', Lithuanian traukai `vessel', Lithuanian tráukti ` pull ', Old Prussian pertraūki `locked', Latvian traukt `hit'; Lithuanian trùkti `endure, last', trúkšèioti ` twitch '. 

    7. treup-: gr. τρῡπάω ` drill, wimble, bore a hole, pierce', τρύ̄πανον `borer', τρύ̄πη `hole'; Old Prussian trupis `clot, chunk'; Lithuanian trupù, -ė́ti ` crumb, spall, crumble ', trupùs ` crumbly ', traupus ` brittle ', Latvian sa-trupêt ` decayed; become brittle '; Russian-Church Slavic trupъ (*troupos) ` tree block; corpse', Old Church Slavic trupije `θνησιμαῖα ', Serbo-Croatian trûp `trunk' etc., Old Church Slavic truplь `hollow'.

Maybe alb. trup `body, trunk' a Slavic loanword.

References: WP. I 728 ff., WH. II 649, 670, 672 f., 704 f., Trautmann 324 f., 326 f., 330, Vasmer 3, 95 f., 97, 124, 130 f., 143 f., Frisk 177, Mayrhofer 1, 514.

Page(s): 1071-1074


Root / lemma: ter-4, terǝ- : tr̥̄-, trā-, teru-

Meaning: to cross, transgress, to stay, etc..

Material:

Hittite: tarh- (I)  ' besiegen, bezwingen, überwinden '  (Friedrich 213)

Old Indian: tárati, tiráti, titarti, tarute `to pass across, cross over; to overcome, surpass ' , tūrvati, tūryati `to overpower ' , inf. tartum, turváṇe, ptc. tīrṇá-; turváṇi- `überwältigend, siegreich ' ; tára- `carrying across or beyond ' , m. crossing, passage ' ; tarutár- m. `conqueror ' ; tárutra- `carrying across; conquering, triumphant ' ; taráṇi- `moving forwards, carrying over ' ; táras- n. `energy, progress; ferry ' ; trāyáte, trāti, 2 sg. trā́sva, 2 pl. trā́dhvam `to protect, preserve '  

Avestan: taurvan- `überwindend ' ; ʮrāzdūm `schirmet! ' ; ʮrā- (prs. ʮrāya-) `schützen, hüten ' , ʮrāti- f. `Schirm, Schutz ' ; tar- `hinübererlangen über ' , prs. titar-, taraya-, taurvaya-, ptc. vī-tǝrǝta-

Other Iranian: MPers tarwīnītan `überwinden, peinigen ' ; OPers viyatārayāma `wir überschritten ' ; Osset tǝrɨn `treiben, jagen ' , Bal tarag, tharaɣ `umwenden, umkehren '  

Old Greek: trǟnḗs, trǟnó- `klar, deutlich, bestimmt, sicher '  

Slavic: *trājǭ, *trājātī `длиться etc. '  

Latin: intrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum `hineingehen, betreten ' , extr&ō, -āre `über etwas hinausgehen '  

 

Old Indic tárati ` ferries, excels, overcomes ' (tiráti, titarti, tīryati; tarutē), tāráyati ` ferries, takes across ', tará- ` crossing, ferrying, transmitting, hurdling, overcoming ' (= Avestan -tara- ` transcending, overstepping, transgressing, hurdling '); taráṇi- ` going through, penetrating, quick, helpful', táras- n. ` das Vorwärtsdringen, energy ', Instrumental tárasā Adv. ` rash, hasty', tará- Adj. `strong'; tarantá-m. `sea'; tīrthá- n. `ford, drink ' (*tr̥̄tho-) besides *tūrthá- in prākr. tūha- `bank, border, shore', dardisch tūrt `ford'; compare pāmir türt `ford' (*tr̥̄to-);

    u-basis besides in tarutē also in tū́rvati ` overwhelmed, overpowered; defeated', Infinitive turváṇē, Adj. turváṇi- ` overpowering, victorious '; Avestan tar- ` reach over ' (present-stem titar-, taraya-, from the u-basis taurvaya-, Intensive titāraya-, participle vī-tǝrǝta-), taurvan- ` hurdling, bettering ', mp. tarvīnītan ` conquer, afflict '; Old Persian viyatārayāma ` we crossed ', osset. tärịn `drive, push, hunt, chase', Baluchi tarag, tharaɣ ` turn round, turn back '; 

   Verbal adjective Old Indic -túr (-tr̥̄) in ap-túr ` crossing the waters ', āji-túr ` overcoming in the battle ', ratha-túr ` overtaking chariot ', radhra-túr `den Ermattenden rettend ', etc.; compare gr. νέκ-ταρ above S. 762;

    alb. sh-tir, sh-tij `put in a river, set in motion, cause, make happen, bring about, incite '?

Older alb. shtjer, shtyj ‘push’

    with the meaning from Old Indic tará- (see above) probably Illyrian Taros, Tara river names;

    gr. τέρθρον `end, cusp, peak';

    Hittite tarḫzi ` defeats, overcomes ';

    Old Indic trā- `(* lead over = rescue), shield, beware, guard' (trā́-sva, trāyátē, s-Aor. trādhvam, Avestan ϑrāzdūm ` protect!', Perf. Old Indic tatrē), Avestan ϑrā- ds. (present-stem ϑrāya-), ϑrāti- f. ` shelter, protection' ; Indo Germanic *trā- because of gr. τρᾱνής, τρᾱνός ` piercing = clear, audible, distinct' and Latin intrāre ` to enter| or inn| i.e. drain and cultivate| marshes| which are then called innings ', extrābunt Afranius (see trāns beim prepositional ter-); trāmes ` footpath| track; (stream) bed; course; (family) branch; narrow strip (land) ' from *trāns-with (to Latin meō);

    With m-formant: Old Indic sutárman- ` ferrying, transmitting well ', tárman (uncovered) `cusp, peak of sacrifice jamb '; venet. termo ` boundary| limit| end; terminus ' (Lejeune Latomus 12, 394 f.);

    gr. τέρμα, -ατος n. ` purpose, endpoint ', τέρμων m. `limit, boundary', τέρμιος ` located at the end ';

    Latin termen, termō, terminus ` boundary marker, boundary stone ' (originally ` boundary post '), Umbrian termnom-e `ad terminum ', termnas ` a boundary ', Oscan teremenniú ` termina ', teremnattens `terminavērunt ';

    similarly Armenian t`arm (*tremo-) ` end, tail, rear, back end ', gr. τράμις, τράμη ` perineum between anus and the genitals' (Hes.: τὸ τρῆμα τῆς ἕδρας, ὁ ὄρρος, τινες ἔντερον), Old English ðrum (English thrum) in tunge-ðrum ` das Zungenband ', Middle Low German drum, drom ` peg, end, tail, rear, end of fabric, edge', Middle High German drum n. ` end, tail, rear, back end, piece, splinter', Modern High German Trumm, Trümmer, Middle High German drumze, drunze, trunze ` broken spear piece, splinter ';

    Middle Low German treme ` crossbar, crosspiece in a structure, branch'; Old Icelandic Þrǫmr m. `edge, border'; compare - with sm-suffix - at most Old Irish druimm, Gen. drommo `back', perhaps borrowed from Welsh drum besides trum `ridge, back'? (*treusmn̥); Diminutive Old High German dremil `balk, beam, bar, bolt'; Middle Low German trāme, Middle High German drām, -e, trāme m. `balk, beam, bar, bolt, ppiece, splinter' (formally stands near τρῆμα `hole');

    Hittite tarma- `peg, plug, nail'.

References: WP. I 732 ff., WH. II 671 f., 699, Mayrhofer 1, 480, 483, 484, 487, 497, 503, 506, 507, 520, 569;

See also: s. also under tor-, toro-s S. 1088 f.

Page(s): 1074-1075


Root / lemma: ter-5

Meaning: over, etc..

Note: to ter-4 `hinüber reach, arrive; obtain'

Material: Old Indic tiráḥ Adv. ` away, in another place, apart ', preposition m. Akk. ` by - toward, about - away ' (later also m. Abl. ` apart from, off ') = Avestan tarǝ̄, tarō Adv. ` sideways, sidelong, unnoted ', preposition m. Akk. ` by - toward, about - toward, about - over, out; apart from, besides'; Old Irish tar m. Akk. `about - out' (*tares, Indo Germanic *teres, compare tairse, tairsiu `trans eam, trans eos, eas, ea '), next to which tairm-, tarmi- ds., trem-, tremi- `through, by ' (Welsh trim-uceint `30', `decade more than 20 '), transfigured after rem- : re ` before, forth '; Old Indic tiraś-cā́ Adv. ` across, straight through ' = Avestan tarasèa m. Akk. ` by - toward, about - toward, about - away ';

 

Old Indic tiryañc-, tirīcīna- ` turned crosswise, horizontally' (den ending -yañc-, -īc- from pratyañc-, pratīc- attributed) place a previous *teri ahead; besides *trei in Old Welsh trui, Middle Welsh trwy, drwy, Breton Cornish dre (Old Breton tre), Old Irish (with proclitic) tri, tre `through, by '; strengthening particle Middle Welsh trwy- : try-;

    Latin trāns, Umbrian traf, trahaf m. Akk. ` across| over; beyond; on the other side ', probably participle of verb *trāre (*trānt-s);

    Welsh tra- e.g. in trannoeth ` overnight, during the following day ' (geminated n!), etc., proclitic from *trāns, (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), accented Midddle Welsh traw, draw, Breton treu `beyond'; with secondary -s: Welsh traws etc. ` antagonistically ', preposition tros `about, over ';

    with the same strengthening as Old Indic tiraś-cā́, Avestan tarasèa: Gothic Þaírh, Old High German durh, Old English ðurh m. Akk. `through ' (*ter-k(ʷ)e, *tr̥-k(ʷ)e); out of it evolved Old High German derh ` pierced ', Old English ðyrel (*Þurhil) ` pierced '; n. `hole', Old High German dur(i)hhil ` pierced'. 

References: WP. I 734, WH. II 671 f.; Mayrhofer 1, 503.

Page(s): 1075-1076


Root / lemma: ter-6

Meaning: a kind of harmful insect

Note: to *ter- `rub, pierce'; compare widened terd-

Material: Gr. τερηδών f. ` teredo, wood-boring worm '; Latin tarmes (termes), -itis ` woodworm ' (probably from an o-stem *termos or *terǝmo-s); Welsh cynrhonyn ` woodworm, lendix ', Pl. cynrhawn, Cornish contronen ` bedbug, small bloodsucking insect ', Middle Breton controunenn, Modern Breton contronenn `ver de viande ' (*kon-trōno-); Welsh t(o)rog-en, abr. toroc, Breton teurok `mite' (*tōr-āko-).

References: WP. I 735, WH. II 649.

Page(s): 1076


Root / lemma: ter-7, terǝ-, terbh-, terd- terg- terp-

See also: see above S. 1022 ff., 1031 f. under ster-.

Page(s): 1076


Root / lemma: terp-, trep-

Meaning: to be satiated, satisfied

Material: Old Indic tṛ́pyati, tr̥pṇóti, tr̥mpáti, tarpati ` be satiated, becomes satisfied ', causative tarpáyati ` satiates, satisfies ', tr̥ptí-, tŕ̥pti- f. ` satiation, satisfaction', Avestan ϑrąfδa- ` satisfied, provide sufficiently ' (*tramptha-: Old Indic tr̥mpáti), ϑrąfs- n. ` contentedness '; New Persian tulf ` supersaturation, oversoaking '(*tr̥fra-); perhaps also Old Indic -tr̥p- `stealing', Avestan tarǝp- `steal', Middle Persian tirft ` theft ', sogd. cf- `steal'; gr. τέρπω ` satiate, delight ', τέρπομαι ` rejoice, be happy '; τέρψις `satisfaction';

    perhaps Gothic Þrafstjan ` comfort, admonish', anaÞrafstjan ` refresh, allow to settle down, get some peace ' (to *Þrafsta-, Indo Germanic *trop-sto-?);

also the group Gothic Þaúrban (Þarf, Þaúrbum, preterit Þaúrfta) ` need ', Old Icelandic Þurfa (Þarf, Þurfum), Old High German durfan (darf, durfum) ds., Gothic Þarbs ` needy, destitute, necessary ', Old Icelandic Þarfr ` useful ', Þarfi ` necessary ', Gothic Þarba `lack, indigence ', Old Icelandic Þǫrf f. ` necessity, benefit', Old English ðearf ` need, benefit', Old High German darba ` privation, lack', Gothic Þaúrfts f. ` necessary' (= Old Indic tr̥pti-), Old Icelandic Þurft, Old High German durft ds.?; the meaning- development could have been ` need ' (compare above S. 173 Latin fruor ` enjoy (proceeds/socially/sexually)| profit by| delight in ' ;

    Lithuanian tarpà ` prospering; flourishing, growth ', tarpstù, tar̃pti `thrive, grow ', Latvian tārpa ` what gives good hope, prospering, growth ', tērpinât ` improve ', Old Prussian enterpo ` is of use, avails, benefits ', enterpon, enterpen ` useful ';

    Tocharian AB tsārw- ` rejoice ' (Pedersen Tocharian Sprachgesch. 19).

Note:   

Common Tocharian t- > ts- = alb. s- shift

References: WP. I 736 f., Trautmann 314, Vasmer 3, 125 f., 134, Mayrhofer 1, 523 f.

Page(s): 1077-1078


Root / lemma: ters-

Meaning: dry; thirst

Material: Old Indic tŕ̥ṣyati ` thirsts, desires ' (= Gothic Þaúrsjan), tarṣáyati ` allows to be thirsty, languish ' (= Latin torreō, Old High German derren), tarṣa- m. ` thirst ', tr̥ṣṭá- `arid, rough, jolting, hoarse', tr̥ṣú- ` greedy, thirsting ' = Avestan taršu- `dry, that is to say not fluid' (= apart from pronunciation of Gothic Þaúrsus, Old Latin torrus ` parched| dried up; shriveled| desiccated '); Old Indic tŕ̥ṣṇā ` thirst, yearning', Avestan taršna- m. ` thirst '; Old Indic tr̥ṣṇá-j- ` thirsty ';

    Armenian t`aṙamim, t`aršamim ` wilt, wither ', t`aṙ ` Stange zum Trocknen von Trauben u. dgl. ' (*tr̥sā or *tr̥si̯ā: gr. τρασιά);

    gr. τέρσομαι (ἐτέρσην) ` become dry', τερσαίνω `make dry', τρασιά̄, ταρσιά̄ ` kiln, oven, furnace', ταρσός, ταρρός ` kiln, oven, furnace, dry device '; dubious τραυλός (*τρασυλός?) ` thirsty ';

    alb. ter ` dries (transitive) in the air';

    Latin torreō, -ēre, -ui, tostum ` parch| roast| scorch| bake| burn; dry up; begin to burn; harden by charring ' (tostus = Old Indic tr̥ṣṭa-), Old Latin torrus, extended torridus ` parched| dried up; shriveled| desiccated ', torris ` firebrand ', torrēns ` burning hot; rushing; torrential';

    here also Latin terra f. `earth' (: extorris ` exiled ' = tellus : meditullium), Oscan teer[úm], terúm ` territory ', teras ` earth' from Italian *terso-, *tersā, Indo Germanic *tērs-, to Old Irish tīr n. es-stem ` region, area', Cornish Breton Old Welsh tir ` earth', Old Irish *tīr, tirim `dry'; also basic form *tēros-, *tēres-; Latin terres-tris, terrēnus after terra; Old Irish tart ` thirst ' (*tr̥sto-);

Italian   terreno : Spanish tierra : French terrain : Furlan teren : Portuguese terreno ; terra : Romagnolo tirèn : Sardinian Campidanesu (*terranca) tanca ; terra : Albanian (*tanca) toka ` soil ; ground ';

    Gothic gaÞairsan stem verb ` wilt' (= gr. τέρσομαι); gaÞaúrsnan ds. = Old Icelandic Þorna ds.; Old High German dorrēn ds.; Old High German derren ` make dry, dehydrate, desiccate', Old Icelandic Þerra `dry' (= Old Indic tarṣáyati, Latin torreō);

Gothic Þaúrsjan ` thirst ', Old Icelandic Þyrstr (Gothic *ÞaursiÞs) ` thirsty ', whereof Gothic Þaúrstei f., Old Icelandic Þorsti m., Old English Þurst, Old High German durst ` thirst '; Gothic Þaúrsus (s instead of z after Þairsan = Old Indic tr̥ṣú-), Old Icelandic Þurr, Old English Þyrre, Old High German durri `arid'; Old High German darra, Swedish tarre ` rack for drying, kiln, oven, furnace'; probably also Old Icelandic Þorskr, Middle Low German dorsch `codfish' (`*the making dry ').  

References: WP. I 737 f., WH. II 636 f., 694.

Page(s): 1078-1079


Root / lemma: tet(e)r-

Meaning: to quack (expr. root)

Material: Old Indic tittirá-, tittirí-, tittíri- m. ` partridge, game bird '; Armenian tatrak `turtledove';

    New Persian taðarv ` pheasant' (also gr. τατύρας, τέταρος ds. are of Persian origin);

    gr. τετράων, m. ` grouse ' (*τετραF-ων), τέτραξ (out of it Latin tetrax) ` guinea fowl' (*tetr̥ks), τετράδων, τετραῖον, τετράων bird's name by Hesych., τέτριξ `a bird';

neologism Middle Irish tethra `crow' (*tetori̯ā), Old Icelandic Þiðurr ` grouse ' (*ÞeÞuraz); Old Prussian tatarwis ` black grouse', Lithuanian tetervas ds., Latvian teteris (Gen. teterja, from *tetervis), Lithuanian tẽtervinas ` black cock, grouse ', tetirvà `Birkhenne ' (Latvian tĩtars ` turkey ' influenced from tītêt, s. ti-ti-), Russian-Church Slavic tetrěvi Akk. Pl. `φασιανούς ', Serbo-Croatian tȅtrijeb ` grouse ', Old Czech tetřěv ds., Russian téterev ` black cock ' (tetërka `Birkhenne, black grouse'); 

    verbal gr. τετράζω ` gaggle, cackle, cluck (of the hen)', Latin tetrinniō, -īre, tetrissitō, -āre ` cackle< (of ducks)';

    also in other onomatopoeic words turns t-r as characteristic element again, compare e.g. Latin turtur `turtledove', *storos ` starling', the thrush-names (see 1096), streīg-, streīd(h)- `hiss, whirr ', gr. τρύζω ` coo ', τρυγών f. `turtledove', τερετίζω ` chirp '.

Maybe alb. turtull ‘turtledove’ a Latin loanword.

References: WP. I 718, WH. II 677 f., Trautmann 320 ff., Vasmer 3, 101; compare tor- S. 1088 f., Mayrhofer 1, 500.

Page(s): 1079


Root / lemma: teuk-

Meaning: sprout, seed, offspring

Material: Old Indic túc- f. ` child, progeny ' (besides túj- f. ds. with folk etymology extension of the Tenuis); tokám n. ` progeny, child'; tókman- n. `young stem, sprout', Avestan taoxman- n. ` seed, sperm, germ, sprout', Pl. ` kinship', Old Persian taumā f. ` family, seed, sperm, germ, sprout'; khotansak. ttīman- n. ` seed, sperm ', np. tum, afghan. tōma ` seed, sperm '; Middle High German diehter `grandchild, grandson'.

References: WP. I 713, Vasmer 3, 149, Mayrhofer 508, 527;

See also: perhaps to teu-k- `to swell', above S. 1081 (tēu-).  

Page(s): 1085


Root / lemma: teu-1, teud-, teug-, teuk-, teup-

See also: see above S. 1032 ff. under (s)teu-.

Page(s): 1079


Root / lemma: teu-2

Meaning: to listen to, observe

Material: Latin tueor, -ērī, tuitus and tūtātus sum ` see| look at; protect| watch; uphold ', intu(e)or ` look at; consider| regard; admire; stare', originally in-, ob-, con-tuor con-tuō; tūtus ` safe| prudent; secure; protected '; Old Irish cumtūth ` protection'(*kom-ud-tou̯itus), Middle Welsh tuð `cover', tuðed `sleeve, wrapping, dress', Breton dial. tuec (Old Breton *tuðoc) ` pillowcase '; Old Irish tūas-cert `northern', Breton tus ` left, to the left ' (*teu-sto-); Celtic *teu-to- in Middle Welsh tut ` magician ', Middle Irish tūathaid ds., Old Irish tūaith `northern', Middle Irish tūath ` left, northern, mad, wicked, evil' (from `* favorable, good' as antiphrasis for the appellation of the misfortune-bringing left);

 

in addition Gothic ÞiuÞ ` goodness; good, benefit, asset ', Old Icelandic Þȳðr `mild, friendly', Þȳða ` friendship', Old English geðīede `good, virtuous', geðīedan ` sich (freundlich) anschließen '; probably also Old English ðēaw `custom', Old Saxon thau, Old High German gethau ` discipline ' as `*observantia '; perhaps also gr. τύσσει ἱκετεύει Hes. (denominative of a *τυτός with similar meaning as Gothic ÞiuÞjan ` bless, sanctify ' from ÞiuÞ).

References: WP. I 705 f., WH. II 713 f., Loth RC 43, 160 ff.

Page(s): 1079-1080


Root / lemma: teup-

Meaning: to get down, conceal oneself

Material: Gr. ἐντυπάς Adv., II. 24, 163, if meaning `cowering, crouching'; presumably Old Icelandic Þopta f. ` thwart, seat across a boat used by an oarsman ' (`on that one is crouched '), Old High German dofta f., Middle Low German ducht f., Old English ðoft ds. (wherefore Old Icelandic Þopti m. ` Mitruderer', Old English geðofta `comrade', Old High German gidufto ` Mitruderer, comrade') and Gothic Þiubjō ` clandestine ', Þiubs `thief', Old Icelandic Þjōfr, Old English ðēof, Old Saxon thiof, Old High German diob `thief';

    Lithuanian tūpiù, tũpti ` sich hinhocken, in die Knie setzen ', tŭpiù, tupė́ti ` crouch, sit in the knees ', Latvian tupt ` crouch '.

References: WP. I 714.

Page(s): 1085


Root / lemma: teus-

Meaning: to empty

Material: Avestan causative taošayeiti ` releases, sets loose' (*tousei̯ō), inchoative (*tus-sk̂ṓ) Avestan tusǝn ` they lose the setting', baluèi tusag, thuaɣ ` be abandoned '; Old Indic tucchá-, tucchyá- (*tus-sk̂o-, *tus-sk̂-i̯o-) ` empty, bare, lacking, deserted, abandoned, forsaken, worthless, desolate, trifling ', afghan. taš ` empty, bare, lacking';

 

Latin tesqua n. Pl. ` wilderness ' (*tu̯esku̯ā); Old English ðost ` manure', Old High German dost ds. (`*discharge of contents, emptying '); Old Church Slavic tъštь `κενός ', Russian tóšcij ` empty, bare, lacking; lean, hager' etc. (= Old Indic tucchyá-). 

References: WP. I 714, WH. II 675, Trautmann 333, Vasmer 3, 130, Mayrhofer 1, 508 f.

Page(s): 1085


Root / lemma: teu̯ǝ-, tu̯ā-

Meaning: to sift

Note:

Root / lemma: teu̯ǝ-, tu̯ā- : to sift derived from Root / lemma: sē(i)-1: to sift

Material: Old Indic títau- (three-syllable, from *titavu-?) ` sieve, winnow the grain';

    gr. σάω (Ionian), τῶ (Attic EM.), Attic διαττάω ` sieve ' (*τFάι̯ω), δίαττος m. ` sieve ' Hes., ἐττημένα σεσημένα Hes., ἀλευρότησις f. ` flour sifter' (EM.), σήθω ` sieve'.

References: WP. I 713; Mayrhofer 1, 499 f.

Page(s): 1085


Root / lemma: tēg-, tǝg-

Meaning: to burn

Material: Gr. τήγανον, Attic through metathesis also τάγηνον ` frying pan, saucepan';

    Old English ðeccan `burn' (ðäecelle `torch' is reshaped from fæcele, loanword from Latin facula,?), Old High German dahhazzen ` blaze '. 

References: WP. I 717 f.

Page(s): 1057


Root / lemma: tēu-, tǝu-, teu̯ǝ-, tu̯ō-, tū̆-

Meaning: to swell; crowd, folk; fat; strong; boil, abscess

Note: extended with bh, g, k, l, m, n, r, s, t

Material: Old Indic tavīti `is strong, has power', Perf. tūtāva; in addition tavás- `strong, stalwart ', as Subst. Akk. tavásam, Instrumental tavásā ` power, strength '; távyas- távīyas- `stronger', távasvant- `strong', táviṣmant- `strong, mighty', taviṣá- `strong', táviṣī f. `force, power'; vowel gradation tuvi- in compounds `very, mighty', tuviṣṭama- `the strongest ': tūya- `strong, fast';

    Avestan tav- ` to be capable of ', tavah- n. `power, force', tǝvīšī f. ` physical strength '; Old Persian atāvayam `I am able ', tunuvant- `mighty', tauvīyah- `stronger' (: Old Indic távīyas-), tauman- n. `fortune, force, power';

    Armenian t`iv `number'; doubtful t`up` (*tū̆-pho-) ` thicket, shrubbery, bush';

    gr. Τιτυός the name of the randy sinner against Leto; ταΰς μέγας, πολύς Hes. (*tǝu̯-ú-s), ταΰσας μεγαλύνας, πλεονάσας Hes.; σάος (Cypriot ΣαFοκλέFης), comparative σαώτερος, contracted Ionian Attic σῶς, σῶος ` unhurt, unbroken, unmarred, unscathed, undamaged; certain ' (from *tu̯ǝ-u̯o-s); compare M. Leumann Gedenkschrift Kretschmer II 8 f.; in addition hom. σα(F)όω, hom. Attic σώζω (*σωΐζω), Fut. σώσω `rescue, receive', σωτήρ `savior, redeemer' etc.; (`fully in body = fit, healthy'); σῶμα n. `body' (*tu̯ō-mṇ `the sturdy '), σωματόω ` make firm, condense '; σώ-φρων (*σαό-φρων) `fit, of sound mind, sane '; with the same root grade still σωρός, S. 1083;

    Latin *toveō, -ēre ` congestt ' as base from tōmentum ` stuffing of a pillow| mattress ' (*tou̯ementom) and tōtus ` whole| all| entire| total| complete; every part; all together/at once ' (*tou̯etos `crowded, compact ');

Maybe alb. Geg tanë, Tosc tërë ` whole| all| entire| total| complete; every part; all together/at once ' a Latin loanword.

    Russian-Church Slavic tyju, tyti ` become fat', vowel gradation Serbian tôv m. `fattiness'.

    1. bh-extension:

    Latin tūber, -eris n. ` tumor| protuberance| bump| excrescence; truffle; plant with tubereous root'; compare Oscan-Umbrian gloss. tūfera and Italian tar-tufo, -tufolo `terrae tuber';

Maybe alb. tufë ` swarm, flock' a Latin loanword.

    gr. τύφη ` zum Ausstopfen von Polstern und Betten verwendete Pflanze ' (probably ῡ);

    perhaps Old Irish tūaimm `hill' (*teubh-mṇ), Middle Irish tom m. `hill, bush', Welsh tom f. `hill, fertilizer heap ' (*tubh-mo-, -mā); Welsh tumon `la croupe '; also ystum `bend' from *eks-teubh-mo-, different above S. 1034;

    Old Icelandic Þūfa `elevation in the earth, hillock ', obd. düppel ` blister, swelling, lump, growth'.

    With the meaning ` tussock ': Old English ðūf m. ` foliage bunch, a banner compound of plumes ', geðūf ` leafy, luscious', ðūft ` a place full of shrubs ', ðȳfel `bush, thicket, leafy plant', ðūfian ` come into leaves, get covered with leaves '; from the language Germanic soldiers derives Latin tūfa ` a kind of helmet bundle ' (Vegetius).

    2. g-extension:

    Old Icelandic Þoka `fog', Middle Low German dak(e) (from *doke) ds., Old Swedish thukna ds., Old English ðuxian ` make dark ', Old Saxon thiustri, Middle Low German dǖster (out of it Modern High German düster), Old English ðīestre `dark' (*Þeuχstria-).

    3. k-extension: `to swell; fat' (as Old Church Slavic ty-ti ` become fat '):

    Latin tuccētum ` sausage ', tucca `κατάλυμα ζωμοῦ ', Umbrian toco `tuccas ' (gall. loanword); Old Church Slavic tukъ `fat'; Old High German dioh, Old English ðēoh ` thigh ', Old Icelandic Þjō ` the thick upper top of the thigh, buttock '; English thigh; Middle Irish tōn m., Welsh tin f. ` fundament| anus ' (*tuknā?); Lithuanian taukaĩ `fat', táukas ` fat little pieces ' and `uterus, womb ', tunkù, tùkti ` become fat ', Latvian tūkt ds., tūks `swelling, lump, growth', tàuks `fat, obese', tàuki Pl. `fat, tallow, suet', Old Prussian taukis ` lard '; compare S. 1085 teuk- `germ, sprout' and gr. PN Tεῦκρος.

    4. l-formations, appearing partly as root-like *tu̯-el-:

    Old Indic tūlam ` panicle, loose cluster of flowers, whisk, tussock, cotton ', tūlī̆- f. `paintbrush', pāli tūla- n. ` hassock, clump of grass ' etc.? compare Mayrhofer 1, 520; 

    gr. τύλη f., τύλος m. ` bulge;  bead;  lip;  torus;  wreath;  roll;  bulb, weal, callus, hump, hunchback ', and `peg, plug, nail, penis'; alb. tul' m. ` chunk of meat without bone, calf';

    Latin tullius ` torrent, flood, downpour ' (*tul-no- or -so-); perhaps also Tullus, Tullius originaally name for thick, swollen, inflated people, whether not Etruscan; 

    Old English geðyll ` draught ' (?), Old Icelandic fimbul-Þul `a mythical river'; Old Icelandic Þollr (*tul-no- or -so-) `tree, peg, plug', Swedish tull ` treetop ', Old English ðoll m. ` oar peg ', Middle Low German dolle, dulle ds., Modern High German Dolle ds. and ` crown of a tree, flower bundles, brushes, plume ', obd. Dollfuß ` swollen foot, clubfoot, misshapen deformed foot ', Tirol doll `thick', Middle Low German westfäl. dülle `swelling, blister'; perhaps the Germanic island name Θούλη;

    Old Prussian tūlan Adv. `much, a lot of', Lithuanian túlas ` many ';

    Church Slavic tylъ ` nape '; also Old Church Slavic *tlъstъ, Russian tólstyj etc. `thick' (imitation of ending from Slavic gǫstъ `dense, thick').

    A extension with Baltic ž (Indo Germanic ĝ or ĝh) is Lithuanian pa-tulžęs `swollen', Latvian tulzums `swelling, lump, growth', tulzne `blister, bubble'; Lithuanian tulžìs `gall';

    reduplication perhaps Latin tutulus ` high conical hairstyle, hairpiece '; the felt cap (worn at Saturnalia/by manumited slaves); freedom/liberty; beret and Latvian tuntulēt (also tunturēt) ` be wrapped in many garments '.

    tu̯el-, tu̯el-: gr. at most in σάλος n. ` flood wave, uncontrollable movement (of the sea)', σαλεῖσθαι ` jump ', σαλεύω `shake, shatter; sway ', κονίσ-σαλος m. ` dust whirl '; Middle Irish tel and t(a)ul ` shield boss ', Old Irish Middle Irish telach, t(a)ulach `hill', reduplication tuthle (*tu-tu̯el-) `swelling, lump, growth' (the u-forms through a similar results of Anlauts *tu̯- as Old Irish cruth from *kʷr̥tu-); Welsh twlch ` round mass, hill, nipple '.

    5. m- derivatives:

    Old Indic tū-tumá- `wirkungsvoll', túmra- `strong, thick', tumala-, tumula- ` noisy, loud ', tumala-m `din, fuss, noise'; Avestan *tuma- in Tumāspana- `of Tumāspa- (fat steeds) '; gr. korkyr. τῡμος ` burial mound, hillock ';

    gr. τύμβος `burial mound, hillock' = Middle Irish tomm m. `hill, bush', Welsh tom f. `hillock, fertilizer heap ', if this, however, from *tubh-mo-, -mā- (above S. 1080);

    Latin tumeō, -ēre ` swell| become inflated; be puffed up; be bombastic; be swollen with conceit ', tumidus ` swollen| swelling| distended; puffed up with pride or self; confidence ', tumor ` swollen or distended condition| swelling; swell (sea| waves); excitement ', tumulus ` mound| hillock; mound| tomb ', tumultus ` commotion| confusion| uproar; rebellion| uprising| disturbance ';

    Welsh twf ` power, strength ', tyfu ` grow' (*tŭm-), Middle Breton tiñva (*tūm-) ` heal, close, knit (of wound); thrive';

    Old Swedish Þumi m. ` thumb ', Þum ` great', Old Icelandic Þumall ` thumb '; Old High German dūmo, Old English ðūma ` thumb ', ðȳmel ` thimble', Middle Low German dūmelinc, Modern High German Däumling; Middle High German doum ` spigot, bung, clot, cork, plug, stopper' (meaning as gr. τύλος);

    Lithuanian tumė́ti ` become fat, curdle, coagulate, harden ', tùm(s)tas `heap, bulk, mass', tùmulas m. `piece';

    Tocharian В tumane, tmāne, A tmāṃ `10.000'.

    6. n-formations, z. Т. appearing as root-like *tu̯-en-:

    pre Modern High German tünne ` surge ', Low German düning, dünung ` waves against the wind direction '; but Old Irish tonn, (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Breton etc. ton `waave' from *tus-nā (see 1084) or *to-snā (see 971 f.); Low German dūnen `to swell', Middle Low German dūn(e) `swollen, dense';

    Lithuanian tvį́stu, tvinaũ, tvìnti `to bloat, bulge, swell (of water)', causative tvìndau, -yti ` make swell  ' (with vowel gradation derailment tvainýtis `buhlen ', if actually `to swell'), tvãnas `flood', tvanùs `light swelling (of the river)', Latvian tvans, tvana `vapor, haze, mist'.

    With -nk-extension: Lithuanian tviñkti `to bloat, bulge, swell, fester ' = Latvian tvīkt ` feel sultriness, languish before heat '; Latvian tvīcināt ` make muggy, make thirsty ', Lithuanian tvìnkšèioti ` beat palpably (of pulse)', Lithuanian tveñkti ` make swell ', tvañkas `sultriness', tvankùs `muggy' (vowel gradation derailment in Latvian tveicināt = tvīcināt and tvàiks `vapor, haze, mist, sultriness');

with t: Lithuanian tùntas `heap, bulk, mass' = tùmtas, wherefore perhaps gr. τύντλος `ordure, slime, mud' (as remains of an  inundation)?

    on a *tu̯-ēn : *tu̯en-ós, *tu̯ṇ- `φαλλός ' is based gr. σάθη `penis' (formation as πόσ-θη : πεός), σαίνω ` fawn, wag, flatter ', σαῖνα, σάννιον `αἰδοῖον ' Hes. (-νν- hypocoristic doubling); in addition σάννας `μωρός ', σαννίων ` you idiot, you fool'; also probably σανίς `picket, pole, balk, beam, board'.

    7. r-formations:

    Old Indic turá- in the meaning `strong, rich' (wherefore tuvi- as composition form as e.g. κῡδ-ρό-ς : κῡδι-άνειρα); Old Icelandic Þora `venture, risk', Þoran ` courage, skillfulness ', Þori `bulk, mass, lump ';

    gr. τί:-τυρος ` he-goat; billy goat, Satyr';

    Avestan tūiri- n. ` caseous changed milk, whey '; gr. σωρός `heap' (*tu̯ō-ró-s), in addition vowel gradation *tū-ro- in gr. τῡρός `cheese', βού-τῡρον `butter'; affiliation also from Old Bulgarian tvarogъ `lac coagulatum ' as a lengthened grade form is good possible; compare tvorь `opus, creation ' under tu̯er-2;

Note:

Common Tocharian t- > ts- > alb. s-, Greek s- shift)

    gr. Τῡρώ, a heroine, probably actually ` the being full, swelling '; also Illyrian PN Turo, Turus; Venetic PN Turus, gall. VN Turones `Tours ', PN Turīcum ` Zurich, region in Switzerland; city in Switzerland '; Middle Irish PN Torna (*turoni̯os);

    Latin *tūro-s, -m `swollen; clump' is assumed through ob-, re-tūrō ` stop up, congest, plug up, block, jam, pack in '; turgeō, -ēre ` swell out| become swollen or tumid ' perhaps derivative from a *tūr-igos `swelling driving ', intransitive counterpart for class of causative verbs in -(i)gāre; late Latin turiō, turgiō (-gi- probably not originally, but expression for i̯, or support in turgēre) `young twig, branch, stalk, scion, shoot'; 

    7.a: the word for bull: gr. ταῦρος, alb. tarok, Latin taurus, Oscan ταυρομ, Umbrian turuf, toru `tauros ', Old Prussian tauris ` bison ', Lithuanian taũras ds., Old Church Slavic turъ `Auerochs' (Trautmann 315, Vasmer 3, 154), either from Indo Germanic *tǝuro-s (compare Old Indic túm-ra- ` plentiful ' as epithet of bulls), or because of oriental bull cult connected with Proto Semitic *tauru (arab. twr); gall. tarvos (Middle Irish tarb, Welsh tarw), venet. PN Tarvisium, probably transfigured after Celtic carvos `deer'; Old Icelandic Þjōrr, Dutch dial. deur etc., are unvocalized after Old Icelandic stjōrr, Old High German stior, whose meaning is influenced on the other hand by our word (see above Indo Germanic *steu-ro- S. 1010); 

    doubtful Old English ðēor `inflammation, ignition' (*tēu-ro- `*swelling, lump, growth'?).

    8. s-formations, connected with the es-stem Old Indic tavás-, Avestan tavah- etc.:

   Germanic and Balto Slavic word for ` thousand ': Gothic Þūsundi f., Old High German thūsunt, dūsunt f. under n., lex Salica thūschunde; Old Saxon thūsundig, thūsind, Old English ðūsend f. n., Old Icelandic Þūsund f., Þūshund, ÞūshundraÞ (Germanic *Þūs-hundi ` many hundred', Indo Germanic *tūs-k̂m̥tī);

    Lithuanian túkstantis m., Latvian tũkstuots, Old Prussian tūsimtons (Akk. Pl.); besides Lithuanian *tū́kstas in tūkstàsis and túkstinis ` thousandth';

    Old Church Slavic tysęšta, vowel gradation tysǫšta f., Russian tysjaèa, Serbo-Croatian tȉsuća etc. (*tūsenti̯ā, *tūsonti̯ā);

    with the meaning ` torrent, flood, swelling movement (also emotionally), crowd, tumult ' : Old Icelandic Þausk n., Þausn f. `din, fuss, noise, tumult ', Þeysa, Þysja ` storm forward ', Þys-s m. ` turmoil ', Old High German dōsōn `roar, sough, rustle, rant, roister', Modern High German tosen, Old Icelandic Þjōstr `vehemency', Þȳstr `rage, gust of wind', Modern Icelandic Þusur f. Pl. `vehemency, intemperance', Þusumaður ` violent person', Old English ðyssa m. `Toser ', mægen-ðysse `violence, force';

    with the meaning `swelling eines inflorescence; tussock; heap, hill' etc.: gall. tuðos, tuððos `Schichte '? (*tus-to-, Loth RC 43, 165; different - loanword from Vulgar Latin tōstus - Whatmough JC stem 1, 7 ff.), Welsh tusw m. `bundle' (*teus-t-u̯o-), Breton tossen, Vannes tosten `hill' (*tus-tā), Breton tuchen ds. (*toust-i̯en); whether Old Irish tūaimm `hill' from *teus-mṇ? different above 1.; Old High German dosto, tosto ` tussock, tassel ' and `Origanum vulgare ' (Modern High German Dost, Dosten), Modern High German dostig ` outspread, turgid, swollen '; East Frisian dūst ` tassel ', Norwegian tūst `tuft, tuft of hair, tassel ', tūsta `tuft, knot, bundle, tree with bushy crown ', Icelandic Þūsta `heap, mass';

   possibly here Old Indic tūṣa- m. `hemline of a garment ', whether originally `fringe ';

    Latvian tūska `swelling, lump, growth', tūsḱis `dropsy'; tušḱis `wisp, small bundle' (could auch sk- derivatives besides Latvian tûkt `to swell' sein); Modern High German Dosche `bush, umbel, herbal root, bouquet, tassel ';

    a *tu̯os-ti- or *tu̯ǝs-ti- perhaps in Gothic ga-Þwastjan ` make strong, tight, firm, certain ', ÞwastiÞa ` certainty ', Icelandic Þvest, Þvesti n. ` steady parts of meat '.

    9. t-derivative teutā `(bulk, mass) people, land'; teutono-s ` sovereign, monarch':

Hittite: tuzzi- (tuzzija-) c.  ' Heer, Truppenmacht '  (Friedrich 232)

Baltic: *taũt-ā^ f.

Germanic: *ʮiud-ṓ f.; *ʮiud-an-a- m.

Other Italic: Osk touto `civitas ' ; Umbr acc. totam `civitatem '  

Celtic: OIr tuath `Volk ' ; Cymr tūd `Land ' , Corn tus, MBret tut, NBret tud `die Leute '  

 

    Illyrian PN Τέυτα, Teutana, Teuticus, Τεύταρος; Messapic PN ϑeotoria, Gen. ϑeotorras; Thracian PN Tauto-medes; Oscan τωFτο, touto, Umbrian Akk. totam ` citizens'; gall. GN Teutates (*teuto-tatis ` sovereign lord, father of the nation' to tata, above S. 1056), newer Toutates, Tōtates, Tūtates, PN Teutiō, Toutius, Tūtius, Toutonos;

Maybe Illyrian TN Taula- Taulant  common italic-Illyrian -t- > -l-.

    Old Irish tūath `people, tribe, land', Welsh tūd `land', Cornish tus, Middle Breton tut, Modern Breton tud `the people';

    Gothic Þiuda, Old High German diot(a) `people', Old Saxon thiod(a), Old English ðéod, Old Icelandic Þjōð `people', whereof Old High German diutisc, Modern High German deutsch (originally ` belonging to a particular tribe or people ', Weissgerber Deutsch als Volksname 1953, 261) and Old High German diuten ` make understandable (as though translate into German), define, clarify, indicate ', Old English geÞīedan ` interpret, explain, clarify', Old Icelandic Þȳða ` interpret, explain, elucidate, understand or explain in a particular way, signify'; Germanic VN *Theu-danōz, Celtic Teutonī, Toutonī, to Danish PN Thyte-sysæl; Gothic Þiudans `king' (*teutonos), Old Icelandic Þjōðann, Old English ðéoden, Old Saxon thiodan ds. (Illyrian PN Teutana, gall. Toutonos);

    Latvian tàuta `people', Old Prussian tauto `land', Lithuanian Tautà ` uplands, Germany ', Old Lithuanian (Daukša) tautà `people';

    Hittite tuzzi- `master, mister, army camp, headquarters ' (*tut-ti-?).

References: WP. I 706 ff., WH. II 650 ff., 712 f., 714, 715 f., 718 f., 721, Trautmann 314 f., 331 f., Vasmer 3, 149, 154, 160 f., 161 f.; Krahe Sprache under Vorzeit 65 ff., Mayrhofer 1, 490, 513 f.

Page(s): 1080-1085


Root / lemma: ti-ti-, (ti)til-

Meaning: chirping of birds

Note: barely of proto language

Material: Old Indic ṭiṭṭibha- m. `Parra jacana '; Latvian titilbis, titilbīte ` pond-skater, water strider, redshank', Lithuanian tilvìkas, titilvìkas, titìlvis `Brachhuhn, snipe '; gr. τῑτυβίζω or τιττυβίζω ` gaggle, cackle, chitchat, talk, snicker (of partridge, game bird, the swallow'); Latin titiō, -āre `chirp, twitter (song of the sparrow) '; Latvian tītêt `sing'.

References: WP. I 742, WH. II 686, Mayrhofer 1, 457.

Page(s): 1086


Root / lemma: ti̯egʷ-

Meaning: to retreat in fear

Material: Old Indic tyájati (= gr. σέβω) ` verläßt, steht von etwas zurück ', with ni- ` scare, frighten, drive out ', with niṣ- ` expel, chase away, drive away ', participle tyaktá- (= gr. σεπτός), noun agentis tyaktar- (= gr. θεοσέπτωρ ` worshiper of the divinity'), causative tyājáyati `makes withdraw ', tyájas- n. ` desolation ' = Avestan iϑyajah-, iϑyejah- n. ds.; Old Indic tyāgá- m. ` devotion, generosity ' etc.;

    gr. σέβω (only present and Impf.), σέβομαι hom. ` be afraid of (the gods) ', nachhom. ` worship, honour (the gods) ', σεπτός `(venerated =) venerable, holy', σέβας, Pl. σέβη n. hom. ` devotional fear, shyness, reverence', nachhom. ` holiness, majesty ', hom. σεβάσσατο ` shied reverentially ', σεμνός (*σεβνος) `admirable, venerable, convex, elevated, holy; grave, strutting along, boasting ', σοβέω ` tue etwas von mir weg, entferne schnell, verjage '; intransitive ` go in a hurry, come strutting along ', σοβαρός ` hasty; rising, boasting ', σοβάς, -άδος f. `violent, vaiin', σόβη `horse's tail '. Note: common Illyrian gʷ- > b-.

Note:

Common Tocharian t- > ts- > alb. s-, Greek s- shift)

References: WP. I 746, Mayrhofer 1, 529.

Page(s): 1086


Root / lemma: to-1, tā-, ti̯o-

Meaning: that, he (demonstr. base)

Grammatical information: Nom. Akk. Sg. n. tod, Akk. Sg. m. tom, f. tām, Gen. Sg. m. tosi̯o, f. tesiās

Note: (Nom. Sg. m. f. so, sā, see there)

Comments:

The oldest Indo European root - the beginning of baby talk.

Material: Old Indic tád (tát) `that', Avestan tat̲, Akk. Sg. Old Indic tám m., tā́́m f., Avestan tǝm m., tām f., tat̃ n., etc.; Armenian -d (e.g. ter-d `there the Lord, you the Lord', ay-d ` he is the one'), da `this', doin `the same one', etc.;

    gr. τό, Akk. Sg. τόν, τήν (Doric τά̄ν), τό etc.; το-νῦν ` at this moment, at this time' = alb. ta-ní;

    alb. kë-ta `this, these' (*tod; out of it in proclitic:) të (Ablat. *tōd) `where';

Maybe alb. (a-të) atë `that'.

    Latin istum, -tam, -tud etc., Umbrian estu `istum '; Latin tam ` so| so much (as); to such an extent/degree; nevertheless| all the same ' (old also temporal `tandem ' from *tām-dem; based on *tām also (?) tantus, Oscan e-tanto `tanta ', Umbrian e-tantu `tanta '), tum, tun-c `then, then, afterwards ' = Avestan tǝm `then'; topper (*tod-per) `cito, fortasse, celeriter, tamen '; different about tam Szemerényi Gl. 35, 92 ff.;

    Old Irish tō ` yes ' (*tod); infix Pron. 3. Sg. m. -dn (*tom), n. -d (*tod), Pl. da (*tōns, f. *tās);

    Gothic Þata n., Akk. m. Þana, Locative Þei etc., Old High German der, diu, daz, Old Icelandic Þat etc.;

    Lithuanian tàs, tà, taĩ: etc. ` the same, identical '; Old Prussian Gen. Sg. f. s-tessias;

    Old Church Slavic tъ, ta, to `that';

Maybe alb. a-tje `there' (common alb.-Slavic -j- infix) = gr. τῆ `there ', Lithuanian tè `there ' see below.

    Tocharian A täm ` this '.

    In concordance or affinity are emphasized: 

    1. gr. hom. Ablat. τῶ ` then, in this case; therefore ', Lithuanian tuõ `mit dem, immediately ', perhaps Old High German thuo, duo, Old Saxon thō ` there ' (whether not from f. *tā); gr. Theran Megarian τῆ-δε `here', Gothic Þē ` the more, all the more, even more ', perhaps Old Icelandic Þā `there, at that time, then' (if not = *Þan), Old English ðā `then, next '; with it probably originally alike gr. τῆ `da, nimm! ', Lithuanian tè ds.

    2. tor, tēr `there': Old Indic tar-hi ` at that time, during that same point in time, then' (-hi to gr. hom. ἧ-χι), Gothic Old Icelandic Þar `there', Old Saxon thar, Old Frisian ther (Old High German dara) `there'; Old Saxon thār, Old High German dār, Old English ðǣr (ðara) `there'.

    3. toti `so much, very, extremely, to such an extent; that much, this quantity ': Old Indic táti ds. (tatithá- ` as many; just so/as many '), Latin tot, totidem (tŏtus ` as many; just so/as many '), in addition gr. τόσ(σ)ος from *toti-os `so big, large, so much, a lot of'.

Note:

Common alb. Greek -tt- > -ss- shift

    4. With -tro-suffix: Old Indic tátrā̆ `there', Gothic ÞaÞrō ` von da aus ', Old Icelandic Þaðra `there', Old English ðæder `to, to there '.

    5. Old Indic ta-dā́, Avestan taδa `then', Lithuanian tadà (from *tadān, compare East Lithuanian tadù) `then, afterwards '; Old Indic tadā́nīm ` then, at that time '.

    6. Gr. τηλίκος `so old', Latin talis ` such; so great; so excellent; of such kind ', Lithuanian tõlei ` till then, as long as '; Old Church Slavic toli `in dem Grade ', tolь `so much, a lot of, so very', toliko ds.; after Szemerényi (Gl. 35, 1133) from*to-ali-.

Maybe alb. (*talis) i tillë, i a-tillë, i kë-tillë  `of such kind, such '.

    7. Gr. τῆμος, Doric τᾶμος `for now, at the present time, then', Old Church Slavic tamo `to there', Latvian tām in nuo tām `thence, from that place'.

    8. Old Indic e-tā́vant `of such size; so great| so much', Avestan aē-tavant ds. from Indo Germanic *tāu̯n̥t, tāu̯ont-; gr. hom. τῆος (newer τέως), τᾶFος; through influence of m. τᾶFο(ντ)ς must be *τᾶFα(τ) to *τᾶFο(τ), from which τᾶFος; here also after Szemérenyi Latin tantus (see above); compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 609 Anm. 5. 

    9. Der ending from τό-φρα ` in the meantime' (in addition compare ὄ-φρα ` as long as') perhaps to Tocharian A ku-pre, В kwri `if', tā-pär(k) `now, yet'.

    10. A stem of Indo Germanic ti̯o- besides to- in Old Indic tyá- `those, that, those recognized ', alb. së (Gen. Dative Sg. f.) etc. (s- from ti̯-), Proto Norse Þīt, Old Saxon thit ` to there ' (Rosenfeld Forsch. under Fortschr. 29, 177); Lithuanian èià `here', èiõn `here'; Old Persian tya ` the one that, that', leg. taya (*to + i̯o-), resides (Risch, Asiat. Stud. 8, 151 f.). 

Note:

Alb. të = së `of ' common Tocharian t- > ts- > s-, alb. Greek t- > s- shift

References: WP. I 742 f., WH. I 721 f., II 644, 645 f., 648, Trautmann 311 ff., Vasmer 3, 113, 128, Szemerényi Gl. 35, 42 ff., Mayrhofer 1, 499.

Page(s): 1086-1087


Root / lemma: to-2

Meaning: prefix

See also: see above S. 71 and 129 (Messapic tabara)

Page(s): 1088


Root / lemma: tolkʷ-

Meaning: to speak

Material: Latin loquor, -ī, locūtus sum ` speak| tell; talk; mention; say| utter; phrase '; (common lat. tl- > l- shift)

    Old Irish ad-tluch- ` thank, express one's gratitude' (1. Sg. atluchur), to-tluch- `bid, beg, ask' (dotluchur); Old Church Slavic tlъkъ (*tъlkъ), Russian tolkъ ` interpretation, explanation' (Lithuanian tùlkas ` interpreter' is Slavic loanword).

Maybe alb. lut, lus `bid, beg, ask' (common lat.-alb. tl- > l- shift)

References: WP. 1 744 f., WH. I 821, Vasmer 3, 115.

Page(s): 1088


Root / lemma: tong-1 (*teng-)

Meaning: to think, feel

Material: Latin tongeō, -ēre `nōsse, scīre ', prän. tongitiō ` judicial examination or enquiry '; Oscan Ablat. tanginúd ` opinion| feeling| way of thinking; thought| meaning| sentence/period; purpose ' (Messapic loanword?); alb. tângë `resentment';

    Gothic Þagkjan, Þāhta ` think; consider ', Old Icelandic Þekkja `become aware, understand, comprehend, know' (Þekkr `pleasant'), Old High German denchen `think', Old English ðencan ds.; Gothic Þugkjan, Þūhta `shine, appear, seem', Old Icelandic Þykkja `ds., favor', Old High German dunchen `shine, appear, seem', Old English ðyncan ds.; Gothic *Þagks ` gratitude ', Old Icelandic Þǫkk f. ` gratitude, contentedness ', Old High German dank ` reasoning, thought, notion, gratitude ', Old English ðanc `thought, notion, emotion, contentedness, gratitude '; Middle High German danknǣme, Old Danish taknem ` grateful ';

Maybe alb. (*dunchen), dukem, duket `seem, appear': Old High German dunchen `shine, appear, seem', also alb. dukja `appearance'.

Maybe alb. Geg doke `custom, ritual, tradition (observed)', duk- `to appear, seem' (see above).

Alb. shows that from Root / lemma: dek̂-1 : `to take' derived the nasalized Root / lemma: tong-1 (*teng-) : `to think, feel'.

    Tocharian A tuṅk-, В taṅkw `love'.

References: WP. I 744, WH. II 690; besides *tenk- in Latvian ticinat ` ask', kuron. teñcinât ds., also Latvian tęnkāt ` babble, chatter, thank, express one's gratitude, praise, laud'.

Page(s): 1088


Root / lemma: tong-2

See also: see above S. 1055.

Page(s): 1088


Root / lemma: top-

Meaning: to stay; place

Material: Gr. τόπος m. ` space, place', τοπάζω ` aim at, direct towards, assume, guess', τοπεῖον n. `rope, hawser, cable, band'; Old English ðafian ` agree, grant, permit; suffer ';

    Lithuanian tàpti (tampù) `become', pri-tàpti `find, encounter, make familiar, present someone, introduce someone, make known, learn', Latvian tapt (tùopu) `become, befall, reach ', tapīgs ` a capable head ', tapinât `( allow to approach) borrow, lend ', pa-tapt ` hingelangen, wozu kommen können, Muße haben ', sa-tapt `meet, bump on somebody ';

    whether Pedersen puts together correctly the gr. words with Middle Irish toich ` natural' (different under tek-2) and Welsh tebyg (*tokʷiko-) `probable', annhebyg ` incredible ' (compare gr. τοπικός ` concerning the place ', ἄ-τοπος ` wondrous, garish '), would be for this a root tekʷ- : tokʷ- must be assumed and Germanic and Baltic words therefrom must be separated. 

References: WP. I 743, Pedersen Celtic Gr. I 129; different about the Baltic words Stang NTS 16, 259 f. (to tep- `smear', Trautmann 139, Vasmer 3, 95, 120).

Page(s): 1088


Root / lemma: tor-, toro-s

Meaning: loud, distinct

Note: old divergency in the meaning ` piercing, shrilly, screaming' from *torós ` piercing ', s. *ter-4 ` reach over, penetrate through '

Material:

Hittite: dTarẋu-, dTarẋunna- `storm god '  (Lyd., in Greek Τάρχων), Luw. Tarẋunt `storm god ' : nom. dtar-hu-un-za (Otten, Zur grammatikalischen und lexikalischen Beistimmung des Luvischen. B., 1953: 101-102), Luw-Hier. nom. *tarhu(n)ts, dat. *tarhu(n)ti `storm (?) god '  (Merigi 239, 257), Lyk. Trqqa-, Trqqñt GN

Other Iranian: Pashto taṇā́/tanā́, tǝṇā́/tǝṇā́ f., taṇ  ' thunder '  (РАС, АРС I, II), taṇā / tanā Morgenstierne EV:81

Slavic: *t[ā]ronъ, *tъronъ: Kash tarȯn, trȯn (Sychta)

Germanic: *ʮunr-a- m., *ʮunr- m.

Celtic: Gaul (in Lat.) Taranis `thunder god ' ; Ir torann `thunder, thunder god ' ; Cymr taran id., OCorn taran id., Bret. taran id.

 

Old Indic tārá- ` piercing, shrilly, screaming'; gr. τορός ` piercing, loud, audible, distinct ' (also `quick, fast, agile', compare Old Indic tarás Adj. `rash, hasty, piercing ' under *ter- ` reach over '), τετορήσω ` will say loudly and clearly '; 

    Middle Irish torm, toirm n., newer f. `din, fuss, noise' (*tor-smn̥), Irish torann `thunder', Welsh taran, Old Cornish taran, Breton taran ds., gall. Taranis GN.;

    Lithuanian tariù, tar̃ti and taraũ, tarýti `say', tarmė̃ ` saying ', Old Prussian tārin Akk. Sg. `voice', ettrāi, Infinitive attrātwei ` answer, respond' (formal as Old Indic trā-ti ` salves, salvages, retrieves ': tiráti); Slavic tortoriti in Czech tratořiti, Russian torotóritь ` babble, chatter ', zero grade reduplication Old Church Slavic trъtorъ ` noise| sound '; 

    Armenian t`rt`rak `good speaker', if from *t`urt`urak, Indo Germanic *tortoro-;

    Hittite tar- `say, name'.

References: WP. II 744, WH. II 677, Trautmann 126, Vasmer 3, 126 f., Mayrhofer 1, 497;

See also: compare tet(e)r- S. 1079.

Page(s): 1088-1089


Root / lemma: trāgh-, trō̆gh- and trē̆gh-

Meaning: to drag; to move, run

Note: does not correspond to the normal Indo Germanic root form; whether originated through contamination from dherāgh-, dhregh- with terk- and trek- (above S. 1077)?

Material: Latin trahō ` draw| drag| haul; derive| get ' (different above S. 257 under dherāgh- ` pull '); trāma f. ` warp (weaving); woof| weft| web filling; thin/lank figure; trifles; bagatelles ' (*trā̆gh-smā);

    gall. ver-tragus ` light-footed dog'; Old Irish traig, Gen. traiged (*traghetos) `foot', Welsh Pl. traëd ` feet '; with unclear ŏ: Welsh Sg. troed (einsilb.), Pl. traed (disyllabic) `foot', Old Cornish truit, Middle Cornish troys, Breton troad, Pl. treid `foot'; Middle Irish trog ` the parturition, progeny ', trogan `earth', trogaid ` brings to the world ' (compare Old Serbian tragъ ` descendant '); 

    with Indo Germanic ā or ō: Old Irish trāgud ` low tide, ebb ', trāig `beach, seaside', trāgid `ebbt', Welsh treio `refluere ut mare '; with Indo Germanic ŏ: Welsh godro `milk', Old Breton guotroit `demulgitis ', Middle Breton gorzo, Modern Breton goero `milk'; Welsh Cornish tro (*trogho-) `turn; variation, time', Welsh troi ` turn around, revolve '; with ā or ō: Serbian trâg ` footstep ', trážiti ` seek, feel', Old Serbian tragъ ` descendant ';

    probably Gothic Þragjan `run' (*troghei̯ō), Old English ðrǣgan ds. (*trēgh-), ðrāg `time', actually ` time course ', and Old High German drigil `servant', if actually ` runner', probably also Old Icelandic Þrǣll ` farmhand, servant' (> English thrall) from Germanic *Þrā̆hilaz;

    besides trā̆gh-, tregh- stand in same or similar meaning treg- (see 1090), dhregh- (above S. 273), dherāgh- (above S. 257), dhreĝ- (compare also the confirmation under der- `flay': root form dergh-, dreg- and under dher- `hold, stop': root form dheregh-, dhereĝh-) and trek- (see 1092). 

References: WP. I 752 f., WH II 697 ff., Trautmann 325, H. Lewis BBCS. 9, 34 f.

Page(s): 1089


Root / lemma: treg-

Meaning: to make an effort; force, battle; solid

Note: probably as `be stretched, lean against ' to (s)terg-, (s)treg- ` stare ' (above S. 1023)

Material: Old Irish trēn (*tregs-no-) `valiant, strong' (from which is probably borrowed Welsh tren `impetuous, strenuous', Subst. `force, rapidity'), comparative superlative Old Irish tressa, tressam, Welsh trech, trechaf; Old Irish tress (*tregso-) `fight, struggle'; Old Icelandic Þrekr m., Þrek n. ` strength, braveness', Þrekinn ` persistent ', Þreka `urge, push, press', Old English ðrece m. ` oppression, force, might, fatigue ', ðræc n. ` urging, power, force, might', ðracu f. ` suppression, rush, force, might', Old Saxon mōd-thraka f. ` distress '; reduced grade*Þruhtu- in Old Icelandic Þrōttr m. ` power, endurance ', Old English ðroht m. ` exertion; pressing ', Russian trógatь `touch', Latvian treksne ` shove, thrust '.

References: WP. I 755 f., Vasmer 3, 139.

Page(s): 1090


Root / lemma: treig-

See also: see above S. 1036 under (s)treig-, wherefore still Tocharian A trisk- `sound, clink, din, drone'.

Page(s): 1092


Root / lemma: treisti- or trīsti-

Meaning: stubborn; in a bad mood

Note: only Latin and Germanic

Material: Latin trīstis ` sad| sorrowful; gloomy '; Old High German drīsti, Old Saxon thrīsti, Old English ðrīste `audacious'.

Maybe alb. trishtë `sad ' a Latin loanword.

References: WP. I 754, WH. II 706 f.

Page(s): 1092


Root / lemma: trei-

Meaning: three

Grammatical information: Nom. m. trei̯es, Nom. Akk. n. trī, Akk. n. trins, f. tis(o)res, (dissimilation from *tris(o)res, etc.)

Material:

Hittite: tarrijanalli- c.  ' der dritte '  (Friedrich 214)

Tokharian: A trit, B trite  ' third '  (Adams 316); A tre (m.), tri (f.), B trai, tarya (PT *trey, *täryä) "three" (319)

Old Indian: m. tráyaḥ, n. ved. trī, f. tisráḥ  ' three ' ; tr̥tīya- `third ' ; trayá-  ' thrice ' , traya- n.  ' triad '  

Avestan: m. ʮrāyō, n. ʮrī, f. tišrō; ʮritya-  ' third '  

Other Iranian: OPers ʮitīya-  ' third '  

Armenian: erekh, gen. erich, instr. erivkh

Old Greek: trẹ̄^s m., f. (Dor. trées, trēs), tría n., gen. triō^n, dat. trisí (aeol. trissi)  ' three ' ; tríto-, térto-  ' third '  

Slavic: *trьje, n. *trī; *tretь(jь), *tretь; m. pl. *troji

Baltic: *trī̃-s, *trī^-, *trej-, *tre-t-ja- adj., *tir-t-a- adj.

Germanic: { *ʮrīz, acc. *ʮrinz, n. *ʮrija-n usw.; *ʮridʌ́-  ' third ' ; OIsl ʮrennr  ' dreifach ' , ʮrenner  ' drei '  (bei Kollekt.) }

Latin: trēs, tria, trī-ginta, ord. tertius; terni  ' je drei ' , trīni bei Pluraliatantum

Other Italic: Osk trís, Umbr acc. trif, n. triia

Celtic: OIr tri, trī, f. tēoir, tēora; Cymr tri, f. teir; tris  ' third ' , Cymr trydydd, Corn trysse, trege

Albanian: tre, fem. tri; tritë  ' third '  

 

1. Old Indic tráyaḥ m., trī, newer trīṇi n., tisráḥ f.; Avestan ϑrayō, ϑrayas m., ϑri n., tisrō f.; Armenian erek (trei̯es); gr. τρεῖς, gort. τρεες, m. f., alb. tre, f. tri (originally neutrales *trī); Latin trēs (Akk. also trīs), tria (trī- in trī-ginta `30'), Oscan trís ` three ', Umbrian trif, tref, Akk. ` three ', triia `tria '; Old Irish tri, f. tēoir, Akk. tēora (*tisorās, *tri-sor-n̥s); Welsh tri m., tair f., Middle Welsh Breton teir (*tedres < *tisres, that e after the 4-number), compare gall. tidres (?); Gothic Þreis, Akk. Þrins, n. Þrija, Old Icelandic Þrīr, Old High German drī etc.; Old Prussian tris (Gen. treon), Lithuanian trỹs, Latvian trîs (n. tri in Lithuanian try-lika ` thirteen ', compare Latin trī-ginta `30'); Old Church Slavic trije m. and tri f. n.; Hittite tri- ` three '; Tocharian A tre m., tri- f., В trai m., tarya f.

   composition form tri- in Old Indic tripad-, gr. τρίπους, Latin tripēs, Old English ðrifēte, Lithuanian trikõjis ` three-legged '; Avestan ϑri-kamǝrǝda- ` three-headed, having three heads ', Armenian ere-am ` three years old'; Illyrian PN Τρι-τεύτα, PN Τρι-κόρνιον; Celtic PN Tri-toutos, gall. tri-garanus ` with three cranes '; Old Irish trïar ` three men' (*tri-u̯irom); Russian-Church Slavic trъ-gubъ ` threefold ' (= Lithuanian tri-gubas ds); perhaps Latin tribus ` third part of the people; tribe| hereditary division ', Umbrian trifu, trifо Akk. Sg. from *tri-bhu- (to *bheu- above S. 146); Latin trīga f. ` three-horse carriage ' (shaped after bīgae Pl. `carriage and pair ' from *bi-i̯ugae, see above S. 230 and 508); unclear Old Irish tre-thenc ` trinity ' besides Middle Irish dē̆-cheng ` duality ', compare Old Icelandic Þridjungr ` third ';

    ` thirteen ': Old Indic tráyodaśa- = Latin trēdecim (*trēs-decim); compare gr. τρεις-καί-δεκα;

    ` thirty ': Old Indic tríṃśat- f., Avestan ϑrisat-, gr. τριά̄κοντα, Latin trī-ginta, Old Irish *trīcho, Gen. trīchot (*trī-komtos), Middle Irish trīcha, Breton tregont (that e from trede ` third '), gall. Abl. Pl. tricontis, Tocharian A taryāk, В täryāka (*trii̯āk̂n̥t-s). 

    2. ordinals: old inherited Old Indic tr̥-tī́ya- = Old Prussian tīrts; otherwise is tri- for tr̥- eingetreten: Old Indic PN Tritá-, Avestan ϑrita-; Avestan ϑritya-, Old Persian ϑritiya- or -tīya; Armenian erir, errord; gr. τρίτος; homer. τρίτατος extended as ἑβδόματος; Lesbian τέρτος from *τρίτος; alb. tretë; Illyrian PN Tritus; Latin tertius, Umbrian tertiu ` repeat three times ', terti `tertium ' (from *triti̯o-); gall. PN Tritios, Welsh try-dydd, Breton trede; Gothic Þridja, Old High German dritto etc.; Lithuanian trẽèias, Latvian trešaĩs (tre- instead of tri- after *trei̯es? also:) Old Church Slavic tretijь; Baltic trit- in Lithuanian tritainis ` third ';

    Old Irish tress (newer triss) ` the third person ' (*tristo-), tre(i)sse ` three days ', compare Latin testis ` witness, testifier ' (also `testicle'); Ablat. Oscan trístaamentud is probably borrowed from Latin testamentum;

    Tocharian В trit; Hittite tarrii̯analli- `the third ', [te-ri]-i̯a-an-na ` third '.

    3. tris ` thrice, three times ': Old Indic tríḥ, Avestan ϑris, gr. τρίς, Latin ter, older terr (from *tris), Old Irish fo-thrī ` thrice, three times '; extended Avestan ϑrižvat̃ ` thrice, three times ', Old Icelandic Þrisvar, Old High German driror, Old English ðriwa, ðreowa ds.; a u̯o-suffix also in Avestan ϑrisva- n. ` third ' and gr. θρῖον ` leaf of a fig tree ' from *τρισFον; in addition *tris-no- in gr. θρῖναξ ` trident '; Latin terni (*tri-no-) `je drei ' (besides trīni by Pl. tantum from *tris-no- parallel with bīni, see below du̯ōu), Old Icelandic Þrennr ` threefold ', Þrenner ` three' (collective);

Maybe alb. tresh, trish `in three'

    To a *trianon goes back Old Irish trïan, Old Welsh trean, Welsh traean ` third ', compare also gall. Akk. Pl. trianis ` third '?

    4. collective trei̯o-, troi̯o-: Old Indic trayá- ` threefold ', trayam n. ` trinity ', Lithuanian trejì, f trẽjos ` three' (by plural nouns), Latvian treji, f. trejas ds., Old Church Slavic troji m. Pl.; based on *trei̯odi̯o- Old Irish trēode ` threefold '.

References: WP. I 753 f., WH. II 668 f., 702 f., Trautmann 327 f., Vasmer 3, 137, Wackernagel-(Debrunner) 3, 346 f.

Page(s): 1090-1092


Root / lemma: trek-

Meaning: to run

Note: equal meaning with trāgh-, trō̆gh-, tregh-

Material: Old Church Slavic trъkъ `run, flow', trъkaljati ` writhe', Serbian tr̀èati `run', trakánac ` track ', Bulgarian tъrèá ` run', trъkalo `wheel, circle ';

    Middle Irish tricc, nir. tric (expressives kk) `rash, hasty';

    a variant in palatal trek̂- perhaps in Avestan udarō-ϑrąsa- ` creeping on the belly (of snakes)'.

References: WP. I 755, WH. II 699.

Page(s): 1092


Root / lemma: trem-, trems-

Meaning: to thump; to tremble

Note: (contaminated with tres-); the same double meaning by trep-.

Material: Gr. τρέμω `tremble' (= Latin tremō, alb. trem); ἀτρέμας, ἀτρέμα ` immovable, peaceful ', ἀτρεμής `fearless', τρόμος m. ` trembling', τρομέω `tremble', τρομερός `timorous', reduplication τετρεμαίνω `shudder' (unclear ταρμύσσω `frighten');

    alb. Tosc trëmp, Geg trem `I terrify';

Maybe alb. trim `brave, not scared'

Note:

Common alb. m > mp, mb.

    Latin tremō, -ere `tremble', tremor ` trembling', tremulus `trembling', Umbrian tremitu `tremefacito ';

    Gothic Þramstei ` locust, grasshopper (Indo Germanic *trems-, as in Old Church Slavic tręsǫ amalgamation from trem- and tres-); Old Saxon thrimman stem verb `to bloat, bulge, swell' or ` be grieving, be afflicted '; Old Icelandic Þramma `trample, go heavily ', Middle Low German drammen `rant, roister, urge violently', dram `din, fuss, noise, crowdedness, turmoil ' (: Latvian tremt); -mm- intensive gemination?

    Lithuanian trìmti ` tremble', trémti ` knock down; banish, drive out', sutramìnti ` stumble softly ', Latvian tremt `drive away', tramš `easily scared, jumpy (of horses)', tramîgs `shy, bashful', tram̃dît `frighten, hunt, chase'; Ukrainian tremèú, tremtḯty `tremble, quiver'; Old Church Slavic tręsǫ, tręsti `shake, upset', sę `tremble', trǫsь `σεισμός ' (Slavic *trems-, *troms-, see above);

    Tocharian A träm- ` be furiously angry', В tremi `rage, fury'.

References: WP. I 758, WH. II 701, Trautmann 329 f., Vasmer 3, 144, 146 f.

See also: compare ter-1` wriggle ', from which *trem- and *tres- are extended.

Page(s): 1092-1093


Root / lemma: trenk-1

Meaning: to push; to oppress

Note: s. also trenk- `wash, bathe'

Material: Avestan ϑraxtanąm Gen. Pl. ` crowded, densely packed ' (adjusting in the meaning to Germanic);

    Latin truncus `tree truck, trunk', Adj. `mutilated', truncō, -āre ` maim| mutilate; strip of branches| foliage; cut off  '; gall. trincos `a kind of gladiator' (Vendryes RC. 39, 404 f.); perhaps Old Irish di-fo-thracc- `wish', verbal noun dūthracht; probably (as ` be pushed ') Old Irish Middle Irish trēicim ` leave, retreat', Welsh trengi ` wilt, wither, die', tranc, Pl. trangau m. ` parting, death, end';

maybe alb. trung `stump', alb. Geg (*truncus) truni `(*a dolt, blockhead), brain, head' from Latin truncus -a -um `maimed, mutilated, cut short. M. as subst. truncus -i, a lopped tree, the trunk of a tree; the trunk of a human body. Transf. a dolt, blockhead'. also alb. tr¹gull, trangull `cucumber; a dolt, blockhead'.

    Gothic Þreihan `urge, press, push' (from Proto German *Þrenχō, *Þrinχō; through vowel gradation derailment Þráih, Þraíhans; faihu-Þraihna (Dative Sg.) ` richness '; also Old Saxon thrēgian, Middle Low German Dutch dreigen `threaten'? A West Germanic*Þrīh- = Gothic Þreih- certainly in Middle High German drīhe `pin, small needle, handtool of interlacing and weaving ';

with grammatical variation Old Icelandic Þryngja, -va, Þrǫng `urge, push, press' (for *Þringa probably after the Adj. Þrǫngr `narrow' from *Þrangu-), Old Saxon thringan, Old English ðringan stem verb, Old High German dringan ds. (Middle High German dringen also `flax, wattle, braid, to weave', see above drīhe and compare above *terk- `turn'); causative Old Icelandic Þrøngja `urge, press, push, constrain, oblige, cause to clamp ', Middle High German drengen `urge, press, push'; Old Icelandic Þrǫngr `narrow' (= Lithuanian trankùs), Middle High German drange, gedrange Adv. `narrow'; Old Icelandic Þrǫng, Gen. -var f. `crush, narrowness', Old English drang m. `crush, packed troop, multitude, crowd', Middle High German dranc ` urge ', Old High German drangōn `urge, press, push' (= Lithuanian trankaũ);

    Old Icelandic Þrǣta, Þrætta `quarrel, squabble, dispute ' (*Þranχatjan); Old English Þrǣll ` farmhand, serf ' etc. (*Þranhilaz);

    ngr. δροῦγγος, late Latin drungus and Old Irish drong `troop, multitude, crowd' are genuine Celtic (*dhrungho-) and not Germanic loanwords; wrongly above S. 255;

    Lithuanian treñkti ` bump roaringly, poke', Frequent. trankaũ, -ýti (= Old High German drangōn), trañksmas `crush, resonance ', trankùs ` bumpy ' (actually `pushing, thrusting ' = Old Icelandic Þrǫngr); trenkù, triñkti `wash' (see also *trenk- `wash'), trìnkiu, -ė́ti `din, drone'; Latvian trìecu, trìekt ` grind, crush, squeeze hard, squash; drive away'; trìecinât `upset', truoksnis `din, fuss, noise, banging '; Old Prussian pertrinktan ` obdurate, stubborn '; Russian trutýtъ `press, bump, poke', Serbian trȕèíti ` hurl ';

   double Anlaut in slov. drǫ́kati `bump, poke, stomp, squeeze', Old Church Slavic udrǫ́èiti ` oppress, torment, smite'?.

References: WP. I 758 f., WH. II 710 f., Trautmann 328 f., Vasmer 3, 144, 145.

Page(s): 1093


Root / lemma: trenk-2

Meaning: to wash, bathe

Material: Irish fothrucud `bathe', Breton gozronquet ds. (*tronk-), Welsh trochi ` dip| plunge| immerse; sink| drown, bathe ' (-ch- probably from -nk-s-); about Lithuanian trenkù, triñkti `wash' see above.

References: WP. I 759;

See also: probably identical with trenk-1;compare above S. 819 about Lithuanian per̃ti.

Page(s): 1094


Root / lemma: trep-1

Meaning: to trample, tread

Material: Old Indic tr̥prá-, tr̥pála- `hasty, restless'? (probably from ` tripping'); afghan. drabǝl `jiggle, shake, press down'; gr. τροπέω ` press' (`step over the grapes '), ἀτραπός, hom. ἀταρπός ` footpath ' (ἀ- ` copulative, actually `well-trodden way'), τροπέοντο ἐπάτουν Hes., Οἰνοτρόποι `divinity of winegrowing'; alb. *trip = gr. τραπ- in sh-tip, sh-typ `trample on, tread over, grind, crush, squash ', për-t(r)yp ` chew ', sh-trip, zdryp ` climb down';

    Latin trepidus ` walking around anxiously, nervous| jumpy| agitated; perilous| alarming| frightened; boiling| foaming ', trepidō, -āre ` walk on tiptoe; tremble| be afraid| waver';

Old English ðrafian ` urge, press, drive, push; rebuke, reproach'; English dial. thrave, threave `drift, trailing, herd', Old Saxon thraƀōn `trot', Middle High German draben ds. (= Russian tropátь), Swedish trav ` rigid snow on the way', travla ` tread down (snow) ' (besides probably through hybridization with Germanic *trep-, *tremp-, see below der- `run', Middle Low German drampen `trample', East Frisian Dutch drempel, Low German drumpel ` threshold', Middle Low German dorpel ` threshold');

    Lithuanian trepsė́ti (3. Persian trèpsi, old trèpsti) ` trample with the feet ', trep-(l)énti ds., trypsė́ti ds., vowel gradation trypiù, trỹpti `trample' (for *trip-); trapinė́ti ` bump with the feet', Old Prussian trapt `tread', ertreppa ` be trespassed ';

    Old Church Slavic trepetъ ` trembling, earthquake ', trepetati `tremble', trepati ` stroke; coax| flatter| wheedle ', Bulgarian trópam ` stamp, trample, trapple', trópot m. ` trampling ', Russian tropátь `stomp, trample, with den feet treten', tropá f. ` path, track; trail, scent '.

References: WP. I 756, WH. II 701 f., Trautmann 329, Vasrner 3, 136, 140 f.

See also: As trem- and tres- probably extension from ter-1 ` wriggle '.

Page(s): 1094


Root / lemma: trep-2

Meaning: to turn; to bow the head (of shame)

Material: Old Indic trápatē ` feels ashamed, be embarrassed ', trapā́ f. `the genitals, shame, embarrassment ';

    gr. τρέπω, Doric Ionian τράπω `turn', τροπή ` reversal ', τρόπος ` turn ', τρόπις `keel, basic beam of the ship' (actually ` turner '), τρωπάω `turn, change', Med. ` turn round, turn back ', ἐν-τρέπομαι ` wende mich jemandem zu, schäme mich vor jemandem ', εὐτράπελος `movable, nimble'; τερπικέραυνος in spite of τερπώμεθα τρεπώμεθα Hes. not `fulmina torquens ', but to τέρπειν, -εσθαι as ` der Blitzfrohe ';

    Latin trepit `vertit '; turpis (*tr̥pis) `ugly; nasty; disgraceful; indecent; base| shameful| disgusting| repulsive ' (formation like Gothic brūks `usable'), -ur- instead of -or- dialect.

Maybe alb. (*turpis) turp `shame' a Latin loanword.

References: WP. I 756 f., WH. II 702, 719, Mayrhofer 530.

See also: Indo Germanic trep- ` turn ' extension from ter-3 `rub, chafe spinning, turn'?

Page(s): 1094


Root / lemma: trep-3, treb-

See also: see above S. 1037 under (s)trep-.

Page(s): 1095


Root / lemma: tres-, ters- (*teres-)

Meaning: to tremble

Material: Old Indic trásati ` trembles ' (= gr. τρέω), trastá- `trembling' causative trāsayati `makes tremble'; Avestan taršta- (Aryan *tr̥ṣta- `timorous'), tǝrǝsaiti, Old Persian tarsatiy ` fears, dreads' (*tr̥s-[s]k̂ō) = Lithuanian trišù); causative Avestan Þrā̊ŋhayete ` moves in fear '; perhaps Armenian erer ` tremor, quake, trembling' (*tres-ri-); (common Armenian te- > e- shift)

    Latin terreo, -ēre ` frighten| scare| terrify| deter ' (that e instead of the causative o derives from:) terror `fright'; Umbrian tursitu `terrētō, fugātō ';

    gr. τρέω (Aor. hom. τρέσσαι) `tremble, flee', ἔτερσεν ἐφόβησεν Hes., ἄτρεστος `intrepid, brave', τρηρός (*τρασρός), τρήρων `timorous, fleeting ';

    Middle Irish tarrach `timorous' (*tr̥s-āko-); Old English ðrǣs `fringe' (compare Old Indic trasaṇa-m `a mobile, shaking ornament, decoration');

    Lithuanian trisù `tremble' (*tr̥s-[s]k̂ō); Latvian trìsas f. Pl. `trembling', trisêt `tremble, quiver', perhaps Lithuanian tresiù, trė̃sti ` being in heat, being prepared for sexual activity '.

References: WP. I 760, WH. II 674 f., Trautmann 329;

See also: to 1. ter-1 ` wriggle '.

Page(s): 1095


Root / lemma: tr-eu-d-

Meaning: to press, push, * displeasure

Note: probably extension to ter-3, tereu- `rub'

Note:

Root / lemma: tr-eu-d- : `to press, push, * displeasure' derived from Root / lemma: dreĝh- : `unwilling, displeased' [common Illyrian-Baltic -ĝh- > -d-, Illyrian alb. -g > -th.

Material: Alb. treth, tredh `castrate, clip' (`*smash, crush testicles') = Latin trūdō, -ere ` thrust| push| shove; drive| force; drive on' (trūdis ` metal-tipped pole| barge-pole');

Maybe nasalized alb. ndrydh `twist', also prefixed shtrydh `squeeze'.

Middle Welsh cythruð `torment, smite', godruð `wild', gorthruð ` oppression, depression, exploitation, suppression ' (*-treudo-); Middle Irish trotaid ` disputed' (*truzd- from *trud-d-), Welsh trythill, drythill ` lustful ' (out of it Middle Irish treitell ` darling'); Old Irish tromm, Welsh trwm ` heavy ' (*trudsmo- ` pressing '); Gothic usÞriutan ` fall arduously ', Old Icelandic Þrjōta `lack', Old English (ā-)ðrēotan impersonal `exhaust, become disgusted with ', Old High German (ar-, bi-)driozan `beset, bother, annoy', Modern High German verdrießen ` to irritate somebody '; Old Icelandic Þrjōtr ` unruly, unmanageable, wilful, stubborn person', Old High German urdrioz ` displeasure '; Old Icelandic Þraut f. ` trial of strength, showdown, crowdedness', Old English ðrēat m. `crush, coerciveness, threat ', Middle High German drōz ` displeasure, load, complaint ' (= Slavic trudъ); Old English ðrēat(n)ian `urge, press, push, torment, smite, scold, chide, threaten';  

    Old English ðrīetan `exhaust (transitive.), urge, press, push', Old Icelandic Þreyta ` consume power, withstand, exhaust (transitive. and intransitive)'; Old Icelandic Þrȳsta, Old High German ðrūstit, Old English geðryscan ` distress ', ðrysman `choke; suppress, crush', Middle Low German drussemen ` throttle, strangle, crush '; Old Church Slavic trudъ `toil', truždǫ, truditi ` grouch, torment, smite'.

Maybe alb. trys, trysa (aor.) `press, compress, squeeze' Slavic loanword.

References: WP. I 755, WH. II 710, Trautmann 326, Vasmer 3, 143, Loth RC 41, 226 ff.

Page(s): 1095-1096


Root / lemma: trē̆b-, trōb-, treb- or trǝb-, tr̥b-

Meaning: building, dwelling

Material: Latin trabs and trabēs, -is f. ` tree trunk; log| club| spear; beam| timber| rafter; ship| vessel; roof| house ', taberna ` tavern| inn; booth| hut| cottage| hove| small shop ' (dissimilation from *traberna); (common lat. - alb. -r- dissimilation)

    Oscan trííbúm ` building; edifice| structure ', trííbarakavúm `aedificare ' (*trēb-), Umbrian tremnu `tabernāculo ', trebeit `versātur ' (*trēb- or *trĕb-); Old Welsh treb, Modern Welsh tref, Old Breton treb `dwelling', Middle Irish treb `house, estate', Old Irish dī-thrub, Welsh di-dref ` desert, waste, wasteland, hermitage ', Old Irish atreba (*ad-treb-) ` owns, possesses, dwells ', Welsh athref `dwelling, property, estate ', gall. VN Atrebates ` resident '; about Middle Irish trebaid ` cultivated, inhabited, populated ', see above S. 1071;

    Old English ðorp, ðrop `estate, courtyard, village', Old Frisian therp and thorp, Old Saxon thorp, Old High German dorf `village', Old Icelandic Þorp ` homestead ', Gothic Þaúrp `field, farmland'; Old Icelandic Þrep n. ` top soil, slatted ground, gallery, raised balcony-like area, narrow covered walkway which is open on one or both sides, terrace, bench, step ', Þrepi m. ` elevated base, foundation ' (besides also Þrafni m. `staff, balk, beam', Þref n. ds. from a root variant in Indo Germanic p, as presumably gr. τράπηξ - Attic inschr. τράφ&##951;ξ - Aeolic τρόπηξ Hes. `picket, pole, shipboard ');  

    vowel gradation Lithuanian trobà (Akk. tróbą) `house, edifice, building', Latvian trāba `edifice, building', Old Prussian in PN. Troben;

    a full root form terǝb- in gr. τέραμνα, assimilation τέρεμνα Pl. `house, dwelling' (*terǝb-no-), from which borrowed Old Church Slavic trěmъ `tower', etc.; about gr. θεράπνη `dwelling' s. Kretschmer Gl. 24, 90 f.

References: WP. I 757 f., WH. II 696 f., Trautmann 330, Vasmer 3, 95 f., 97.

Page(s): 1090


Root / lemma: trē̆u-

Meaning: to prosper

Note: extended treu-s-

Material: Avestan Perf. 3. Sg. Med. tuϑruyē (i.e. tuϑruwē) ` has gathered, maintained ', present-stem ϑraoš- (ϑraošta) ` bring to ripeness, consummation, perfection, completion ', ϑraošti- ` ripeness, completion, end';

    Old High German triuuit (Alemannian t- for Þ-) `excellet, pollet, floret '; trowwen (*Þraujan) ` ripen, thrive ', Middle High German ūf gedrouwen ` mature, grown'; Old Icelandic Þrōask `grow, thrive, ripen' (*Þrōwōn), Middle High German druo f. `fruit', Old - Modern High German druhen, truhen `thrive, grow ', Swiss trüehen ds.; Old Icelandic Þrūðr f. ` power ', Old English ðrȳð ds.; Old Icelandic Þroskr (*trusko-) `( mature, ripe, mellow, seasoned, full-grown) strong', Þroski m. ` strength ', Þroskask ` become strong '.

References: WP. I 754. 

Page(s): 1095


Root / lemma: trii̯ǝto-, trīto- (*tristhon-)

Meaning: sea, watery

Material: Old Irish trïath, Gen. trethan `sea' (proto Celtic *tri̯aton-); gr. Τρί̄των, son of Poseidon or Nereus and the ᾽Αμφι-τρί̄τη, also river name, Tρῑτωνίς f. `sea in Libya'; Τρῑτογένεια `epithet of Athene' which can be elucidated rather as Tρῐτογενεια ` born in 3. days ' with metr. lengthening of ι.

Note:

The origin of gr. Τρί̄των `son of Poseidon or Nereus' derived from the trident weapon of the sea god. It was initially a number and later it became the name for the sea (see Root / lemma: trei- : `three' tris-no- in gr. θρῖναξ `trident, three pronged weapon of Poseidon'.)

References: WP. I 760.

Page(s): 1096


Root / lemma: tris-

Meaning: stalk; vine

Material: Gr. θρινία ἄμπελος ἐν Kρήτῃ (*trisniā);

alb. trishë ` scion, sprout'; (a Slavic loanword)

Serbo-Croatian trs ` vine, reed' (trsje ` vineyard '), Czech trs `stalk of the plant', vinný trs ` grapevine ', slov. ters ` grapevine ' (Slavic *trьso-). 

References: WP. I 760 f.

Page(s): 1096


Root / lemma: trozdos- : tr̥zdos-

Meaning: blackbird

Note: compare above S. 1079

Material: Latin turdus, -ī m. `thrush, juniper thrush, genus of songbirds; a fish' (*tr̥zdos, with dial. u?); Middle Irish truit, druit f., nir. truid, druid ` starling' (*trozdi-); from Irish borrowed Middle Welsh trydw, drydw (after drud ` great ' transfigured to drudw), Breton dred, tred (older Pl.), Old Cornish troet m., Modern Cornish tros, Pl. tryjy, treyju, singular f. Middle Cornish troʒan;

 

besides Old Breton tra[s]cl, Modern Breton drask(l) m., Vannes also taraskl, f. Welsh tresglen `thrush'; Old Icelandic Þrǫstr (*Þrastu-z, compare to u-stem Welsh trydw) `thrush', Norwegian trost, trast; unclear Middle High German drostel, Old English drostle (Germanic *Þrustalō-), Old High German drosca-(la), Middle High German Bavarian dró́schel, schwäb.-Alemannian drostlǝ (Germanic *Þrau(d)-sk-, -st-), Old English ðrysce (*Þruskjōn, English thrush; Middle Low German drōsle, Old Low German thrōsla (reshaped from *throstla after *ōsla = Old English ōsle, Modern High German `blackbird'); proto Germanic -au- and -u- perhaps through influence of a sound group with u, as in gr. τρύζω ` coo ', τρῡγών `turtledove', poln. trukać ds., etc.; Balto-Slavic *trazda- m. `thrush' in Old Prussian tresde f., Lithuanian strãzdas, Latvian strãzds m.; Slavic *drozdъ in Russian drozd (Gen. drozdá) etc.

References: WP. I 761 f., WH. II 718, Trautmann 327, Specht Indo Germanic Dekl. 49.

Page(s): 1096 


Root / lemma: truk̂-

See also: see below tu̯erk̂-.

Page(s): 1097


Root / lemma: trus-

Meaning: reed

Material: Gr. θρύον ` bulrush' as *τρυhον (?), *trusom to Old Church Slavic trъstь, Serbo-Croatian trst, trska etc. ` reed ', Lithuanian tr(i)ušìs ds., strùstė, strustìs, srustìs ` pipe chip or phloem stripe '. Doubtful, because bulrush and reed are two totally various things.

References: WP. I 762, Trautmann 330, Vasmer 3, 141, 145.

Page(s): 1097


Root / lemma: trū̆of-

Meaning: leprosy

Material: Old Irish trosc ` leprosy ' (*trŭds-ko-); Breton trousk `dandruff', trouskan ` moss ', Welsh trwsg(l) `raw'; Gothic Þrūts-fill n. ` leprosy ', Old English ðrūstfell (for *ðrūts-) ` leprosy '; compare gr. τρύω ` rub', Lithuanian trunė́ti `modern, *polished ' (see ter(eu)- `rub', basic meaning then perhaps ` scratchy') and Latin trūdō etc. (see *treud-).

References: WP. I 762, I. Williams BBCS. 11, 142 f.

Page(s): 1096-1097


Root / lemma: tu, tutu

Meaning: chirping of birds

Material: Old Indic thuthukr̥t- m. `a certain bird, dove, wood pigeon '; gr. τυτώ ἡ γλαῦξ Hes., τοῦτις ὁ κόσσυφος Hes.; Latin tutubāre `cry' (of the owl), compare Plaut. Men. 653 f. `vīn adferri noctuam, quae `tū, tū' usque dicat tibi?'; Lithuanian tūtúoti `toot', tutlỹs, tutùtis `hoopoe';

in Germanic created anew (or with faltering consonant shift in onomatopoeic word) Middle Low German (Modern High German) tūten `toot', Old Icelandic tauta, tutla `murmur';

Maybe alb. tut `righten, make mum '

as old type (*tū with d-present) Old English ðūtan ` emitting a sound', Old Icelandic Þjōta `howl, produce a strong sound ', Old English ðēotan `howl, resound, rant, roister', Old High German diozan ` sound loudly, clink', Old Icelandic Þytr ` strong sound, tone, wailing ', Middle High German duz, diez, dōz ` clangor, noise', Gothic Þuthaúrn ` horn, trumpet ', Old Icelandic Þyss `din, fuss, noise', Old English ðyssa m. `Toser'.

References: WP. I 745, WH. II 724, Mayrhofer 1, 542.

Page(s): 1097


Root / lemma: tu̯ak-2

Meaning: to bathe

Material: Old Prussian twaxtan ` bath brush' (*tu̯akstom);

    Gothic Þwahan, Þwōh, Old Icelandic Þvā, Old English ðwēan `bathe', Old High German dwahan, dwōg, twuog `wash', Old Icelandic Þvāttr (*Þwahtu-) `the washing' etc.; Old Icelandic Þvál n. ` soap ', Gothic Þwahl n. `spa, bath', Old High German dwahal ds., Old English ðwéal m. n. `washing'; Old Saxon twahila f. `towel ', Old High German dwahila m. ds., Franconian *thwahlja ds., out of it French touaille, from which English towel.

References: WP. I 747, Trautmann 333, Johannesson 451.

Page(s): 1098


Root / lemma: tu̯akos

Meaning: skin

Grammatical information: n.

Material:

Hittite: twekka- (twikka-) c. `Körper, Person, selbst '  (Friedrich 226)

Old Indian: tvacas- `skin '  (in comp. as wie hiraṇya-tvacas-), {tvacasya- in der Haut befindlich}, tvaca- n., tvác- f. `skin, hide, bark, peel '  

Old Greek: sákos n. `Schild (aus Leder) '  (Cretan word acc. to AB 1096)

 

Old Indic tvacas- `skin' (in compound as hiranya-tvacas- `golden skin ' and in tvacasya- ` located in the skin '), besides tvák- f. `skin, fur'; gr. σάκος `shield' (of skin, leather), φερε-σσάκης ` common skullcap ';

(common Tocharian t- > ts- Greek s-, alb. s- shift)

Hittite tu̯ekkas `body, person, self '.

References: WP. I 747, Mayrhofer I, 537 f.

Page(s): 1099


Root / lemma: tu̯ā̆k-1, tuk-

Meaning: to pull together, close up

Material: Old Indic tvanakti ` contracts ' (unbel.);

    gr. Attic σάττω, Ionian σάσσω (ἔσαξα, Ionian ἔσασα; ἐσεσάχατο) ` equip, arm; fill, stuff firmly ' (*tu̯aki̯ō), σακτός ` crowded  ', with gr. γ (derailment) σάγη `armament, armor, dish, saddle, clothing', σάγμα ` covering, clothing, large cloak, covering of a shield, pack-saddle, pile, ' (> Latin sagma > Old High German soum, Modern High German Saumtier)

Maybe alb. haplology samari ` pack-saddle ' a Latin loanword;

gr. σαγήνη `fishing net', σάγουρον γυργάθιον Poll., σαγίς πήρα Hes., and theban. σάκτᾱς `physician, medicine man' and that of Latin sagana ` magician ' the basic lying *σαγάνη; σηκός, Doric σᾱκός ` hurdle, stall, sacred place'; σηκάζω ` place in a pen or coop, lock up, imprison ', Doric σᾱκί̄τᾱς ` lamb drawn up in the sheepfarm ', σηκίς, -ίδος ` slave '; also probably σηκόω ` weigh ', σήκωμα ` weight; equivalent value, guerdon, reward, recompense, prize, trophy ';

with gradation ō probably hom. σῶκος `strong', σωκέω `be strong, have power ';

zero grade συχνός ` packed, numerous' (*τυκ-σνος).

(common Tocharian t- > ts- Greek s-, alb. s- shift)

References: WP. I 746 f., WH. II 463, Kuiper Indo Germanic Nasalpräs. 122.

Page(s): 1098


Root / lemma: tu̯ei-2, extended tu̯ei-s-

Meaning: to excite, shake, move around; to shimmer

Grammatical information: (s-present; to es-stem tu̯ei̯os-, tu̯ei̯es-, Avestan ϑwayah-)

Note: = tu̯eis- `sparkle, glitter', because ` lively movement - flicker, shimmer, sparkle, glitter' is a common meaning relation.

Material: Old Indic tviṣ- ` be excited, aroused; sparkle, glitter, gleam' (present tvēṣati, átviṣur ` they were excited, dismayed ', 3. Sg. átviṣata, titviṣḗ), tveṣá- ` boisterous; scintillant, flickering, sparkling, gleaming', tviṣ-, tviṣi- f. ` excitement, impetuousness, hastiness; radiance '; Proto Indic (Mitanni) PN Tušratta maybe from *Tviṣ(a)-ratha- = Old Indic tveṣá-ratha- ` whose chariot penetrates vehemently ';

    Avestan ϑwy-ant- participle `fear erweckend', upā-ϑwayeiti ` be afraid, be frightened ', ϑwyā ` horror, danger', ϑwayah- n. ds. (therefrom ϑwayaŋha- n. ` dangerous state, danger', ϑwayaŋhant- `terrible, dangerous'); ϑwaēsō n. `fear, a trembling, quaking, shaking, terror, anxiety, fear, dread, alarm '; ϑwisra- `luminous' (would be Old Indic*tvicchra-);

    gr. σείω `shake, swing, brandish, shatter' (*tu̯eisō; ἐπι-σσείων; σέσεισμαι), zero grades participle σιών (: Old Indic a-tviṣ-ata), σεῖσμα, σεισμός ` tremor, earthquake '; from a *tu̯eis-ros `scintillant, flickering, sparkling' derives σείριος `blazing, burning (summery); Sirius, the Dog Star, star generally ', σείρ, σειρός ὁ ἥλιος καὶ σείριος Suidas (to consonant-stem probably has changed after ἀστήρ); if σῑγαλόεις ` glimmering ' (σῑγαλόω ` polish, make blank') here is lined up (: tu̯is- + γαλ[ήνη]), it must be analyzed perhaps as tu̯isi- (composition form besides *tu̯eis-ro-) + γαλος, perhaps ` of sparkled brightness '

(common Tocharian t- > ts- Greek s-, alb. s- shift)

References: WP. I 748, Mayrhofer 1, 540.

Page(s): 1099


Root / lemma: tu̯enĝh-

Meaning: to oppress

Material: Avestan ϑwązjaiti ` gets in distress ' (Avestan *tu̯anzǵhati with -zgh- from Indo Germanic -ĝh + skō), to Old Saxon thwingan, Old High German dwingan `press, constrain, oppress', Old Icelandic Þvinga, -aða `constrain, oblige, bother, annoy,, plague', Old English ðwinglian ` unfasten '; but Old High German dūhen `press, oppress ' (Modern High German deuhen, dauhen), Old English ðȳn, ðēon (preterit ðȳde) `press, bother, annoy, constrain, oblige, bump, poke, prick' from *Þūhjan (*Þunχian), whereupon also Middle Dutch dūwen, douwen `press', and probably also anfrk. bethūwen `suppress' and Old English ðȳwan `press, beset, scold, chide, punish ' go back, they belong to (s)teuk-, above S. 1032.

References: WP. I 748 f., Kuiper Nasalpräs. 126.

Page(s): 1099-1100


Root / lemma: tu̯en-

See also: see below tēu-6.

Page(s): 1099


Root / lemma: tu̯erk̂-

Meaning: to cut

Material: Avestan ϑwarǝs- `cut, clip, form carving ', participle ϑwaršta-, ϑwōrǝštar- or ϑwarǝxštar- `creator, god, molder': Old Indic GN Tváṣṭā (-ar-) from *Tvárṣṭar; in addition probably gr. σάρξ, -κός `flesh', Pl. `< chunks of meat ' (Aeolic σύρκες), σαρκάζειν ` tear, bite the lips, mock ', σαρκό-φαγος ` carnivorous, meat-eating ', Subst. Sarg `coffin' (> Latin sarcophagus > Old High German sarch, Modern High German Sarg); if as ` cross section' here also the family of Old High German dwerah ` across, athwart ' (etc., see below terk- `turn')?

    A tu̯r̥k̂- resulted from *truk̂- one seeks in Latin trux, trūcis ` wild| savage| fierce ', truculentus ` ferocious| aggressive ', trucīdāre ` slaughter| butcher| massacre ' (from *truci-caidos to Latin caedō above S. 917), to Old Irish trū (*truk-s) `totgeweiht ', Gen. troch (*trukós). 

References: WP. I 751, WH. II 695, 709, 711 f., Mayrhofer 1, 539.

Page(s): 1102


Root / lemma: tu̯er-1 : tur- and tu̯r̥-

Meaning: to turn, whirl

Note: from which partly tru-

Material: A. Old Indic tváratē, turáti ` hurries ', tū́ryatē ds., tūrṇa-, tū́rṇi- `hasty', turá- in the meaning `rash, hasty' (not to turá- `strong', that to tēu- `to swell'), turáṇa- `hurrying', turaṇyáti ` hurries ' (: ὀτρύ̄νω from ὀ-τρυ-ν-ι̯ω), Avestan ϑwāša- (Aryan *tvárta-) `hasty'; turaga- `horse' (`rusher, racer');

Maybe alb. turrem ` hurry'.

    gr. ὀ-τρύ̄νω (ὀ prefix) ` set in motion ', Med. ` hurry ', ὀτραλέος (*τFρα- = Indo Germanic tu̯r̥-), ὀτρηρός `nimble, agile' (compare without prefix τρηρόν ἐλαφρόν Hes.); τορύ̄νη ` mixing trowel ', τορύνω ` stir, mix' (*τυρυνᾱ);

    Latin trua f. ` ladle, also for stirring while cooking ', trulla, truella ` ladle| pan or basin ', trulleum `bowl, washbasin ', probably also amptruō, -āre ` executee a figure/movement (by leader of ceremonial dance) ';

    Old High German dweran stem verb ` twiddle fast, stir, mix' (Modern High German Bavarian zweren), Old English ðweran ` bestir ', ge-ðwer `curd', Swedish tvära `stir'; Old Icelandic Þvara `verticil, whorl, group of parts (leaves, flowers, etc.) arranged in a circle', Old English ðwǣre, ðwēre f. `tudicula ';

Old Icelandic Þyrill, Old English ðwirel, Old High German dwiril `verticil, whorl, group of parts (leaves, flowers, etc.) arranged in a circle, stirring stick'; Middle Low German dwarl, dwerl `whirl, curl '; Icelandic Þyrla `whirl', Modern High German dorlen ` revolve, swing'; Old Icelandic Þori m. `bulk, mass, greatness, bulk, extent, allotment ', from the sound impression of a messy-whirling crowd probably also Old Icelandic Þyrja `run, buzz, whirr ', Þurs, Þors `fiend, demon, giant ', Old English ðyrs ` giant, demon', Old High German thuris, dur(i)s, turs ds.;

    B. with b- extended: gr. σύρβη, Attic τύρβη `din, fuss, noise, perplexity', Adv. σύρβᾰ, Attic τύρβᾰ ` chaos, mess '; (common Tocharian t- > ts- Greek s-, alb. s- shift)

Maybe alb. (*σύρβα) zhurma `din, fuss, noise' a Greek loanword.

Latin turba f. ` commotion| uproar| turmoil| tumult| disturbance; crowd| mob| multitude ', turbō, -āre `bewilder, mix up', turbō, -inis m. ` that which whirls; whirlwind| tornado; spinning top; spiral| round| circle'; Middle Irish torbaid ` baffle ', Welsh twrf m. `din, fuss, noise' (Latin loanword torf f.), tyrfu `rant, roister' (M. O'Brien Ériu 11, 91); Old Icelandic Þorp `Menschenhaufen ', Þyrpa `urge, press, push'; perhaps Hittite tarup(p)- `unite, assemble'; 

    C. with m-formants: Latin turma `troop, multitude, crowd, swarm '.

Alb. turma ` crowd' a Latin loanword.

Old Icelandic Þruma f., Þrymr m. `din, fuss, noise, crash, blast', Old English ðrymm m. `troop, multitude, crowd, bulk, mass, power, glory, magnificence, radiance ', ðrymma `warrior'; Old Saxon heru-thrum ` perishable power of the sword'; Middle High German Modern High German dial. drumeln ` reel, lurch', Swiss drümmel ` dizziness, giddiness; swindle ', and Middle High German *durm, turm `whirl, dizziness, giddiness; swindle ', Middle High German Modern High German dial. durmel, dürmel (t-) ` dizziness, giddiness; swindle, dizziness, whirl', durmig (dürmig, dürmisch) ` numbed reeling, staggering, dizzy; raging, boisterous, angry, irate';

    D. in Germanic identical in meaning family with anlaut s- and the vowel gradation Germanic *stur- and *staur-: Old High German stōr(r)en (ga-, ar-, zi-) `disturb, bother, cause confusion ', Modern High German stören `disturb, bother' (stören ` travel around the country, interfere, disrupt ', zerstören, verstört, Old Frisian tōstēra `destroy' (compare Latin turbāre : disturbāre);

vowel gradation Old Icelandic styrr, Gen. styrjar m. ` turmoil, perplexity, noise', Old English styrian `move, bewilder, agitate, tell', gestyr n. `movement', Old High German irsturien, Middle High German stürn ` poke, stick in, set in motion ', Modern High German stüren ` rummage around or dig for sth'; Old Icelandic sturla ` bring in disarray, disturb, bother', Middle High German stürel ` Werkzeug zum Stüren ';

with m-suffix (see above) Old Icelandic stormr `storm, restlessness, battle assault ', Old English storm, Old High German sturm `storm', Swiss sturm ` dizzy ', stürmi ` dizziness, giddiness; swindle '.

References: WP. I 749 f., WH. I 42, II 708 f., 718, 719, Mayrhofer 1, 514, 539, 569 f.

Page(s): 1100-1101


Root / lemma: tu̯er-2 : tur-, tu̯erǝ-

Meaning: to grab, to enclose

Material: Gr. σειρά:, ep. Ionian σειρή f. `rope, cable, band, strap' (*tu̯eri̯ā), παρά-σειρος (ἵππος) ` saddle horse', compare σερίδες σειραί and σερί[ς] ξωστήρ Hes.;

with o-gradation σορός f. ` urn ' (*tu̯oros); perhaps Σειρήν, -ῆνος ` siren (death goddess); a wild bee's kind, a small bird', whether originally `Umstrickerin ', to σειρά̄ `rope, band'; σαργάνη f., -ίς, -ίδος f. `basket, wickerwork ', compare Attic ταργάναι πλοκαί, συνδέσεις, πέδαι Hes.; perhaps extension *tu̯er-g-, compare *tu̯er-p- in gr. τάρπη f. `large basket', whether dissimilated here *tu̯-p- to *t-p-, thereafter also ταργ- besides σαργ-;

(common Tocharian t- > ts- Greek s-, alb. s- shift)

    after Loth RC 40, 475 f. here Breton torn-aod `cliff', gall. turno- `height' in PN as Turno-magus, Turnācum etc.;

    Lithuanian tveriù, tvérti `catch, touch, enclose, care for, watch over, tend to, form, mould', Latvian tveŕu, tver̂t ` grasp, catch, hold, stop', vowel gradation Lithuanian turiù, turė́ti `hold, stop, have', Latvian turu, turêt ds., Old Prussian turit ` have, possess; contain; must, should '; Lithuanian ãp-tvaras ` paddock ', tvártas ` fence ', tvarstýti ` fence numerously ', Latvian tvar̂stît ` grasp, catch, capture ';

Church Slavic tvorъ `forma', Old Church Slavic tvoriti `create, make', Old Russian tvorъ ` appearance ', Serbian tvórac `creator, god';

lengthened grade Lithuanian tvorà, Latvian tvāre `fence', Old Church Slavic tvarъ ` creation, creature'; in addition Russian tvaróg m. (from which Modern High German Quark ' `curd'), compare to formation Latin formaticum, French fromage `cheese'; originally participle: Lithuanian tvìr-tas, Latvian tvirts `strong, tight, firm' (*tu̯r̥̄-to-), Old Church Slavic tvrъdъ, Russian tvërdyj ds. (*tu̯r̥-; the variation t : d to define originally konson. stem); in addition still Old Russian tvъrdь f. ` vault of the sky, firmament, heavens, skies, fortification '.

References: WP. I 750 f., Trautmann 333 f., Vasmer 3, 85 ff., Hofmann Gr. etym. Wb. 305, 308, 353.

Page(s): 1101


Root / lemma: tu̯ē̆i-1

Meaning: to cut down, hack, hit

Material: Old English ðwītan stem verb `cut, clip, abscise ' (would be d-present; in addition) geðwit `chip, splinter', Old Icelandic Þveitr ` slash, incision ', Þveita `hew, hit, bump, poke'; Lithuanian tvýskinu, -inti ` knock immensely ', tvóju, tvóti jesting word for ` beat hard '; dubious comparison.

References: WP. I 747 f.

Page(s): 1099


Root / lemma: tu̯ī̆bh-

Meaning: hollow

Note: only gr. and Latin

Material: Gr. σί̄φων, -ωνος m. ` drainage pipe, wine siphon, fire hose, wineskin', σιφνεύς ` mole ' (`burrowing tubular way '), σιφνὸς κενός Hes. (actually `hollow'), probably also σιφλός `hollow, fragile, easily broken; unstable, dilapidated, lame', σιφλοῦν `spoil';

(common Tocharian t- > ts- Greek s-, alb. s- shift)

Latin tībia ` flute| pipe; (tube with holes for stops); tibia| shin-bone ', belongs barely to stī̆b(h)- ` shaft, pole' (above S. 1015), which has steady s-.

References: WP. I 751 f., WH. II 680.

Page(s): 1102


Root / lemma: tu̯ō[u]- : tu̯ǝu- : tū-l-

Meaning: tube

Material: Old Indic tūṇa- m., tūṇī́ f. ` quiver, case for carrying arrows ', tūṇava- m. `flute' (*tūl-n-) : Old Church Slavic tulъ ` quiver '; gr. σωλήν `gully, duct, tube, pipe, canal'; with reduplication-stem *tu̯ǝu-: *σαυρος or *σαυρα ` tube at the bottom of the lance ', in σαυρωτήρ ` a tubes-like piece put on at the lower lance end ', with n-forms σαυνίον `τὸ ἀνδρεῖον αἰδοῖον ' (`*duct, tube, pipe'), in the Koine `spear, javelin, spit, pike'.

References: WP. I 752, WH. II 688, Vasmer 3, 150, Mayrhofer 1, 518, J. Hubschmid, Bibl. Faculté de Philos. et Lettres de l'Univ. de Liége, Fasc. 129 (1953), 194.

Page(s): 1102


Root / lemma: tū-lo-

Meaning: sluggish, lazy

Material: Latvian tūĺa, tūlis `one who finishes nothing ', tūĺûot, tūĺat, tūlúotiês ` hesitate, tarry, be slow, go wavering to work; babble, chatter '; Old Icelandic Þaul f. ` imprisonment ', mǣla sik ī Þaul ` falter with the speech ', Modern Icelandic Þaul-reið ` enduring tiring equitation, horseback riding, ride ' , Þaul-sætinn ` lingering| loitering; slow to action| delaying| hesitating| hesitant; tardy ', Norwegian tūla ` work hard ', tȳla `hesitate', Latvian tūĺuotiês ds.; with other forms perhaps Latvian tauńûotiês `hesitate, vacillate, be slow'.

References: WP. I 745 f., Holthausen Altwestn. Wb. 313.

Page(s): 1098


Root / lemma: tū̆

Meaning: thou

Grammatical information: Gen. t(e)u̯e, Dative toi, tebh(e)i, Akk. te; stem tū̆-, teu̯o-, teu̯e-, tu̯o-, tu̯e- and te-

Material:

Hittite: -ta, -du-  ' dir, dich ' , -ti-  ' dein ' , tuel (G.), tuedaz (Abl.), tuk, tukka  ' dir, dich ' , zik, zigga  ' du '  (Friedrich 201, 223, 226, 227, 260)

Tokharian: A tu, B tuwe (PT *tuwe)  ' thou '  (Adams 302)

Old Indian: tú, tū, t(u)vám; te

Avestan: encl. tū, Gathic tvǝ̄m, jav. tūm; poss. tava, Gathic ʮwa-

Other Iranian: OPers tuvam

Armenian: du

Old Greek: sǘ, dor. tǘ; hom. tū́nē, lak. tū́nē, boeot. tūn; poss. hom., ion., att. só-, hom., lesb., dor. teó-, boeot. tió-; dat. toi

Slavic: *tɨ̄, dat. *tī

Baltic: *tū^, -tei, *taw-

Germanic: *ʮū, *ʮu; *ʮiki

Latin: tū, poss. tuus; tē

Other Italic: Osk tuvai  ' tuae ' ; Umbr tover  ' tui '  

Celtic: { OIr tū, tussu, -sso, Cymr usw. ti }

Albanian: ti, poss. üt, acc. tɛnt

 

1. Old Indic tú, tū́ `yet' (has changed to the emphasizing and requesting particle), Avestan tū ds., enkl. ` you '; Aryan *tuu̯-ám (after Old Indic ahám) in Old Indic tuvám, tvám, Gatha-Avestan tvǝ̄m, Younger Avestan tūm, Old Persian tuvam ` you '; Armenian du ` you ';

    gr. Doric τύ, hom. Ionian Attic σύ (σ- from the Kas. obl., where σ- from τF-), hom. τύ̄νη, lak. τούνη, Boeotian τουν (after ἐγώ-ν, -νη); (common Tocharian t- > ts- Greek s-, alb. s- shift)

alb. ti (*tū); Latin tū; Old Irish tū (*tŭ or *tū), tu-ssu, -sso (*tŭ) ` you ', Welsh ti etc. (*tū); Gothic Þu, Old Icelandic Þū and suffix Þu, Þo, Old Saxon thū, Old High German dū, du; Lithuanian tù (*tū or *tŭ?), Old Prussian tou (*tū) ` you '; Old Church Slavic ty; Tocharian A tu, В t(u)we, Hittite zik, zikka ` you ' (*tega from *te + *egō), tuk, tukka `(Dative you), you', enclitic -du- (*tu) and -ta (*te or *toi) `(Dative you), you';

Note:

Common Germanic Hittite formant -g- (*egō =` I ')

    2. Indo Germanic *teu̯e- `to you; yours, yrs, belonging to you, thine ', Celtic *tou̯e in Old Irish toī, Middle Welsh teu ` the yours ', preceding Celtic *tou > Old Irish do ` to you; yours, yrs, belonging to you, thine ', Welsh dy, Cornish the, Breton da ds.; Hittite -ti- ` to you; yours, yrs, belonging to you, thine '.

    3. possessive pronoun teu̯o-s, tu̯o-s: Old Indic tvá-ḥ, Gatha-Avestan ϑwa-, Avestan tava-, hom. Ionian Attic σός (*τFός), hom. Lesbian Doric τεός, Boeotian τιός (*τεFός); alb. y-t, Akk. tën-t (fusion of the article - + yt with the possessive pronoun);

Wrong etymology:

Maybe alb. singular (*tvojь) f. jote, m. yt (*tvot) `your' common alb. adj. + të suffix, akk. Geg. tand, Tosc tënd `your'

Latin tuus (from *tovos), Umbrian tover `tui ', Oscan tuvai `tuae '; Lithuanian tãvas, Old Church Slavic tvojь.

Maybe alb. plural (*tuvai) tuaj, suaj `to you; yours, yrs, belonging to you, thine ' (common Tocharian t- > ts- Greek s-, alb. s- shift)

References: WP. I 745, WH. II 712, Trautmann 315, 331, Jackson Lang and Hist. 657, Mayrhofer 1, 507, Vasmer 3, 102 f., Pedersen Hittitisch p. 58.

Page(s): 1097-1098


Root / lemma: ub-

Meaning: to drag, press

Material: Old Indic ubjáti ` suppresses; keeps down, presses together', Avestan ubjyāite `become oppressed ';

    Prussian-Lithuanian ũbyti ` hurry, rush, haste'.

References: WP. I 193 f., Mayrhofer 1, 107.

Page(s): 1103


Root / lemma: udero-, u̯ēdero-

Meaning: belly

Material: 1. Old Indic udára-m `belly, intumescence of belly, the thick part of a thing, cavity, the interior ', anūdara- `without belly ', Avestan udara- ds.; gr. ὅδερος γαστήρ Hes. (because of Asper rather for *ὕδερος); Latin uterus `lower abdomen, belly, esp. womb, uterus' (t for d in earliest occurring at the same time with the phonetic alteration from *udris `hose' to *utris, uter); Old Prussian weders `belly, stomach', Lithuanian vė́daras ` intestines, entrails of fish, intestines, entrails; Wurstmagen ', Latvian vêders, vêdars `belly, stomach';

    to the preposition ud belong perhaps gr. ὕστος γαστήρ Hes. (*ud-sto-s ` protrudent ') and ὑστέρα `womb, uterus' (ud + compound suffix tero-).

    2. Latin venter, -tris `stomach| womb; belly ' (could be *u̯end-ri-).

    3. Latin vē(n)sīca f. `bladder; balloon', Old Indic vastí- m. `bubble, bladder' (*u̯n̥d-ti-?); vaniṣṭhú- ` Mastdarm, oder ein in der Nähe des Netzes liegender Körperteil '; compare ἤνυστρον ` abomasum ', Old High German wan(a)st, węnist `paunch', Modern High German Wanst also ` psalterium ', vowel gradation Icelandic vinstr f. ` psalterium ', Norwegian dial. vinstr f. ` abomasum ' (*u̯enistrō); compare also Lidén KZ 61, 19 ff.

Maybe alb. veshka `kidney' a Latin loanword.

    4. Germanic *wanÞa- in Middle Low German ingewāt, ingewant, ingewende ds., Dutch ingewand; that -ge- from ingewāt is taken in this place from Eingeweide, Dutch geweide (see 1122).

References: WP. I 190 f., WH. II 750 f., 846, Trautmann 343 f., Vasmer 1, 177, Liebert Nominalsuffix -ti- 196 f.

Page(s): 1104-1105


Root / lemma: u-1

Meaning: expr. root

Material: A. As an imitation of the owl's call:

    Proto Germanic *uwwōn in Swiss huw(e), hu(e) `owl '; diminutive *uwwilōn in Old High German ūwila, Middle High German iuwel, iule, Modern High German owl, Old English ȳl-twist ` bird trap ' (with owl decoy), besides *uwwalōn in Old High German MN Ūl-, Middle Low German Low German Old English ūle, nnl. uil, English owl, Old Icelandic ugla; compare Modern High German Uhu (md.) and (suffixed with p-) Germanic *ūf- in Old Icelandic ūfr, Old English ūf, Old Bavarian ūvo, Bavarian- Austrian auf;

    in addition Latvian ũpis `eagle owl', ũpêt `cry (of owls and pigeons)', Lithuanian ùpas ` echo ', Old Russian vyplь, Church Slavic vypъ ` seagull', Russian vyp m., vypь f. ` bittern, any of a number of brown herons which live in marshes ' (somewhat different Latvian ūbuôt ` coo, of pigeons ', ūbele `turtledove'); compare Old Indic uhū́- ` crying ' and Latin ulula ` tawny owl ' under ul-.

In -t dental suffix:

Maybe alb. hutë `owl ', hutoj `daze, scare '

    B. k-extension uk-, euk-: Old Irish uch `blow, wave, whiffle, flutter!' and `sigh', Middle Irish also och, ach ds.; perhaps Gothic auhjōn `rant, roister', auhjōdus `din, fuss, noise, turmoil ' (áu, aú?), Latvian aũka `whirlwind', Old Prussian aukis `griffin', Lithuanian apúokas ` a night-owl, an owl ', Latvian ūkšuot ` jubilate ', Serbian ukati, uèati ` shout whew', ȕka `clamor'. 

Maybe alb. hukat ` shout ' a Slavic loanword.

References: WP. I 187, WH. I 119, Trautmann 335, Vasmer 1, 226, 240, Kluge-Götze16 182, 881 f., Mühlenbach-Endzelin 4, 409.

Page(s): 1103


Root / lemma: u-2

See also: s. au-4 S. 73 f.

Page(s): 1103


Root / lemma: ul-

Meaning: to howl

Note: various reduplication ulul-

Material: Old Indic úlūka- m. = Latin (gloss.) ulucus ` owl ';

    Old Indic ululí-, ulūlú- `ululabilis, ululatus', gr. ὑλάω, ὑλακτέω `bark', Latin ululāre `howl', ulula f. ` tawny owl ',

Maybe alb. (*ululāre) ulëras, ulërij `howl'.

Lithuanian ulula bañgos ` es heulen die Wellen ', ulūlóti, ulóti ` shout hello ', ulbúoti, ùlbauti `call, shout, sing, cry';

    but Old Irish ilach `clamor' (*eluko-), Middle Irish also ulach ds., nir. olchobhchán, ulchobhchán, ulgadán `owl ' probably to el-, ol-.

References: WP. I 194, WH. II 813 f.; compare el-, ol- S. 306.

Page(s): 1105


Root / lemma: upér, upéri

Meaning: over, above

Note: related with upo s. d.

Material: 1. Old Indic upári, Avestan upairi, Old Persian upariy ` about - there, about - out (Akk.); about - toward (Instr); about (Gen.) '; Armenian probably i ver ` up, above' (probably *uper; besides from case forms of *upero-:) i veroy `if, over ', i veray ` about that, next, afterwards; thereupon ' (these as preposition from Gen. `about, at ');

    gr. ὑπέρ, preverb `about, about - out' and preposition `about - toward, about - out (Akk.); about' also in sense from Latin dē; ` down/away from| from| off; about| of| concerning; according to; with regard to (m. real Gen.; Arcadian with Dative-Locative) '; Latin Umbrian super (to s- see below upo) preverb ` above| on top| over; upwards; moreover| in addition| besides ' and preposition `about, about - toward, about - out (Akk.); about' (`Abl.' = Locative);

Old Irish for-, for preverb `about, up' and preposition `about, about - toward, about - out (Akk); about on (`Dative' = Instrumental or Locative)', Welsh gor-, gwar-, Cornish gor-, Breton gour-, gall. uer-tragus `a kind of light-footed dog ', PN Ver-cingeto-rīx (whose Island Celtic-o- after Irish fo-, brit. gwo-);

Note:

English                         peninsula                                   

            Albanian                       gad-ishull                                   

            Breton              gour-enez                                  

            Welsh               gor-ynys

 

English                         island ; isle      

             Latin                  insula N F island; apartment house

            Spanish                        ínsula                            

            Albanian                       ishull                             

            Calabrese                     isula                              

            Irish                               inis                               

            Romagnolo                   ìsula                              

            Romanian                     insula                            

            Sardinian Campidanesu                         ìsula                              

            Wallon              iye ; iyea                                   

            Welsh               ynys                              

Hence Albanian gadishull peninsula was a Celtic translation of Latin paene ADV nearly| almost; mostly + insula N F island = paeninsula N F peninsula

This is typical of Albanian behaviour merging a native Celtic word (gwa) `upper '  + a loanword ishull (lat. insula ` island ').

    Celtic *vertamo- `the highest ' in VN Vertamo-cori(ī), changing through vowel gradation Welsh gwar-thaf `height' (*vortamos); keltiber. ueramos ` the highest ' (*uperemos);

    Gothic ufar, Old Icelandic yfir (*úperi); Old High German uber (*upéri), with the inlaut preserved i- Old High German ubari, ubiri preverb `about' and preposition `about, about - toward, about = out (Akk.); about' (`Dative' = Instrumental or Lok).

    2. Old Indic úpara- `the lower, near' = Avestan upara- `the upper'; gr. ὕπερος ` pestle, muller, stick used for grinding with a mortar; any tool used to crush or pulverize materials ', ὑπέρᾱ ` upper rope, band' (ὑπερῴα ` palate', ὑπερώιον ` upper chamber ' are unclear);

Latin super, superus ` above| on top| over; upwards; moreover| in addition| besides ', Oscan supruis ` that is above, upper, higher ' (therefrom Latin suprā `Adv. over, on the top; of time, before, previously; in writing, above; of amount, etc.. over, more, beyond; Prep. with acc. above, over; of time, before; of amount, more than, above, beyond', superior, suprēmus, Umbrian subra `above', supru Adv. `above'; Latin supernus ` heavenly; celestial; of the gods; lofty| above; on the surface/upper side ', Umbrian superne m. Akk. ` over, above, upon, on '); Gothic ufarō Adv. `about, above', Old High German obaro Adj. ` that is above, upper, higher ', Old English yferra ds. (*uƀerizō; superlative уfemest see below upo).

References: WP. I 192, WH. II 613 ff., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 2, 518 ff. Mayrhofer 1, 105 f.

Page(s): 1105-1106


Root / lemma: upo, up, eup, (e)up-s-

Meaning: under, from under, etc..

Note: from the meaning ` from below up ' it has coined the meaning ` up, about ', partly here, esp., however, in related *upér(i) (see d.), as well as in the group ὑψῃλός etc.; Indo Germanic upo is preverb (e.g. Old Indic úpa-i-, gr. ὕπ-ειμι, Latin sub-eō) and preposition with different cases.

Material: 1. Old Indic úpa preverb and preposition ` toward - to (Akk.); in, by, to (Locative); in the course of, according to, with in sense of the accompaniment (Instrumental)', Avestan upa, Old Persian upā preverb and preposition ` toward - to, in, on (Akk.); by, in (Locative)';

    gr. ὑπό preverb and preposition ` at the bottom of something near, under something (Akk.); at the bottom of, under (`Dative ', actually Locative and partly maybe Instrumental); under; from the originator with the passive (Gen. of the field); from below away, under - from (Abl.)';

    Latin sub (s- from *[e]ks-, compare gr. ἐξύπερθεν; -b from -p as in ab = gr. ἀπ𓢹), preverb and preposition ` under| beneath| behind| at the foot of (rest); within; during| about (time) ' (Akk.; also chronologically, e.g. sub noctem); `at the bottom of, under ' (`Abl.', actually Locative), as Oscan συπ μεδικιαι (partly perhaps Instrumental, as Umbrian su maronato `sub *maronatu '), besides subs- (as abs) in sustineō  and in susque dēque ferō ` aequō animō ferō ' (Gell.), compare also under the group from ὕψι, Umbrian sub-, su-, Oscan συπ; Old Irish fo preverb and preposition `under' (Akk., `Dative' = Locative or partly perhaps Instrumental), Old Welsh guo-, gu-, gua-, Modern Welsh go-, gwa-, Cornish go-, gu-, Breton gou- preverb and in compound gall. vo- (Voretus ), ve- (gr.-Celtic-Latin parave-rēdus ` extra posthorse', from which Modern High German Pferd); 

maybe alb. (*subeo, subito) shpejt 'sudden, fast'.

    perhaps Welsh gorau `best' from *uper-esu (= gr. ὑπέρ-ευ `very good', L.-P. S. 186) or from *uper-gousom (compare S. 399) after Binchy J. C. stem 1, 148 ff.; that о from Celtic vo-;

with Old Indic upa-sthāna-m `service', úpa-sti-, upa-stí- m. ` subordinate, servant' compare Middle Irish foss `servant' (*upo-sto-), Welsh Breton gwas, Cornish guas ds., gall. PN Vasso-rīx etc., Middle Latin vassus, vassallus, all to root stā- S. 1005, 1008, as also Old Irish foth `replacement, equivalent' (fo + tā) but Middle Irish fothae ` foundation, origin, source, beginning; an ancestor ' from fo + suide (see 885); 

    Gothic uf (ub-uh) prefix `at, on, under', preposition `under' (Akk., `Dative' = Locative and partly perhaps Instrumental), Old High German oba, Middle High German obe, ob `if, about' (*upó), but Old Icelandic of `about, at, in', Old English ufe- (*úpo), Old High German ūf (ūfan) `at, on' (to Old High German ū compare under Old Church Slavic vysokъ); besides with -pp- Old Saxon uppa, up, Old English uppe, up, Old Icelandic upp `at, on, upward ' and (with one only in Old Irish ōs, uas, Welsh uch recurring lengthened grade) Gothic iwpa `up there', iup `after, above'; Hittite up-zi `rises ' (of the sun).  

    2. supplementary: Old Indic upamá- `the oberste, highest, nächste', Avestan upǝma- ds., Old English ufemest (and yfemest) `the highest, oberste';

    Latin summus (*supmos) `the highest ' = Umbrian somo ` top; summit| end| last; highest place; top surface; (voice) highest| loudest ', compare also gr. ὕπατος `the highest, first'. - Gr. ὕπτιος ` leaned back, backward (? after Sittig from sup-ti- `sleeping' - above see 1048 -, compare Kretschmer Gl. 22, 247), Latin supīnus ` lying face upwards| flat on one's back; turned palm upwards; flat; passive ', Old Latin suppus (short form to supīnus?) ds., suppō, -āre ` lay on the back; turn up; tilt back, place, backwards, to the rear hold out, stretch forth ', Umbrian sopam `suppam '.

Maybe alb. sup `shoulder'

    upélo-s in Gothic ubils, Old English yfel, Old High German ubil `evil', Middle Irish fel `evil, bad'.

    upes- in Gothic ubizwa f. ` portico, foyer, vestibule, lobby, entrance hall ', Old Icelandic ups f., upsi m. ` entrance of a church ', Old English efes, yfes `gutter ', Old High German obosa, obasa, obisa ` portico, foyer, vestibule, lobby, entrance hall ';

    ups- (compare above Latin subs-, susque) in gr. ὕψι Adv. `high' (appears to be, by the way, as ὕπ-σι a Locative Pl., as Old Irish ōs, uas from *oup-su), whereof ὑψίτερος, ὑψίων `higher', ὕψιστος `the highest '; ὑψοῦ, ὑψόθι, -όσε ds., ὑψ𓢹θεν ` from high down ', τὸ ὕψος `height, acme, apex ', ὑψηλός `high';

with lengthened grade Celtic ou (probably Indo Germanic eu, compare Gothic iupa): Old Irish ōs, ūas `above, about' (*oup-su) = Welsh uch, Cornish ugh, Breton uc'h ds., wherefore Adj. Old Irish ūasal `high', Welsh uchel (compounds uch, Sup. uchaf) Cornish huhel, Breton uc'hel `high', gall. Οὔξελλον, -α, Uxello-dūnum (*oupselo-), furrther Old Irish ūall ` high spirits, elated mood; wantonness, capriciousness ' (*oupslā) and Old Irish ōchtar, ūachtar ` the upper ', Welsh uthr `dreadful, amazing ' (*oup-tro-, maybe occurring from *oupstro-, or after the relationship *eks : *ektro-);

here the Old Irish preverb uss-, oss- (*uχs < *ups) e.g. in Old Irish osnad `sigh' (see 38), Welsh uch-enaid, Breton huanad ds., where *uχs has been replaced by *ouχs; otherwise, original *uχs and *ud-s-(see above under ud-) are not to be distinguished phonetically; compare Thurneysen Gr. 5, 526; keltiber. PN Vxama, gall. Vxisama (: Welsh uchaf `highest');

    proto Slavic. *ūpsa- `high' placed in Old Church Slavic vysokъ etc. `high'.

References: WP. I 192 f., WH. II 612 ff., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 2, 522 ff., Trautmann 335, Vasmer 1, 242, Mayrhofer 1, 105 f.

Page(s): 1106-1107


Root / lemma: u̯adh-

Meaning: pledge

Material: Latin vas, vadis ` surety| bondsman ', vadimōnium ` bail| security| surety ', praes. -dis, older prae-vides `Bürge'; Gothic wadi n. ` pledge, handgeld' (wadjabōkōs ` mortgage bond ', gawadjōn ` betroth '), Old Icelandic veð n. ` pledge, entrusted blessing', Old Frisian wed `pact, covenant, promise, guarantee, certainty ', Old English wedd ` pledge, pact, covenant', Old Saxon weddi ` pledge ', Old High German wẹtti, wẹti ` security contract, legally binding effect, pledge ', Middle High German also ` commitment from a bet, indemnity, payment for loss or damage, compensation ', Modern High German Wette; Old Icelandic veðja ` put in danger, bet, place a wager, appeal under deposit of a guarantee ', Old English weddian ` make a pact, covenant, promise, marry, wed ' (weres weddian ` get engaged to a man ', English wed `marry'), Middle High German wetten ` grant security, bet, place a wager ', Modern High German wetten;  

    Lithuanian vãdas ` pledge, surety| bondsman ', vadúoti (Latvian vaduôt) ` etwas Verpfändetes einlösen ', už-vadúoti ` für jemanden eintreten '.

References: WP. I 216 f., WH. II 735 f.

Page(s): 1109


Root / lemma: u̯ai

Meaning: woe!

Material: Avestan vayōi, avōi, āvōya ` woe '! (voya- ` woe call '): Armenian vay ` pains, labor, contractions, misfortune' (v- instead of g- running beside Indo Germanic u̯- through neologism); similarly gr. ὀά (as Latin vah!) and from Alexandrian time οὐά, οὐᾶ, οὐαί, ngr. βάι (neologism); alb. vaj `affliction, lament';

    Latin vae; Middle Irish fāe, Welsh gwae ` woe!'; with one perhaps with Latvian vaĩdi connected with d(h)-suffix presumably Middle Irish fāed, fōid `scream, sound, tone', Welsh gwaedd `clamor, eiulatus'; 

    here as ` screamer, roar ': Armenian gail, gall. *u̯ai-lo-s in PN Vailo, Vailico, abrit. Gen. Vailathi, Old Irish Faílán, Middle Irish fáel, fáel-chú `wolf' = Welsh gweil-gi ` ocean ';

    Gothic wai, Old Icelandic vei, vǣ, Old High German Old Saxon wē; Old English wā ` woe!', Gothic wai-nei ` wenn doch !' (actually ` wehe, daß nicht !') in compounds of bad, wrong condition, e.g. Gothic wajamērjan ` blaspheme ', waidēdja ` evildoer ', Old Icelandic veill ` lax, weak' (*wai-haila-), vǣla, vāla, vēla, veila ` lament'; Old English wǣlan ` afflict ' (`*make sick ', from a *wā-hāl = Old Icelandic veill); Old High German wēwo, wēwa ` pains, labor, contractions, pain, affliction', Old Saxon wē, Gen. wēwes, Old English wāwa, wēa, Old Icelandic vǣ, vē ds., Finnish (Loanword) vaiva `plague, woefulness '; Old High German weinōn `weep, cry', Old English wānian, Old Icelandic veina ` lament', whereof probably as ` lamentable ' Gothic wainags ` woeful, wretched, miserable, unlucky ', Old High German wēnag ` woeful, wretched, miserable, unlucky ', Middle High German also `weak, small, little', Modern High German wenig;

Maybe alb. (*wā-hāl) vogël `weak, small, little' = Middle High German wēnag `small, little'.

    Latvian vaĩ ` woe, oh ', vaijāt transitive ` make woe ', waĩdêt `lament, weep', vaĩdi Pl. ` lamentation, misery, need' (see above); Serbian vâj ` woe!' is neologism.

Alb. vaj ` lament', vajtoj `to lament' a Slavic loanword.

References: WP. I 212 f., WH. II 724, Trautmann 338.

Page(s): 1110-1111


Root / lemma: u̯al-, u̯al-d(h)-

Meaning: to be strong

Material: Latin valeō, -ēre ` be strong/powerful/influential/healthy; prevail ', Oscan Fαλε ` strong; vigorous/healthy/robust; powerful/potent/effective; severe; influential ' or `vale ', Paelignian Ualesies = Latin Valerius; here also Latin volēmum (volaemum) pirum `a kind of large pear', to Oscan ualaemom, valaimas `optimus ' with unclear -aimo-, perhaps superlative to *valai̯o-? or imitation from Oscan maimo `maximus '?

    Old Irish fal-n-, fol-n- `rule, reign' with originally present formation -n-; Old Irish flaith f. (*u̯lati-) `power, rule, prince, lord' = Welsh gwlad, Old Cornish gulat, Middle Cornish gulas, Middle Breton gloat `land', Modern Breton glat `fortune'; Old Irish flaithem `ruler' (*u̯lati̯omos), Middle Welsh guletic, Modern Welsh gwledig ds., gall. Vlatos ds.; abrit. Cuno-vali Gen. to *Cuno-valos `strong as a wolf', Middle Welsh Cynwal, Old Irish Conall ds.; Welsh gwaladr `ruler' (*valatros), with metathesis Old Welsh gualart in PN Cat-gualart, Old Breton Cat-uualart;

    a dental extension is in Germanic (proto Germanic t) and Baltic- Slavic (d or dh) frequent, often: Gothic waldan, Old Icelandic valda (*u̯ulÞōm), Old Swedish present also valla (*valÞan), preterit also valt (*vevald), Old High German waltan etc. ` prevail, rule, reign, control, govern, effectuate '; Old Icelandic vald n. ` force, might, power, rule', Old Saxon giwald f. `power, rule', Old Frisian wald, Old English geweald ds., Old High German giwalt ds.; Old Icelandic einvaldi ` autocratic ruler ', Old Saxon alowaldo, Old High German al(e)walto etc.;

    Lithuanian veldė́ti ` rule, possess, control', paveldė́ti ` inherit ': Old Prussian weldīsnan Akk. `heir, inheritance', weldūnai m. Pl. ` heirs '; Iterative Lithuanian valdýti ` rule ', Latvian vàldît `rule, reign', Lithuanian valdõnas (Latvian valduons, vàldiniêks) `ruler', Old Prussian wāldnikans Akk. Pl. ` kings '; Lithuanian valsèius ` administrative district, area of jurisdiction ', Latvian vàlsts `empire, state, community, borough '; vowel gradation Lithuanian pavildęs ` self-controlled '; (common alb.-Baltic pa- prefix = Slavic pe- po- prefix)

    Old Church Slavic vladǫ, vlasti `rule, reign', Old Russian particle present voɫodyj `the dominated ', Old Czech vladu vlasti `rule, reign' etc.; Old Church Slavic vlastь f. `power, rule', sloven. vlâst ` freehold, absolute ownership of property, possession 'etc.;

    Tocharian В walo, A wäl, Oblique lānt, lānte `king' (*u̯lǝ-nt), Tocharian A wälts, В jältse ` thousand '.

References: WP. I 219, WH. II 727 f., Trautmann 340 f., Vasmer 1, 209, 219, 222.

Page(s): 1111-1112


Root / lemma: u̯ank̂-

Meaning: beam

Material: Old Indic váṁśya- `crossbar, crossbeam': Middle Irish fēice `ridgepole, rooftree, summit'; compare Old Indic vaṁśá- `reed', a-vaṁśá- ` without beam '.

References: WP. I 218, WH. II 722 f.

Page(s): 1112


Root / lemma: u̯ap-1

Meaning: to chatter

Material: Old English wæflian, Icelandic vafla, Norwegian dial. vavla, vabla, Bavarian wabeln; Lithuanian vapù-, -ė́ti ` babble, chatter'.

References: WP. I 217, Johannesson 104, WH. II 733.

See also: compare the following: u̯ap-2, ū̆p-

Page(s): 1112


Root / lemma: u̯ap-2, ū̆p-

Meaning: to call, cry

Material: Avestan ufyeimi ` call upon| invoke; pray for '; Old Church Slavic vъpiti `call, shout, cry', Czech úpěti ` lament ', vowel gradation Church Slavic vyplъ and vypъ m. `larus', Russian vyp m. and vypъ f. ` bittern ';

    perhaps in addition Latin vāpulāre ` be beaten'; gr. ἠπύω, Doric ἀ̄πύω ` shout, cry' could belong only here, if anlaut F would have dwindled through dissimilation against the consecutive labial.

References: WP. I 217, WH. II 733 f., Trautmann 335, Vasmer 1, 226, 240;

See also: compare u-1 in onomatopoeic words.

Page(s): 1112-1113


Root / lemma: u̯azdh- (better u̯ozdh-)

Meaning: long, wide

Material: Latin vastus ` huge| vast; monstrous'; Old Irish fot, Dative fut `length', fotae `long', nir. fad, fada, manx. foddey.

References: WP. I 220, WH. II 737; Szemerényi Archiv. Linguist. 4, 48 f., where he probably makes the Latin alteration from zdh to st.

Page(s): 1113-1114


Root / lemma: u̯āb-

Meaning: to call, cry, complain

Material: Gothic wōpjan schw. verb `call, shout, cry', Old Icelandic ø̄pa schw. verb `call, shout, cry, wail ', ōp `shout, call, clamor, lamentation ', Old High German wuoffen, Middle High German wüefen schw. verb `lament, weep'; Old High German wuofan(wiaf) ds. (wuof ` wailing, whining, lamentation'), Old Saxon wōpian (wiop) ds. (wōp ` misery '), Old English wēpan (wēop) `weep, cry' (wōp `shout, call, clamor, whining ');

    Old Church Slavic vabljǫ, vabiti ` send for, call out to, summon, entice', Latvian (from Slavic) vābīti, Lithuanian võbyti ` demand in court '.

References: WP. I 217, WH. II 726, 733 f., Trautmann 336 f., Vasmer 1, 161;

See also: further to u̯ap-.

Page(s): 1109


Root / lemma: u̯ādh-, u̯ǝdh-

Meaning: to go, march

Material: Armenian gam `I come'; Latin vādō, -ere ` go| advance| rush| hurry; walk ', vadum ` shallow place| stream; ford| shoal; channel ' (therefrom alb. va, Gen. vau ds.), vādō, -āre ` go over on a ford, wade ';

Maybe alb. vete ` go| advance| rush| hurry; walk 'a Latin loanword.

Note:

Alb. va ` ford ' is a Latin loanword. common Celtic contraction.

    Old Icelandic Aor. present vaða stem Vb. `go, penetrate forward, wade ', Old English wadan, Old Frisian wada, Middle Low German waden; Old High German watan, Middle High German waten ds.; moreover Germanic *waða- `ford'; Old Icelandic vað n., Old English wæd n. `water, sea', gewæd `ford', Middle Low German wat ` shallow place', Old High German wat `ford', Old Icelandic vaðill `ford', compare Modern High German PN Salzwedel.

References: WP. I 217, WH. II 723 f.

Page(s): 1109


Root / lemma: u̯ā̆gh-, suā̆gh-

Meaning: to cry, sound

Material: Gr. ἠχή, Doric ἀ̄χά: f. ` clangor, noise', ἠχώ, -οῦς f. ` clangor, sound, tone, echo ', ἦχος (Arcadian Fᾶχος) m. ds., ἠχέω ` resound, echo, sound ', ἠχέτα, ἠχέτης ` sounding brightly ', δυσ-ηχής ` sounding disgustingly ', vowel gradation ἀμφιαχυῖα ` crying all around ', ἰαχή (*FιFαχᾱ), ἰακχή f. `clamor, scream', ἰάχω (*FιFάχω), ἰαχέω `cry', αὐίαχος ` crying together' (*ἀFιFαχος);

    perhaps with moveable s- here:

    Gothic ga-swōgjan, swōgatjan `sigh', Old Icelandic sø̄gr m. `din, fuss, noise' (*swōgi-), Old English swōgan `sound, clink, buzz, whirr, roar, bellow', swēg, swǣg m. `din, fuss, noise, sound', Old Saxon swōgan `sough, rustle', holl. zwoegen `groan, moan'; zero grade probably Old Icelandic svagla `splash', arn-sūgr ` the rustling of the eagle flight ';

    Lithuanian svagė́ti `sound, clink', Latvian svadzēt `rattle, clash';

    for Icelandic sukka `rant, roister', besides svakke, is though comparison with Norwegian dial. søykia `bark, bay' and Lithuanian saugti ` sing oddly ', Old Lithuanian sugti `howl, whimper, whine ', Latvian sudzēt ` wail ', sūkstitiēs `sigh' (besides k-forms as Lithuanian saukiù through influence of kaũkti `howl', šaũkti `cry') under Indo Germanic *s(e)ug- possible; Gothic swēgnjan ` rejoice ' could have been brought to life on the basis of Germanic swōg-, swag- as onomatopoeic word; -kk- in Old Icelandic sukka is an intensification.

References: WP. I 214 f., WH. II 725 f.

Page(s): 1110


Root / lemma: u̯ā̆g-1

Meaning: cover; sheath

Material: Latin vāgīna f. `sheath, esp. of sword, scabbard '; Baltic *u̯āži̯ō ` turn inside out ' in Lithuanian vóžiu, vóžti ` cover something hollow, turn inside out ', Latvian vāžu, vāst `cover put on, turn inside out ';

   on the other hand could Latin vāgīna (compare Modern High German Scheide to scheiden) belong also to a root u̯ā̆g- `split, break, rupture', Frisk (see 13) in gr. ἄγνυμι `rupture', with reduplication and vowel gradation ἰωγή (< *Fι-Fωγ-ή) ` protection against the wind ', ἀγμόs m. `break, rupture, precipitous slope' and will find in Tocharian wāk- `be split', causative `split, distinguish, discern', wākäm n. ` distinction, specific feature, peculiarity, advantage, preference '.

References: WP. I 214, WH. II 725, Frisk 13, Trautmann 343.

Page(s): 1110


Root / lemma: u̯ā̆g-2

Meaning: to cry

Note: perhaps from an onomatopoeic word u̯ā̆-

Material: Old Indic vagnu- m. `sound, tone, shout, call', ved. vagvaná- ` bustling ', vagvanú- m. ` din, noise '; Latin vāgiō, -īre `cry, uttter cries of distress| wail| squall ', vāgor, -ōris m. ` echo ' (that ā lengthened grade derive  from an i-stem *u̯āgi-s); Lithuanian vógrauti ` whimper, cry'.

References: WP. I 214 f., WH. II 725 f.;

See also: in addition belongs the following: u̯ā̆gh-, suā̆gh-

Page(s): 1110


Root / lemma: u̯ā̆i-, u̯ī-

Meaning: weak, miserable

Material: Old Indic vā́yati, vāyatē `be faint, languid, exhausted', abhi-vāta- ` sick ' (vāta- `dry, arid'), vāyá- ` tired ';

    Welsh gwael ` miserable; wretched, low' (*u̯ai-lo-); Old Welsh guoilaut, Welsh gwaelod etc. ` sediment, sludge ';

    Old English wīl ` distress, affliction, need', Old Icelandic vīl ds.;

    Lithuanian vójęs participle ` suffering', Latvian vâjš, f. vâja ` lean, weak, sick, woeful, wretched, miserable ', vâjums ` faintness, disease, malady'.

Maybe alb. Geg vojtje, Tosc vuajtje ` suffering ', vaj ` lament ', vajtojcë f. ` professional mourner ' Baltic loanwords.

References: WP. I 213 f., WH. II 789 f., Loth RC. 39, 417.

Page(s): 1111


Root / lemma: u̯ā̆kā

Meaning: cow

Material: Old Indic vaśā́ ` the cow (which neither is pregnant nor feeds a calf) ', vāśitā ` strong cow; animal female in heat generally '; Latin vacca `cow'; Latin -cc- would be as consonant stretch in animal names understandably.

References: WP. I 214, WH. II 722.

Page(s): 1111


Root / lemma: u̯ā-1, u̯ō-, u̯ǝ-

Meaning: to hit, wound

Note: also with t- forms

Material: Gr. ἀάω `harm, injure', Med. `handle blindly '; besides ἀᾶται only Aorist forms ἄασα, -άμην, kontr. ἀ̃σα, ἀάσθην; primary Verb, Aor. *ἀFά̆-σαι, themat. present *ἀFά-εται > ἀᾶται, in addition σκ-formation ἀάσκει φθείρει, βλάπτει Hes.; verbal nouns ἀFά̆-τη > ἄτη `damage, blame, guilt, debt, blindness, penance, atonement', therefrom ἀτηρός ` blind '; hom. ἀασί-φρων ` injured in the mind ' (incorrect ἀεσί-φρων);

    with t-formants: gr. οὐτάω, οὐτάζω (*οὔτα-μι, compare 3. Sg. Aor. οὖτᾰ) `wound', ἄουτος, ἀνούτατος `not wounded '; ὠτειλή f., Aeolic ὠτέλλα f. `wound' from *οFα-τ-ελι̯ᾱ, compare γατάλαι (i.e. Fα-), rightly γατειλαί Hes. ` wound ', βωτάζειν βάλλειν Hes.

    Latvian vâts `wound' = Lithuanian votìs `open ulcer', Diminutive votẽlis.

References: WP. I 211, Frisk 2, 178, 251, 291, H. Seiler Festschrift Debrunner 409 ff.;

See also: in addition the following: u̯en-.

Page(s): 1108


Root / lemma: u̯ā-2

Meaning: apart

Material: This root which possibly has a row of extensions (see below), is placed after all in Latin vārus ` bent-outwards; bandy; bow-legged; contrasting ', vāricus ` straddling, spreading the feet apart ', vāricō, -āre ` straddle (with legs apart) ', vāra ` forked shaft, pole, fork, transom '; whether here varius ` different; various| diverse; changing; colored; party colored| variegated ', variō, -āre ` mark with contrasting colors| variegate; vary| waver; fluctuate| change '?; whether perhaps in Old Indic ūrú- m. ` thigh, hip, loin '?

References: WP. I 212, WH. II 734 f., Mayrhofer 1, 116.

See also: extensions of the root appear mostly with the meaning ` be bent, curved ', demonstrate in the roots u̯āt-, u̯ǝg-, u̯ek-, u̯ǝk-, u̯eng(h)-, u̯enk-.

Page(s): 1108-1109


Root / lemma: u̯āsto-s

See also: see above S. 346; in addition after Lloyd Jones (Ét. Celt. 7, 234) Middle Welsh gwaws `terrible'.

Page(s): 1113


Root / lemma: u̯āt-1, better u̯ōt-

Meaning: spiritually excited

Material: Latin vātēs, -is (probably Celtic loanword?) ` prophet| soothsayer; poet ', gall. οὐά̄τεις N. Pl. ds., Old Irish fāith ` seer, prophet ', Middle Irish fāth (*u̯ātu-) ` prophecy, cause, reason ' = Welsh gwawd ` poem'; Gothic wōds ` possessed, mad ', Old Icelandic ōðr, Old English wōd ds. (*wōda-), Old High German wuot ` be mad| act crazily '; Old Icelandic ø̄sa ` make frenzied, crazy ', Old English wēdan, Old High German wuoten, Old Saxon wōdian ` rage, be frenzied, crazy '; Old High German *wuot (Gen. wuoti), Middle High German wuot ` violent spirit, fury'; in addition Old Icelandic Ōðinn, Old Saxon Old English Wōden, Old High German Wuotan; Germanic *wōÞa- points at Old Icelandic ōðr m. ` poetry ', Old English wōÞ ` song, sound, voice, poem ';

    Thieme (Asiatica, Festschrift Weller 656 ff.) interprets Old Indic api-vat- as originally ` blow at, inspire' (different above S. 346), and places it to our family, which then could be understood as extension from *au̯ē- `blow' (above S. 81 ff.).

References: WP. I 216, WH. II 737 f.

Page(s): 1113


Root / lemma: u̯āt-2

Meaning: to bend, curve

Material: Latin vatāx, -ācis ` having bent or crookedly feet ', vatius ` kept-outwards; bow-legged ', vatia ` someone with crooked legs', vascus (*vat-scos) ` across, athwart, slant, skew'; Germanic *waÞwan- ` curvature, bend', then with narrower meaning `calf, knee-bend ': Old Icelandic vǫðvi m. ` muscle, esp. thick muscles in the arms and legs', afl-vǫðvi `biceps', Norwegian vodve ` thick muscles in arm and leg ' etc., Old High German wado m. ` calf, hind portion of the lower leg, pastern ', Middle High German wade `calf', Old Saxon uuathan ` calf, hind portion of the lower leg ', mndd. wade `calf', Middle Dutch wade f. ` knee-bend, popliteus, muscle located in the back of the knee ';

   Connection is probably with Latin vārus ` bent-outwards; bandy; bow-legged; contrasting ' etc. (root *u̯ā-).

References: WP. I 216, WH. II 736 f.

Page(s): 1113


Root / lemma: u̯ebh-1

Meaning: to weave, plait

Material:

Hittite: hupala-  ' Fischnetz '  (?), hupiki- n.  ' Schleier ' , hupitant-, hupitawant-  ' verschleiert ' , hupra-, hup(p)ara-  ' Kleidungsstück, ? Gürtel '  (Tischler 290ff)

Tokharian: A wäp-, B wāp- (PT *wäp-)  ' weave '  (Adams 586)

Old Indian: ubhati, umbhati `to cover over '  

Avestan: ubdaēna- `aus Webstoff, aus Zeug gemacht '  

Other Iranian: NPers bāfad `er webt '  

Old Greek: hüphä́i̯nō `weben, anzetteln, ersinnen, verfertigen ' , hüphǟ́ `das Weben ' , hǘphos n. `id.

Germanic: *wib-a- vb., *wab-ja- vb.; *wab-ja- n., m., *wab-jō f.; *wub-ja- adj.; *waf-a- n.; *wab-an- m., *waf-t-i- c. (˜ *wif-t-a-)

Albanian: veń `ich webe '  

 

Old Indic ubhnā́ti, umbháti, unábdhi ` ties up', with ápa- and prá- `binds', ū́rṇā-vábhi- m. ` spider'; newer -vābhi- after vā- `to weave' (Indo Germanic *u̯ē-, above S. 75); Avestan ubdaēna- ` stuff made of web material ' (from a *ubda- ` woven ', Indo Germanic *ubh-tó-); np. bāfad ` he weaves ';

    gr. ὑφή `the weaving ', ὑφόωσι η 105, otherwise ὑφαίνω ` weave ', ὕφος n. `the weaving ' (unvocalized after the previous *Fέφος);

    alb. venj `I weave ' (*u̯ebhni̯ō);

    Old High German weban `to weave, flax, wattle, braid, spin ', Old English wefan `to weave, flax, wattle, braid, tie, bind, knot ', Old Icelandic vefa `to weave, flax, wattle, braid, gobble' (participle ofinn), vefja (*u̯obhei̯ō) `wind, coil, wrap' = Old English webbian `to weave'; Old Icelandic veptr, Old English weft, wift, wefta ` single thread of the point of entry ', Middle High German wift `fine filament, texture; honeycomb '; Old Icelandic vaf ` diaper ', vafi `entanglement, mess '; Old High German waba, wabo ` honeycomb ', Old Icelandicvefr (*waƀja-) ` texture, warp, woven stuff ' = Old English webb, Old Saxon webbi, Old High German weppi ds.; Old High German wuppi ` texture ', Swedish öu (Old Icelandic *yfr) ` weft, woof '; 

    ē-grade Old Icelandic kongurvāfa, Old English gangelwǣfre ` spider ';

    Tocharian В wāp- `to weave', wapātsa ` weaver ', wpelme ` texture '.

References: WP. I 257, Mayrhofer 1, 107;

See also: belongs to au-5 `to weave' S. 75; in addition *u̯obhsā `wasp'.

Page(s): 1114


Root / lemma: u̯ebh-2

Meaning: to wander, roam, swarm

Material: Middle High German weben `move, swing', weberen ` romp about, move lively ', webelen `waver', Modern High German East Prussian wibbeln; Middle High German waben, waberen, wabelen `be in restless movement ', wappen ` sway to and fro ', Modern High German (Low German) wabbelig ` wobbling, e.g. of gelatine ', Old English wafian ` move ', Middle English waveren, English waver `wobble, waver', Old Icelandic vafla `wobble, sway', vafra ` move restlessly to and fro, waver ' (vafrlog `Waberlohe '), vefjast ds.;

    Old Icelandic vāfa ` hover, dangle', Old English wǣfre ` restless, flickering ';

    Lithuanian vebžd-ù, -ė́ti ` swarm, get tangled, move in a mess ';

    in addition Old High German wibil m. `beetle, chafer, grain worm '; Old Saxon wivil, Middle Low German wevel ds., Old English wifel ` grain worm ', Old Icelandic*vifill in torðyfill ` dung beetle, scarab', Old English wibba `dung beetle, scarab'; Lithuanian vãbalas `beetle, chafer', vabuolas ds., žem. vabolė̃ ` dung beetle, scarab', Latvian vabuolis `beetle, chafer' (besides East Lithuanian dial. vóbuolas `beetle, chafer', žem. vam̃bolė, Latvian vambale, vambuole ` dung beetle, scarab').

Maybe alb. (*vóbuolas) bumballë `beetle ' (common alb. -o- > -u- shift)

References: WP. I 257 f., WH. II 733, Trautmann 336, Vasmer 1, 176;

See also: moreover: u̯ed-

Page(s): 1114-1115


Root / lemma: u̯edh-1

Meaning: to push, hit

Material: Old Indic vadhati, ávadhīt `hit, bump, poke, destroy', causative vadhayati, vadhá- m. ` killing, murder weapon (esp. from Indras projectile); blow, knock, annihilation ' = Avestan vada- m. `wedge for splitting wood ', Old Indic vádhar- n. ` murder weapon (esp. from Indras projectile)' = Avestan vadar- n. `weapon (for hitting)', vádhram ` leather strap ', Old Indic vadhasná- m. ds., Avestan vādāya- ` push away ' (lengthened grade as gr. ὠθέω);

    gr. ἔθει φθείρει. ἐρεθίζει Hes., hom. ἔθων `pushing, thrusting, rumpling ', ἔθειρα ` hair of the head, mane'; ὠθέω `poke, push' (: Avestan vādāya-), ὦσις ` shove ', ἔνοσις ` tremor ' (*en-u̯odh-tis); also in ἐνοσίχθων, ἐννοσίγαιος, εἰνοσίφυλλος (ἐνν-, ἐιν- metr. lengthening); 

    Old Indic vádhri- ` castrated ' (`with crushed testicles') = gr. ἐθρίς τομίας, κριός Hes.; secondary ἴθρις, ἄθρις;

    Lithuanian vedegà `a kind of axe', Latvian vedga ` ice ax, crowbar ', Old Prussian wedigo ` hatchet ', Old Irish fodb `weapon of prey ' (*u̯odh-u̯o-); could also Avestan vaδaɣan- `EN of a religious-hostile prince ' to be interpreted as `axe, cudgel'?

    a sk-present seems Irish fāisc- `press', Middle Welsh gwascu, Breton gwaska `press' (certainly vowel gradation ō :o).

References: WP. I 254 f., Frisk 446 f., 449 f.

Page(s): 1115


Root / lemma: u̯edh-2, vor Nasalen u̯ed-

Meaning: to lead

Material:

Hittite: uwate- (I)  ' herbringen '  (Friedrich 239); uda- (II) (if not = u+da-)  ' herbringen, überbringen '  (236-237)

Avestan: caus. vāðayeiti `führt, zieht, schleppt '  

Slavic: *vedǭ, *vestī; *vodъ

Baltic: *wed- (*wed-a-) vb. tr.; *wad-a- m., *wad-ā^ f., *wad-aw-a- c.; *wēd-in^- vb.

Celtic: OIr fedid `führt ' , Cymr arweddu `führen, bringen ' , cyweddu `führen, worin bringen '  

 

Old Indic vadhū́- f. `bride, young wife, woman', Avestan vaδū- ds., vāδayeiti (causative) `leads, moves ', with upa- ` give a woman for marriage ', with us- `( women) kidnap, rob', vaδrya- ` marriageable (of a girl)';

Maybe alb. vajzë `girl '

    Old Irish fedid `leads, goes, carries, brings ', Middle Welsh go-di-wawð ` overtaken ', Old Irish to-fed-, to-dī-fed- `guide, lead', Welsh arweddu `guide, lead, bring', Verb noun Middle Welsh arwein (*are-u̯ed-no-), cyweddu ` guide, lead, bring ', Verb noun cywain (*kom-u̯ed-no-), Welsh dy-weddïo `marry', Cornish d-om-ethy ds., Middle Breton d-im-iziff, Modern Breton dimizi ` marry, get married ';

    Lithuanian vedù, vèsti `lead, guide; marry (of husband)', Latvian vedu ds., Präter. -stem *u̯edē- in Old Prussian weddē, Lithuanian vẽdė, Latvian dial. vede and Old Church Slavic vedě-aše; Lithuanian vėdỹs ` suitor ', vedẽklis ` marriageable, young man', nau-vedà, -vedỹs ` bridegroom ' (` leading home anew '), Latvian vedekle ` daughter-in-law ', vedama `bride';

    Old Church Slavic vedǫ, vesti `guide, lead', seldom `marry', Iterative voditi, (but Old Church Slavic nevěsta `bride' rather ` the stranger ', Vasmer 2, 206);

Note:

Old Church Slavic: nevěsta `bride, daughter-in-law' [f ā] derived from Lithuanian nau-vedà, -vedỹs ` bridegroom '

Comments:

Maybe truncated alb. nuse `bride, daughter-in-law' < Old Church Slavic: nevěsta `bride, daughter-in-law'

    Iterative Lithuanian vadžióti and vadýti, Latvian vadît ` guide, lead; marry (from the husband) ', and vadât ` guide, lead to and fro '; about Lithuanian vadúoti, Latvian vaduôt ` ransom '; see above S. 1109; Old Church Slavic voždǫ, voditi `guide, lead', Old Russian voditi ženu ` take home a wife '.

    In addition probably u̯ed-mno-, the word for the purchase price of the bride:

    Gr. ἕδνον (for *Fέδνον with Spir. asper after *Fhᾱδύς `pleasant'), hom. Pl. ἔεδνα ` bride-price or wedding-gifts '; but also ` dowry of the parents', ἑδνόω, hom. ἐεδνόω ` to promise for wedding-presents, to betroth ', hom. ἐεδνώτης ` a betrother; (equipping the daughter) father of the bride ', ἀν-άεδνος ` without bride-price; also of the husband, bringing no gifts '(ἀ[F]εδνος and ἔ[F]εδνον with α and ε as suggestion vowels);

    Old English weotuma, wituma, wetma m. ` purchase price of the bride', Old Frisian wetma, witma ds., Burgundian wittemo, Old High German widomo, widemo `dowry', Middle High German wideme, widem, Modern High German Wittum (in addition Old High German widimen, Middle High German widemen, widmen ` outfit, equip ', Modern High German widmen); gr. Slavic -no- maybe from -mno- and comparable with Germanic -men-stem; dubious Old Church Slavic věno `dowry, payment for the bride', whether from *u̯edno-, compare also *u̯esno-;

    doubtful alb. vigjë `gift to the wedding, to the birth of children, by the construction of a house' (u̯ed(h)-l-?). common alb. -dz- > -gl-, -gj-.

References: WP. I 255 f., Trautmann 344, Vasmer 1, 177, 182, 212, Frisk 442 f.

Page(s): 1115-1116


Root / lemma: u̯edh-3

Meaning: to bind, attach

Material: Old Indic vĭ-vadhá- m. ` shoulder yoke for carrying of loads, provisions '; vadhra- m. n. ` leather straps ';

    gr. ἐθμοί πολλοί. δεσμοί. πλόκαμοί Hes.;

    Old Irish fedan f. ` yoke, pair of harnessed oxen, harness ', fedil ` yoke ' (coibdil ` companionship', coibdelach ` blood relative '), air-com-fed- `damage', Middle Welsh ar-gy-wedu, Old Breton ar-co-gued ds.; Welsh gwedd ` yoke '; arwest f. ` string, band, strap';

    Gothic gawidan ` connect ' (gawiss `connection'), Old High German wetan `bind, tighten, connect in the yoke tighten '; zero grade perhaps Swedish dial. ydd ` ox's rope, rein' from *udhetā.

    Hittite u̯eda-, u̯ete- `to build'.

References: WP. I 256, Pedersen Hittite 118;

See also: in addition u̯endh-1 S. 1148.

Page(s): 1116-1117


Root / lemma: u̯ed-

See also: s. u̯edh-2

Page(s): 1115


Root / lemma: u̯eg-

Meaning: to weave, bind

Material: Old Indic vāgurā́ ` ensnarement cord, net for haggard falcon, thread, string'; Latin vēlum `sail, sleeve, wrapping, kerchief, cloth, curtain' (therefrom vēlāre ` veil| cover| cover up; enfold| wrap| envelop; hide| conceal; clothe in '), Diminutive vēxillum `banner, ensign, small flag '; Old Irish figim ` weave ', fige `the weaving ', Old Breton gueig ` female weaver; the Fates ', Modern Breton gwea ds., Old Welsh gueetic ` woven ', Modern Welsh gweu `to weave, tie, bind, knot ', gwe (*u̯ego-) ` texture, fabrics ', Old Cornish guiat gl. `tela ', Modern Cornish gwia `to weave'; Middle Irish indech, Welsh anwe ` texture, fabric '; gall. veadia (*vegiadia) `Spinnwirtel ' (J. Loth RC. 38, 86);

    Old English wice `wick', Modern High German Bavarian wichengarn ` cotton for the wick ', Norwegian vik f. ` rope string' (these and other i-forms through interference from u̯eik-, u̯eig- `bend, coil ' under S. 1130, Persson Beitr. 323a 3?);

Middle High German wiht `wick'; Old English wecca `wick', Old Low German wekko, Middle Low German wecke `wick ', Middle High German wicke `wick ', Modern High German dial. wicke ` flax wrapped around the spindle ', Old High German wickilī(n) `Wickel zum Abspinnen ', Modern High German Wickel ` staff for holding flax, wool, etc., in spinning ', Middle High German Modern High German wickeln;

ō-grade Old English wōcig ` loop, noose, pitfall, concealed trap, snare ' (attuning in vowel gradation and meaning precisely to Old Indic vāgurā́); Norwegian dial. ōke ` entangled mass, e.g. of linen thread ' (placed from Torp 473 as `connection' to ok = iugum, but probably with Anlaut extension from *[w]ōkan-);

zero grade (*u̯eg- or *ug- with takeover from w- from the lengthened grade forms) Middle Low German wocke, wocken ` spinning distaff; flax or wool around the distaff ', Old Saxon wocco ` candle (wick, fuse)'; based on reduplication *u̯e-u̯g- probably Old English wēoce, Middle Low German wēke, weike, Old High German wiocha ` twisted thread, string, fuse ', Modern High German dial. Wieche.

References: WP. I 247 f., WH. II 745 f.;

See also: here u̯okso- ` wax '.

Page(s): 1117


Root / lemma: u̯eĝh-

Meaning: to move, carry, drive

Note: a zero grade uĝh- only in Aryan and probably also in Alb.

Material: Old Indic váhati ` leads, goes, moves, drives home, marries ', also ` flows ' and `allows to flow', Aor. a-vākṣ-am (participle ūḍhá-, in addition neologism ūhati ` pushes, wheels, slides', Leumann IF. 57, 221); common Old Indic -ĝh- > -kṣ- : Avestan -ĝh- > -xš-, -z-

>

Note:

Common Indic alb. -ĝh > -ḍh = Avestan -ĝ;h > -z shift

Avestan vazaiti `leads, moves, flies' (participle vašta-, wherein št instead of -zd- after the participle not from aspirate auslaut root);

 

Old Indic vāháyati ` he allows to lead ', vahana- ` leading, driving ', n. ` the leading, driving, ship' (zero grade vāhana- ` leading, bearing, carrying', n. ` draft animal, cart, ship'), Avestan ātrǝ-vazana- `Feuerwedel ' (compare Germanic Celtic no-formations);

 

Old Indic vahítra- n. `vessel, vehicle ship' (: Latin vehiculum), Old Indic vaha- ` driving, moving, leading ' (= Slavic vozъ ` cart '), váha- m. `shoulder of the yoke animal ', vahát- f. `river, vessel, vehicle ', vahyá- ` suitable for driving ', n. `vehicle, sedan chair, couch, bed, place for resting ', Avestan vazya- n. `load, outfit' (= Old Saxon wigg n. `horse'), Old Indic vṓḍhar- ` driving, moving, leading ', m. ` draught horse, horse closest to the wagon wheels, drag ox; home leader of a girl; load carrier ', Avestan vaštar- ` draft animal ' (= Latin vector), next to which žd: važdra- ` der vorwärts bringt ', sāy-uždri- EN actually `these are dappled female draft animals ' (*uždrī f. to *uždar-);

Note:

Common Indic alb. -ĝh > -ḍh = Avestan -ĝ;h > -z shift

Old Indic vāhá- ` leading, bearing, carrying', m. ` draft animal, vehicle', Avestan vāza- ` driving, flying ', m. ` pulling, pull, draft animal ' (: Gothic wēgs), Old Indic vā́hiṣṭha-, Avestan vāzišta- ` der am besten vorwärtsbringt '; Old Indic vahas- ` driving ' (: ἔχος n.), vāhas- n. ` Vehikel, das die Götter herbeiführende Lob ', Avestan vazah- ` the moving, leading ';

    gr. ἔχεσφιν ἅρμασιν Hes., pamphyl. Fεχέτω ` he should bring ', Cypriot ἔFεξε ` offered ', ὄχος n. ` cart ', (ὀ- instead of ἐ- after) ὄχος m. ` cart ', ὀχέω `lead, guide', ὀχέομαι `let me bear, carry or drive, ride ', αἰγί-οχος ` swinging the shield ', γαιή-οχος (hom.), γαιά̄-οχος (Doric), γαιά̄Fοχος(lak.) ` der die Erde heiratet ' (Beiw. of Poseidon, Borgeaud KZ 68, 222), ὀχετός m. `gully, canal, water pipe ', ὀχετεύω ` leite Wasser in einer Rinne, einem Kanal '; ὀχλεύς ` lever ' (: Old Icelandic vagl ` perch, chicken roost '), ὀχλέω, ὀχλίζω ` move forward, roll forward ';

    alb. vjedh `steal'; zero grade probably alb. udhë `way, journey; law - instruction ', whereof with formants -rā perhaps also urë `bridge' (*udh-rā);

Note:

Common Indic alb. -ĝh > -ḍh = Avestan -ĝ;h > -z shift

    Latin vehō, -ere, vēxi (: Old Indic ávākṣat, Old Church Slavic věsъ Aorist), vectum `bear| carry| convey; pass| ride| sail ' (in addition probably also con-, dē-, sub-vexsus), Umbrian ařveitu, arsueitu, arueitu ` to conduct, carry, convey, bear, bring, etc.., a person or thing to a place; and pass., to be carried, to ride, to come to a place upon a horse, in a carriage, ship, etc.. ', kuveitu ` he/she shall carry together, collect, store ', Latin vehis f. ` cart, load, cart load ', vehemēns actually `* roaming ', hence ` violent| severe| vehement| emphatic| vigorous ', vectis `lever, hoist, crowbar ', vectīgālis ` yielding taxes| subject to taxation ' (places ahead a *vectis in the meaning ` the bringing, handing over'), vectīgal `tribute, tax an den state, Gefälle, tax', vēlōx `swift| quick| fleet| rapid| speedy ' (*u̯eĝh-slo-), vēles `light-armed foot-soldier; guerrilla forces (pl.)| irregular bands; skirmishers '; veia `usually a wagon| but sometimes a two-wheeled cart';

    Old Irish fēn `kind of cart ' (*u̯eĝh-no-; compare Old Indic vahana- and Old High German wagan) = Welsh gwain ds., abrit. covinnus `Sichelwagen ', (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Welsh amwain ` drive around ', arwain `guide, lead', cywain `drive'; Old Irish fecht `journey, time', Middle Welsh gweith, Modern Welsh gwaith `work, time ', Cornish gweth, gwyth ` time ', Old Cornish gueid-uur ` workman ', Breton gwez, gweach ` time ', gall. PN Vectirix, Vecturius; 

    Gothic gawigan `move, shake', Old Icelandic vega `move, swing, heave, sway', Old High German wegan `move, sway (Modern High German bewegen, erwägen, wägen, wiegen), Old Saxon wegan ` dare, consider', Old English wegan `bring, guide, lead, dare ', Gothic gawagjan `move, shake' (= ὀχέω, Slavic voziti; lengthened grade Old Indic vāháyati) = Old High German weggen `move';

iterative Old Icelandic vaga ` move to and fro ', Old English wagian `move', Old High German wagon `move, vibrate ' (wherefore as post-verbal Old High German waga `movement' Wissmann, Nom. postv. 1, 14); Gothic wigs, Old Icelandic vegr, Old High German Old Saxon Old English weg `way'; Old Icelandic vigg, Old Saxon wigg, Old English wicg n. `horse' (= Old Indic vahya-); Old Icelandic vētt, vǣtt f. ` weight ' (= Latin vectis), Old English wiht n. ds., Middle High German gewihte n. ds.;

    Old Icelandic vǫg f. ` lever ', Pl. vagar ` sled ', vǫgur (and vāgir) f. Pl. `barrow, bier'; Old High German Old Saxon waga ` cradle ', Old Icelandic vagga ds., Old High German wiga ` cradle '; Old High German wagan, Old English wægn, Old Icelandic vagn ` cart ' (vowel gradation with Irish fēn); Old Icelandic vagl m. ` perch ', Norwegian ` perch, chicken roost ' (compare formally gr. ὀχλ-εύς, -έω);

Maybe alb. vig `hand-barrow' a Germanic loanword.

    Gothic wēgs ` wave bash ', Pl. ` waves ', Old Icelandic vāgr `sea, gulf ', Old High German wāg ` surge ', Old Saxon wāg ` high-flooding water', Old English wǣg ` surge '; Old Icelandic vāg ` lever, scales, weight ', Old High German wāga ` scales, weight, weigh ' (Middle Low German Middle High German wāgen ` put in the scales, weigh '), Old Saxon wāga ` plate| dish; pan of a pair of scales ', Old English wǣg, wǣge ` scales, a certain weight ';

    Lithuanian vežù, vèžti `drive', vežìmas ` cart ', vėžė̃ `cart road ', pravėžà ` cart road '; Old Bulgarian vezǫ, vesti ` bear| carry| convey; pass| ride| sail ', veslo ` rudder ' (*u̯eĝh-slo-), vozъ ` cart ', vožǫ, voziti `drive, guide, lead'; also Old Russian věža ` living carriage, tower'.

Alb. vozë ` vessel ' a Slavic loanword. PN Prevezë Baltic loanword.

References: WP. I 249 f., WH. II 742 f., 744, Trautmann 356 f., Vasmer 1, 178 f.

Page(s): 1118-1120


Root / lemma: u̯eĝ-

Meaning: fresh, strong

Grammatical information: stative verb u̯eĝē-

Material: Old Indic vāja- m. ` power, quickness, contest, price of the battle, cut-throat price ', vājáyati ` animates, sets in motion'; vájra- m. `thunderbolt, club, mace, joint' = Avestan vazra- `club, mace, joint', Old Persian vazrka-, New Persian buzurg `big, large', derivative from *u̯azar n.;

    Latin vegeō, -ēre `be alert, awake, smart', transittive ` stir up| excite ', vigil ` awake| wakeful; watchful; alert| vigilant| paying attention' and ` watchman, guarder, keeper' (*vegilis), thereafter vigilāre ` remain awake| be awake; watch; provide for| care for by watching| be vigilant '; vegetus ` vigorous| active| energetic; invigorating; lively| bright| vivid| quick';

Maybe from Latin ex vigilāre > Italian svegliare ` wake up' = alb. zgjoj ` wake up', zgjua, zgjoi ` beehive'.

Alb. vigjëloj ` guard' a Latin loanword.

    Gothic gawaknan `wake up, arouse' = Old Icelandic vakna ds., Old English wæcnan (preterit wōc), wæcnian ` be born '; Old Icelandic vakinn ` awake'; causative Gothic uswakjan ` awaken ' (besides the abbreviation = Old Indic vājáyati) = Old Icelandic vekja, Old High German etc. wecchan `waken, arouse, revive';  stative verb Germanic *wakēn in: Gothic wakan, Old Icelandic vaka (schw. Verb) `watch', Old English wacian, Old Saxon wakōn, Old High German wahhōn, wahhēn `watch';

Old High German wachal ` awake', Old English wacol (*wakala-), Old Icelandic vǫkull (*wakula- : Latin vigil); Gothic wōkains f. ` the watching'; Old Icelandic vakr, Old English wacor, Old High German wachar, wakar ` active, fresh, brave ' (formal = Old Indic vájra-, Avestan vazra-); Old Icelandic vaskr `alert, awake, smart, agile' (*vak-ska-); perhaps also Old High German wahs `sharp'.

    Tocharian AB wásir ` lightning ';

References: WP. I 246 f., WH. II 741.

See also: compare au̯eg-, aug- above S. 84 f., barely can be separated from u̯eĝ-.

Page(s): 1117-1118


Root / lemma: u̯egʷ- : ū̆gʷ-, ukʷs-

Meaning: wet; to irrigate; ox (?)

Material: Gr. ὑγρός `humid, wet, fluid'; Latin ūvidus ` wet| soaked| dripping; moistened with drinking ' (out of it ūdus, whereof ūlīgo ` waterlogged ground| marsh '), ūvor, -ōris ` dampness, damp ', ūvēscō, -ere ` become humid, wet, get drunk ', ūvēns `humid, wet, damp' (place ahead an *ūvos from *ūgʷo-s); ūmeō, -ēre `humid, wet sein', ūmor ` daampness ', ūmectō `dampen, moisten' (based on *ūgʷsmos); Middle Irish fūal ` urine ' (*u̯ogʷ-lo-);

    Old Icelandic vǫkr (Akk. vǫkuan) `humid, wet', vǫkvi m., vǫkva f. ` damp ', wherefore Old Icelandic vøkva, vekkja `(blood) shed, let flow ', vǫk f. (*vakvō) `open (wet) place in the ice ', Middle Low German wake f. `hole in the ice ', Dutch wak `humid, wet, damp', English (from the North) wake ` wake, trail, trace';

    s-suffixed: Old Indic ukṣáti ` moistens, sprays ', Avestan uxšyeiti ` sprays ' (of water and fire); common Old Indic -ĝh- > -kṣ- : Avestan -ĝh- > -xš-

    in addition (with the same way as Old Indic vr̥šan- `virile', Latin verrēs: Old Indic varṣá-m `rain', s. u̯er- `damp') Indo Germanic ukʷsen- `bull, male animal ' in: Old Indic ukṣā́ m., Avestan uxšan- `bull' (in addition? fem. *ukʷsōr ` the sprayed ' > Latin uxor `wife'); Welsh ych `ox' (= Indo Germanic *ukʷsō, proto brit. *uchū > -ī, with umlaut ych), Pl. Middle Welsh ychen, Modern Welsh ychain, Breton ouhen, oc'hen, Cornish ohan `oxen ', Middle Irish oss `deer'; PN Os-car ` deer-loving ', Diminutive Oissín `Ossian '; Gothic aúhsus (Gen. Pl. auhsne), Old Icelandic oxi, Old English oxa, Old High German Old Saxon ohso `ox'; Tocharian В okso `rother, cattle, bull'.

Maybe alb. varzë `girl (*fertile) '

Maybe zero grade in alb. (*oxa) ka `ox', (*oxie) qe Pl. `oxen'.

References: WP. I 248 f., WH. II 815, 849, Mayrhofer 1, 98.

Page(s): 1118


Root / lemma: u̯eib-

See also: see below u̯eip-.

Page(s): 1124


Root / lemma: u̯eidh-, u̯idh-

Meaning: to separate; widow

Note: probably from *u̯i- `apart' and *dhē- `place' grown

Material:

Hittite: udati- (utati-) c.  ' Witwe '  (Friedrich 237)

Old Indian: vidhavā f. `widow '  

Avestan: viðavā  ' Witwe '  

Old Greek: ǟítheo-s, att. ǟ́i̯theo-s m. `unverheiratet Jüngling, Jungeselle '  

Slavic: *vьdovā, *vьdovъ(jь)

Baltic: *widew-ā^ f.

Germanic: *widaw-ōn- f.

Latin: vidua f. `des Gatten entbehrend, Witwe ' ; viduus, -a `beraubt, leer; Witwer, Witwe; unverheiratet '  

Celtic: OIr fedb `Witwe ' ; Cymr gweddw `Witwer ' , Corn guedeu `Witwe '  

Russ. meaning: вдова, -ец

 

Old Indic vídhyati ` pierces ' (lengthened grade partly vēdh-, partly vyadh-, latter probably previously through imitation from vyath- : vith- `waver'); viddhá- ` pierced, shot through ', nirviddha ` standing apart, separated from each other ', vindhátē ` becomes empty, bare, lacks something ', vidhú- ` isolated, solitary, secluded, alone ', vidhurá- `apart, separated, remote, distant from, lack, be short of'; vehát ` infertile ' i.e. `the empty', Sommer Münchner Studien z. Sprachwiss. 11, 20;

 

    Latin dīvidō, -ere `separate, divide', Umbrian uef Akk. PPl. `partes ', vetu `dividito ' (*vēf-tu); Lithuanian vidùs m. ` the interior ', vidurỹs m. ` center ', Latvian vidus m. ` center, the interior, region';

Maybe nasalized alb. vend `region, place'

vowel gradation Lithuanian vieduõlis ` inside withered tree';

Maybe alb. (*veduõlis) vejushë `widow' [common alb. -d- > -j-].

    in addition (compare the above u-stem) Old Indic vidhávā ` widow', Avestan viδavā ds., gr. ἠ[F]ίθεος `bachelor', Latin vidua ` widow; divorced or single woman', viduus ` stolen; looted, empty, bare, lacking something ', Old Irish fedb ` widow', Cornish guedeu ds., Welsh gweddw ` widower', Gothic widuwō ` widow' (furthermore widuwaírna m. ` orphan '), Old English widuwe, wuduwe, Old High German wituwa ` widow', Old Prussian widdewu, Old Church Slavic vьdova ds.; Indo Germanic *u̯idheu̯o- Adj. `apart, separated', in Fem. substantivized ` widow';

    s-present etc. Old High German wīsan `avoid', urweis Perf. `evade', Middle High German only participle entwisen ` abandon, empty'; Old Frisian wēsa, Old High German weiso, Modern High German Waise ` orphan '(Germanic waisan- < *u̯oidh-son-).

References: WP. I 239 f., WH. I 359, Trautmann 358;

See also: compare u̯idhu- `tree'.

Page(s): 1127-1128


Root / lemma: u̯eid-1

Meaning: to turn, bend

Note: extension from *u̯ei- ds.

Material: Old Indic vēdá- m. ` bundle of strong grass, broom-shaped engaged, for sweeping '; hom. ἰδνόομαι `be crooked, bent ' (from a *Fιδ-νό-ς `bent, curved'); Latin vīdulus ` braided basket'; Latvian vīdināt `flax, wattle, braid'.

References: WP. I 236, WH. II 785.

Page(s): 1124


Root / lemma: u̯(e)id-2

Meaning: to see; to know

Grammatical information: (originally Aorist),  stative verb u̯(e)idē(i)-, nasalized u̯i-n-d-, Perf. u̯oid-а- `has seen, know', whence the meaning ` know ' } was also transferred in other forms; from the meaning ` behold, see ' derives `find'

Material: A. Old Indic vetti, vidmási vidánti ` know ' (present reshuffling of Perf. vḗda vidmá), vēdate (also), vidáti (also) ` know ', Perf. véda vidmá, Opt. vidyāt, participle vidvān; Avestan vaēδa vīdarǝ, Opt. vīdyāt̃, vīdvā̊ ` know ' (the meaning `see' in aiwi. vīsǝm ` has perceived ', paiti. vīsǝm ` noticed, discovered ', fravōizdūm ` perceives '); to-participle Old Indic vitta- ` recognized, known', Avestan vista- `known as, famous as ' and Old Indic viditá- (probably to basis *u̯idēi-); Infinitive Old Indic vidmáne (= gr. ἴδμεναι) ` know ', Gatha-Avestan vīdvanōi; causative Old Indic vedayati `allows to know, announces, gives notice, tenders, offers, proffers ', Avestan uzvaēδayeiti `allows to know ';

    In the meaning `find': Old Indic vindáti (vétti, vitté), ávidat, vivéda, vévidat, vittá-, causative vēdayati, Avestan vī̆δaiti, vī̆nasti, vīvaēδa, vōivīdaiti (Konj.), causative vaēδayeiti ` allows to attain, makes bestowed ', participle vista- ` discovered, found, available'; the separation of the forms with the meaning `see, know ' is not to be carried out quite sharply, compare Old Indic vindáti ` knows ', South Baluchi gindag `see';

    Armenian egit ` he found ' (= Old Indic ávidat, gr. ἔFιδε), gtanem `find'; reshuffled from Perf. *u̯oida gitem `I know' (i from oi; in addition gēt, gitak, gitun ` knowing, wise'); results of nasal present (= Old Indic vindati, Irish finn-, see below) perhaps in Armenian gint `profit, gain', if from *u̯ind-;

Maybe alb. di (*su̯(e)id) `I know' < Armenian gitem ` I know ' (common alb. su̯- > d- or g- > d- shift) also alb. Geg ditun ` knowing, wise' = Armenian gitun ` knowing, wise'.

    Gr. εἴδομαι ` appear, come into view; seem, appear to be, look like, gebe mir den Anschein '; οἶδα ` knows ', ἴδμεν, Konj. εἴδω, participle εἰδώς (*Fειδ-), ἰδυῖα; Aor. εἶδον (ἔFιδον) ` saw ', ἰδεῖν (: Old Indic ávidat, Armenian egit), participle ἄ-ιστος, ἰστέον; gr. ᾽Αΐδης, Attic ῝Ᾱιδης probably ἀ-Fιδ- ` unseeable, invisible ' s. lastly Frisk 33 f.; nasalized ἰνδάλλομαι ` appear, come into view; seem; resemble ';

    also Celtic vindo- ` knows ' (Old Irish find, Welsh gwynn, (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), gall. PN Vindomagus, -bona);

    Latin videō, -ēre `see' (from the basis *u̯(e))idē-, compare Old Church Slavic viděti, Lithuanian pavydė́ti, Gothic witan, -aida `observe' etc., and with zero grade *u̯(e)idī̆- the 2. syllable of Old Church Slavic present viditъ, Lithuanian pavýdime, Latin vīdi-s-tī, Old Indic Aor. avēdīt, vēdi-tár-, vḗdi-tum, vidi-tá-; Umbrian uirseto `visa ' or `visum ', auirseto ` unseeable, invisible ': Latin vidēre = tacitus : tacēre), Perf. vīdī (= Old Church Slavic vědě), participle vīsus (as vīsus, -us ` look| sight| appearance; vision ' with ī for ĭ after vīdī and vīso); 

    Latin vīsō, -ere ` visit| go too see; look at ', Umbrian revestu `revisito ' (*u̯eid-s-ō); similarly Gothic gaweisōn, Old Saxon Old High German wīsōn ` visit ';

    Old Irish ad-fīadat ` they tell, relate, recount ' (etc.); compounds our verbs are do-adbat ` he shows', do-adbadar ` is shown ', as-ind-et ` explains, declares ';

nasal present (see above Old Indic vindáti) nad-finnatar ` they do not know ', rofinnadar ` cares to know ' (*u̯i-n-d-nǝ-), (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), as-fēnimm, doaisbēna `points, shows, evinces, shows' (from *u̯id-nǝ-) Middle Welsh 1. Sg. gwnn, Cornish gon, Middle Breton goun `I know' (the other brit. Present tense forms, e.g. 2. Sg. Middle Welsh gwydost, gwdost, 1. Pl. Modern Welsh gwyddom, have derived however, from the Perf.);

Perf. Old Irish rofetar `I know', rofitir ` he knows ' = Welsh gwyr (*u̯id-rai); Old Irish rofess `scitum est ' (*u̯id-to-m, compare also fiss, Modern Welsh gwys ` the knowledge ' from *u̯id-tu-s), fess ` having practical knowledge of| neat| ingenious; nice| excellent ' (Pl. neutr.), Middle Welsh gwyss, Middle Breton gous ` was known '; Old Irish toīsech, Welsh tywysog `guide, leader' (*to-u̯issākos, Ogam Gen. TOVISACI), Old Irish tūus ` beginning ', Welsh tywys `guide, lead' (*to-u̯issus, Indo Germanic *-u̯id-tus); here probably also Old Irish fōid- `send', e.g. 3. Pl. fōidit (= Old Indic vēdayati, Old Icelandic veita ds); Old Irish fīado `master, mister, man ' (*u̯eidont-s);

    Gothic fraweitan ` avenge ', Old High German firwīzzan ` accuse rebukingly, reprimand', wīzzan ` remark, notice, pay attention to ', Old Saxon Old English wītan `reproach, rebuke, reproach ' (therefrom Old Icelandic vīti n. Old English wīte, Old Saxon wīti, Old High German wīzzi n. ` punishment '), Gothic in-weitan ` show worship, veneration ';

with obvious meaning-development Old English gewītan ` leave, depart, die', Old Saxon giwītan `go', Old High German (Hildebrandlied) giweit `he went ', (Tatian) arawīzan ` go/march off| depart| withdraw ';

Gothic fairweitjan ` look on tensely ' perhaps to basis in -ē: -ī̆-, as certainly the &ē-verbs of Gothic witan, -aida ` pay attention to, observe', Old Icelandic only participle vitaðr ` observed, decided, resolved', Old English (be)witian ` consider, decide, define, ordain, determine';

preterit present Gothic wait, witum `knows, we know ' (Infinitive witan, participle witands neologism), Old Icelandic veit vitum (vita, vissa) ` know ', also ` remark, notice, investigate, indicate, be directed to, look after, go after', Old English wāt, witon (witan, wisse wiste), Old High German weiz, wizzumēs (wizzan, wissa, wessa) ` know ' nominalized participle Gothic weitwōÞs ` witness, testifier ' (: εἰδώς, ἰδυῖα ` witness, testifier ');

to-participle Gothic unwiss ` unknown ', Old High German giwis(s), Old Saxon Old English wiss ` certain ' (Old Icelandic vissa ` certainty'); causative Old Icelandic veita ` grant, perform, help, assist; also waters lead in a direction ', Old High German weizen `show, demonstrate, point, prove '; to Fιδεῖν seems to belong as Injunktiv of Old English wuton (with following Infinitive) from *witon ` let us, allow us ' (older ` let us see, tendamus ');

    Lithuanian véizdmi (for *veidmi after the Imperative Old Lithuanian veizdi = *u̯eid-dhi, compare Old Indic viddhí), veizdė́ti `see, view ', pavýdžiu, -výdime -vydė́ti ` envy| regard with envy/ill will; be jealous of; begrudge| refuse' (see above); (common alb. Baltic pa- negative prefix) 

of old Perf. from Old Prussian waisei, waisse ` you know, it's obvious that you know ' (= Old Church Slavic věsi) waidimai ` we know ', Infinitive waist;

Note:

In Old Church Slavic the pronoun we = verb ending -mai, so that is how cases were formed in Indo European. Pronouns became verb endings because the verb preceded the pronoun until the pronoun was agglutinated to the verb.

Old Church Slavic viždǫ, vidiši, viděti `see', previous Perf. Med. vědě (= Latin vīdī ` knows '), presently reshaped věmь, věděti ` know '; pověděti ` let know ' (probably reshuffling a causative *u̯oidéi̯ō, Slavic *věditi, after věděti ` know '); izvěstъ `known, certain '.

    B. nominal formation:

    root nouns Old Indic -vid- ` knowing, expert, skillful' (e.g. aśvavid-), Avestan vīd- ` granted, blessed '; gr. νῆ-ις, -ιδος `ignorant';

    Gothic unwita, Old High German unwizzo ` ignorant person, fool ', Old High German forawizzo ` having foreknowledge| prescient ', Old English wita ` wise man, smart man, sage, adviser ', gewita ` witness, testifier ', Old High German wizzo ` wise man, smart man, sage ', giwizzo ` witness, testifier ' post-verbal en-stem; but Old Irish fīadu ` witness, testifier ' (*u̯eid-u̯ōt-s) secondary n-stem; 

    Old Indic vidā́ ` knowledge ', Welsh etc. gwedd f. `sight, apparition'; Old Indic vidyā́ ` knowledge, doctrine', Avestan viδya ds.; Old Irish airde n. `mark, token, sign' (*[p]ari-vidi̯om) = Welsh arwydd m. ds., Old Saxon giwitt, Old High German (gi)wizzi n. ` knowledge, reason', Old English witt `reason, cognition ', Gothic unwiti n. ` ignorance, foolishness ', compare also Old High German wizzī f. ` knowledge, reason, cognition ' in addition Old High German gi-, ir-wizzēn `look out' (Modern High German Witz m.), Middle Low German witte f. ds.;

    es-stem: Old Indic vḗdas n. ` knowledge, wisdom, sacred writing ', gr. εἶδος n. ` appearance, shape', Lithuanian véidas ` front, face ' (to glottal stop see below), Old Church Slavic vidъ (Serbian vîd) `sight, appearance ' (from earlier plural neuter), so probably also: Middle Irish fīad m. ` mark of respect, tribute, salute ', Old Irish fīad (*u̯eidos) with Dative `coram ', Welsh yngwydd ds., gwydd ` attendance, presence ', Middle Breton a goez, Modern Breton ac'houez ` public ' (`facing, by way of, by means of ');

Welsh ad-wydd `cruel, savage', gwar-adwydd `insult'; other formations in Gothic unweis `ignorant, uncultured, uneducated ', fullaweis ` show completely ', Old Icelandic vīss, Old High German Old Saxon Old English wīs ` show, guide' (*u̯eid-s-o-), Old High German wīs(a) `(* appearance =) kind, way, manner ', Old English wīs(e) `way, state, status, direction', Old Icelandic ǫðruvīs `different, distinctive ', perhaps also ἰδέα `outer apparition, phenomenon, shape, figure, guise sight' (if *Fιδέσᾱ);

    gr. ἴδρις, -ιος ` knowing, expert, skillful ', Old Icelandic vitr `sensible, wise';

    gr. (hom.) εἰδάλιμος `beautiful of shape ', εἰδάλλεται φαίνεται Hes., due to a *εἴδαλο- wherefore with suffix vowel gradation εἰδωλον `shape', ἀείδελος ` unseeable, invisible '; Lithuanian vaidalas `apparition', pavìdalas `shape' (*-elo-); gr. εἰδυλίς, -ίδος `εἰδυῖα, ἐπιστήμων ', Old Indic vidura- `smart, sensible, wise', Lithuanian pavìdulis ` image ', akiẽs pavydulis, Old Prussian weydulis ` eyeball', Gothic faírweitl ` spectacle, show ';

Maybe alb. vetull ` eyebrow ' = Old Prussian weydulis ` eyeball' = proto Slavic. vědi̯a `eyelid' see below (common Germanic Celtic Albanian -d- > -t- = Greek -s- shift).

    Old Indic vidmán- m. ` wisdom ' (compare also Infinitive vidmanē, ἴδμεναι), gr. ἴδμων, -ονος `expert, skillful'; ἰδμήν φρόνησιν Hes.;

    gr. ἴστωρ, Attic ἵστωρ, Boeotian Fίστωρ ` knowing, expert, skillful; arbiter, judge ', ἱστορεῖν `find out, discover ', ἱστορία ` occurrence ';

    in Baltic there is a row of words with the vowel gradation ēi: ī: Lithuanian véidas (compared with Serbian vîd from *u̯ĕidos), véizdmi, vyzdỹs ` eyeball', išvýsti `become aware, notice, discover ', pavydė́ti ` envy', pavỹdas ` envy ', Old Prussian aina-wīdai Adv. ` alike '; the starting point seems the lengthened grade of present *u̯ēid-mi.

    perhaps here Old Church Slavic věžda, Old Russian věža `eyelid' (proto Slavic. vědi̯a, Vasmer 1, 178) and Church Slavic nevežda ` uncultured, uneducated person ', Old Russian věža `Wissender '.

Maybe in -l- suffix in alb. vetull ` eyebrow ' : Old Prussian weydulis ` eyeball'.

References: WP. I 236 ff., WH. II 784 f., Trautmann 338, 357 f., Vasmer 1, 176 ff., 192, Frisk 33 f., 451 f., M. Leumann Celtica 3, 241 ff.

Page(s): 1125-1127


Root / lemma: u̯eik-1

Meaning: to choose, filter

Material: Old Indic vinákti, vivékti, vevekti ` separates, sieves, sifts ', particle viktá-; causative vecáyati; Avestan ava-vaēk- ` eliminate, choose, select'; from the meaning ` select for God-official purposes ' derives the meaning `Weihens ', wherefore here Latin victima ` sacrificial animal, sacrifice, oblation', being based on an i-or u-stem, *vikti-s respectively *viktu-s ` consecration, sanctification';

Gothic weihs `holy', Old Saxon wīh- ds., Old High German wīh, wīhi ds., compare Middle High German (ze) wīhen nahten, from which Modern High German Weihnachten;

Old Icelandic vē- n. ` shrine, temple', Old Saxon wīh m. `temple', Old English wēoh, wīg m. ` statue of a god, idol '; derived Vb. Gothic weihan, Old Icelandic vīgja, Old Saxon wīhian, Old Frisian wīa, wīga, Old High German wīhen ` consecrate '; with intensive gemination Germanic *wik-kan- ` magician ': Old English wicca m. ds., wicce ` magician, enchantress ' (English witch); md. wicken `conjure, perform magic', wicker ` magician, foreteller '; without gemination: Old English wigol ` belonging to fortunetelling ', wiglian ` predict, soothsay ', Middle Low German wickelen; a variant of *u̯eig- (?) in Umbrian eveietu ` dainties (pl.)| choice bits, chosen, picked ' (*ek-u̯eigētum?).

References: WP. II 232, WH. II 782;

See also: relationship to u̯eik-, u̯eigh- `bend' etc. is not excluded.

Page(s): 1128


Root / lemma: u̯eik-2

Meaning: force, energy (victory, battle, etc..)

Material:

Hittite: hwek- / huk- (I)  ' schlachten, abschlachten ' , hunink-  ' beschädigen '  (Tischler 257ff with criticism)

Armenian: vēg `Streit ' , vig `Kraft, Stärke '  

Slavic: *vēkъ

Baltic: *weĩk- vb. tr., *weĩk-a- c., *wei^k-ā^ f.

Germanic: *wī́x-a-/*wīg-á- vb., *wíx-a- vb.; *wig=; *wáix-iō f.; *wīg-á- m., n., *waig-ṓ- vb., *waig-r-á- adj., *waig-ṓ f., etc.

Latin: vincō, -ere, vīcī, victum `die Oberhand erlangen, siegen; besiegen ' , per-vicāx `hartnäckig, standhaft '  

Other Italic: Osk vincter `convincitur '  

Celtic: OIr fichim `ich Kämpfe ' , dofeit `straft ' , fīch `Kampf, Fehde ' , Gaul -vix in PN; OCymr guichr `effera ' , guichir `effrenus ' , Cymr gwychr `id. ' , gwych `fortis, strenuus ' ; *viktā: Ir fecht `Kriegszug ' , OCymr guith, OBret uueith, uueth in PN, OIr feuchuir (gl.) `severus ' , feuchrtae `Wildheit '  

 

Latin vincō, -ere, vīci, victum ` conquer| defeat| excel; outlast; succeed ', pervicāx ` stubborn, persistent, steadfast', Oscan vincter `convincitur ';

    Old Irish fichid `fights', dī-fich- `punish, curse', fīch m. `discord, rage, fury', feuchuir `stern' (*u̯íkaris), feuchrae ` austereness, severeness ' (unclear is the ch in Old Welsh guich[i]r `wild'), fecht (*u̯iktā) ` campaign = Old Welsh guith, Welsh gwyth `rage, fury', Old Breton uueith- in PN; gall. VN in -vices (abrit. Ordo-vices ` hammer fighter '), PN Victo-valos etc.; with full grade Vēcti-rīx, Vēco-rīx = Old Irish PN Fīachrai, Gen. Fīachrach (Ogam VECREC);

     Gothic weihan `fight', wigana Dative Sg. `struggle, war, fight'; Old English Old High German wīgan (Old High German only in particle wīgant, wīhant, gawigan ` worn out (with age)| feeble| decrepit ', irwigan ` completely exhausted ') `fight, quarrel', Middle High German anwīgen ` assail '; Middle High German wīhen ` exhaust, weaken ', Modern High German dial. sich weihen = ` refuse ', anweihen ` oppose, dispute ';

aorist- present Old Icelandic vega, vá `fight, slay', Old High German ubarwehan ` overcome, conquer ' (with false consonant), Middle High German widerwehen ` fight with stabbing weapon '; Old Icelandic vēla (*vīhalian) ` order, deal with something, occupy oneself '; Old Icelandic vīg, Old Saxon wīg, Middle Low German afr. wīch, Old High German wīc, wīg etc. `fight, struggle', Old Icelandic Adj. vīgr `kampftüchtig ', Gothic zero grade waihjō f. `war, fight, struggle';

o-grade in Germanic *waigō- f. ` power ', therefrom derived Old Saxon wēgian, Old English wǣgan, Old High German weigen etc. `bother, annoy, torment, smite', Norwegian veiga `swing'; a ro-Adj. is Old High German weigar ` opposing, proud ', Middle Dutch weiger, wēger ` aversive, grudging, reluctant ', therefrom Old High German weigarōn etc. ` refuse ';

    Lithuanian veikiù, veĩkti ` make something, work', apveikiù ` overcome, defeat ', pérveikiu `overcome ', véikus `fast, rapid, swift', veiklùs ` active, busy, occupied ', viẽkas ` strength, life', vỹkis m. ` liveliness, agility ', vikrùs `alert, awake, cheerful '; Latvian vèikt `run somebody down ' etc.; veĩklis `swift, nimble, fit, healthy', vīkt `thrive';

    Old Church Slavic věkъ m. ` strength, age', Czech Russian věk ds.;

    perhaps here also Latin vix `hardly| scarcely| barely| only just; with difficulty| not easily; reluctantly '.

References: WP. I 232 f., WH. II 791 f., Trautmann 339, Vasmer 1, 179.

Page(s): 1128-1129


Root / lemma: u̯eik-3

Meaning: to come together, become equal

Material: Gr. εἰκών (Cypriot Fεικόνα) f. ` picture ', hom. εἶκε Impf. ` it seems good', herakl. εἶξαν ` siehielten für gut, regelten ', hom. ἔοικε `es schickt sich, paßt ' (FέFοικε; 3. Du. εἴκτον, etc.), Attic εἰκώς (*FεFικFώς) `suitable, fitting', hom. ἐΐσκω (*FεFικσκω), ἴσκω (*Fίκσκω) ` compare ', (F)εἴκελος, (F)ἴκελος `similar ', ἐπιεικής ` suitable; fitting ', Ionian ἀεικής ` unsuitable ', Attic ἀικής (*αFικής) ` shameful ', αἰκί̄α ` maltreatment ', εἰκάζω (ἐ-Fικάζω) ` imitate, compare, assume ';

    Lithuanian į-vỹkti ` reach, be accurate, come true, be realized, materialize ', pavéikslas `example', paveikslùs ` exemplary, model ', Latvian vīkst ` make ready '; a definition compared with that under *u̯eik-2 mentioned words, like Lithuanian véikus `fast, rapid', veĩkti `do, make', nevertheless, is not to be carried out with confidence.

References: WP. I 233, Frisk 38, 454 f.

Page(s): 1129


Root / lemma: u̯eik-4, u̯eig-

Meaning: to curve, bend; to go round, to exchange

Note: (extension from *u̯ei- `bend').

Material: 1. Old Indic vī́ci- f. ` deception, seduction ' (Rv. 10, 10, 6; probably `* curviness');

    with voiced-nonaspirated Old Indic vḗjate, vijáte, participle vikta-, vigna- ` return before something, hurry away ', pra-vij- ` threaten to collapse ', abhi-vij- ` overturn, collapse ', vēga- m. `trembling, intense movement, rush', Avestan vaēg- (vaējǝ-) `(a projectile) swing', vaēɣa- m. ` impact, collision, blow, knock, prank', nivixta- ` curved down, flung down ', New Persian vēxtan `toss, fling', osset. vēɣun `upset, shake, move', balūèī gējag `swing, toss, fling'; Intensive Old Indic vēvíjyate ` takes to the road, starts a journey, begins a voyage, sets out ';

    Old Indic vi-vyákti ` comprises, enfolds ', vyácas- n. `wide area ', Avestan vyāxa-, vyāxman- `congregation, meeting' (?);

    gr. εἴκω, Aor. ἔ(F)ειξε Alkman ` recoil, be insufficient, lose, be defeated ', (Boeotian) γῖξαι (i.e.Fεῖξαι) χωρῆσαι Hes.;

    Latin vicia f. `vetch': nasalized vinciō, -īre ` bind| fetter; restrain ', Umbrian previślatu `praevinculātō ';

    Gothic waihsta ` angle, point, edge', Middle High German weigen `waver'; Old English wicga `beetle, chafer'; Middle Low German nnd. wīchele ` willow tree ' from *wīgele, diminutive to Old Saxon *wīga, westfäl. wīǝʒǝ ` willow tree ', vowel gradation Old Frisian Old English wāg, Old Saxon wēg `wall', (*u̯oiko-); also Middle High German gewīge, Modern High German Geweih, dial. Gewicht(eln) ds. (originally probably `*branches');

    Latvian vīkstu, vīkt `be curved, become pliant ', vīksts ` ductile, pliant, soft', vīkne ` tendril '; Latvian vī̆cināt `wave, romp, frolic ', refl. `swing, make bend '.

    With Indo Germanic g: Old Icelandic vīkva, ȳkva (w-present), vīkja, preterit veik ` move, turn ', Old Saxon wīkan ` withdraw' (: εἴκω), Old English wīcan stem verb ` withdraw, crumple, give way, collapse ', Old High German wīhhan stem verb ` take a direction, give way, withdraw';

Old Icelandic veikr (and veykr with -w- after vīkva) `soft, weak', New Norwegian also `pliable' (compare Old Icelandic veikja `bend'), Old English wāc (out of it Old Icelandic vākr) `soft, weak, woeful, wretched, miserable ', Old Saxon wēc `weak', Old High German weich `soft, weak, timorous'; Old English wice f. ` elm ', Middle English wiker ` willow rod, osier, wicker ';

Middle Low German wīk m., wīke f. ` disappearance, escape', Middle High German wīch m. `groin, flank ', formally = Old Icelandic vīk `small bay', Old English wīc f., Middle Low German wīk ds.; Norwegian dial. vik n. `small point, edge or bend'; Old High German wīhhōn `spring, dance, jump ', Modern High German Hessian wicken ` move quickly and violently to and fro ', Swedish vicka ` move restlessly, seesaw ';

    Lithuanian vigrùs, vìglas `rash, hasty, adroit', Latvian vìegis `light', slov. vẹ̃g ` bent ', vẹ́gati `waver', vẹ́žen `gebogen'.

    2. Latin vicis (Gen.), vicem, vice, Pl. vicēs, vicibus `variation, alternation '; perhaps Old Irish fiach ` borrowed, owed, debt, obligation'; Old Icelandic giafa-vīxl `exchange of gifts', ā vīxl ` crosswise ' (vīxla `swap, vary, exchange'); Old Saxon wehsāl `trade, currency', Old High German wëhsal, wehsil `variation, exchange, trade' (Old Saxon wehslōn, Middle High German Modern High German wechseln); with certain Indo Germanic g Gothic wikō ` the order of approaching somebody ', Old Icelandic vika `week, period of seven days ' (originally `*variation'), also `nautical mile, sea mile' (`*rotation of the oarsman'; also Middle Low German weke sēs ` sea mile '), Old English wicu, wucu ` week ', Old Saxon wika in crūce-wika `week of the cross, the week before Pentecost in which the pilgrimage on the fields is organized ', Old High German wëhha, wohha ` week ';

    unclear is because of Gutturals Old Indic viṣṭí- (*u̯ik̂-) `work, services ', tri-viṣṭī́ (Instrumental), after Wackernagel (KZ 67, 173) `alterant, changeable', after G. Liebert (Nominal suffix -ti- S. 138 f.) though ` threefold services '.

References: WP. I 233 ff., WH. II 781 f., 791 f., Trautmann 338 f., Frisk 454.

Page(s): 1130-1131


Root / lemma: u̯eik̂-, u̯ik̂-, u̯oik̂o-

Meaning: house, settling

Material: Old Indic víś- f. `residence, house', PL víśaḥ `people, subjects ', Avestan vīs- (e.g. Akk. vīsǝm, Old Persian viÞam) `house, village, clan', Old Indic viś-páti- ` householder, community leader ', viś-pátnī ` housewife', vowel gradation Old Indic vḗśman- n., Younger Avestan vaēsma- m. `house, dwelling', Old Indic vēśá- m. ` neighbor' (as Latin vīcīnus); verbal (see below) Old Indic viśati ` steps inside, arrives at, gets to; enters, comes ', niviśati ` stops at, makes a stop ', Avestan vīsaiti ` arrives at, enters ';

Maybe from Skt. víś- (RV+) `settlement, community, tribe' derived alb. (*víś) fis ` tribe', vis `territory, spot, place '

    gr. οἶκος, Fοῖκος `house', οἰκία ds., οἰκέω ` inhabit ', οἰκέτης `housemate', τριχά-Fικες epithet of the Dorian ` in drei Phylen zerfallend '; alb. vis `place', amvisë (amë `mother') ` housewife';

    Latin vīcus, dial. vēcus ` village; hamlet; street| row of houses ' (= gr. Fοῖκος), Umbrian uocu-com, Akk. vuku if ` temple| shrine; tomb; apartment| room; house (pl.)| abode| dwelling; household '; Latin vīlla ` country house, estate' (*u̯oik-slā, with Latin suffix-slā, or *u̯eik-s-lā to es-stem from Gothic weihs);

    Gothic weihs n., Gen. weihsis `village, spot';

    Old Prussian waispattin Akk. ` housewife', Lithuanian viẽšpat(i)s `master, mister', viẽšpati `noble wife, woman', verbal Lithuanian váišinti ` host ', viešė́ti `be a guest ', Latvian vìesis `guest'; Old Church Slavic vьsь `village'.

References: WP. I 231, WH. II 782 f., Trautmann 363 f., Vasmer 1, 193.

Page(s): 1131


Root / lemma: u̯ei-1, u̯ei̯ǝ- : u̯ī-

Meaning: to turn, bend, wind, *branch out

Note:

Root / lemma: u̯ei-1, u̯ei̯ǝ- : u̯ī- : `to turn, bend, wind, *branch out' derived from zero grade of Root / lemma: au̯-5, au̯ē- : to weave.

Material: A. Old Indic váyati ` weaves, twists ' (paradigmic certainly with Perf. ūvuh, participle ūtá-, Infinitive ṓtum, which presumably belong to the root *au̯-, the base from u̯ei-,); vāya- m. ` weaver, the weaving ', vāyaka- ` weaver, tailor '; vyáyati ` winds, wraps, shrouds' (: Latin vieō), participle vītá- `winded, wound, coiled ', vyāna- n. ` the winding, the wrapping up '; vayā́ `twig, branch, bough', compare lengthened grade Old Church Slavic věja `twig, branch, bough'); about vēvīyate ` flitters, flutters ' see above S. 86;

    gr. γίς (i.e. Fίς) ἱμάς Hes., υἱήν ἄμπελον, υἱόν ἀναδενδράδα (υ- = F-), εὐιάδες ἄμπελοι Hes.;

    alb. with g(h)-suffix vik, vigu ` twisted stretcher, plow shaft ';

Comments:

Common Albanian Baltic Germanic d- > g- shift = Baltic ĝ(h)-extension: Lithuanian vyžà ` bast shoe', Latvian vîze ` braided bast shoe' see below.

    Latin vieō, viēre ` plait| weave; bend/twist into basketwork ' (viē-: Old Indic vyā-na-), vītilis ` plaited; interwoven ';

    Old Irish fe-n- (*u̯i-nǝ-) in ar-fen- ` lock, latch ', im-fen- ` care for, watch over, tend to ', verbal noun imbe n., Middle Irish tech fithe `a wicker house'; Welsh gwïal-en `twig, branch'; Middle Irish fē `rod' (*u̯īi̯ā);

    Gothic waddjus ` rampart, embankment, wall' (originally from wickerwork) = Old Icelandic veggr `wall' (proto Germanic *wajjus);

    Lithuanian vejù, výti ` coil, turn', výtas `winded, twiddled, twisted, rotated, revved, revolved ' (= Old Indic vītá-), Old Church Slavic vьjǫ, viti `turn, flax, wattle, braid, coil ', Latvian vīja ` braided fence', vī̆jas ` tendrils ', Old Church Slavic věja `twig, branch, bough' (lengthened grade besides Old Indic vayā́ ds.); vowel gradation Church Slavic povoj m. ` band/strip; ribbon '.

    B. With ĝ(h)-extension presumably here:

    Lithuanian vyžà ` bast shoe', Latvian vîze ` braided bast shoe'.

    C. With l-formant:

Maybe intensified root (*vēl -ver) alb. liver, ylber ` rainbow ' = alb. folk etymology vaj ` oil' e `and '  verë ` wine ' = meaning ` oil and wine = rainbow because of the rainbow spectrum on oil and wine ' = Gr. ἶρις ` rainbow ' (Fῖρις) see below. The name of rainbow in Albanian and Greek is a translation through folk etymology of a Baltic Germanic concept of twisted wire or twisted wine plant.

    Old Icelandic vēl (*u̯ēi-lā) ` art, skill, gadget, tool ', vēla ` enchant, bewitch ', Old English PN Wēlund, Old High German Wialant; Old English wīl(e) `artifice, deceit, cunning ';

    Lithuanian vielà ` wire ', vielióti `wind, coil, wrap ', vylė̃, Latvian vīle ` hemline, weal, mark from a blow'; Lithuanian ap-vìlti `lie', vylùs ` fallacious ', výlius `lie, falsity', Old Prussian pra-vilts ` betray '; Russian viljátь ` change the direction by running, wave, wag, dodging ', vilój `winded, wrinkled ', vílica `ivy'.

Maybe alb. vile `bunch of grape' a Slavic loanword.

    D. With m-formant:

    Old Indic vḗman- n. `loom (from *u̯ei-men, at first to váyati); Latin vīmen `rod for the flax, wattle, braid, wickerwork '; Middle Irish fiam ` chain '; Middle Low German wīm(e) ` lathwork, poles ';

with the concept of spinning movement Icelandic vīm, vīma ` dizziness, giddiness; swindle, anesthetization ', Norwegian dial. veima `lurch, waver', Modern High German Hessian wīmeln `waver'; whether here gr. εἰμάδες ποιμένων οἰκίαι Hes. as ` aus Ruten geflochtene Hütten ' (*Fει-μα = Latin vīmen)?

    E. With n-formant:

Hittite: wijan(a)- c.  ' Wein '  (Friedrich 255)

Armenian: gini `Wein '  

Old Greek: ói̯no-s, dial. woi̯no-s m. `Wein ' , ói̯nǟ f. `Weinstock '  

Slavic: *vīno

Germanic: *wīn-a- n., -m.

Latin: vīnum, -ī n. `Wein '  

Other Italic: Volsk, Falisc vinu `Wein ' ; Umbr vinu `Wein '  

Celtic: OIr fīn `Wein ' ; Cymr gwin `Wein '  

Albanian: tosk. verɛ, geg. venɛ Wein

 

    Gr. ἴς, ἰνός `sinew' (*Fι-ν-: Czech vínek `band, strap, headband ' or *Fισ-ν- to root form u̯eis-2); Old Church Slavic věnьcь ` wreath, crown '; probably Old English wine-wincla (besides pīne-wincle) ` periwinkle, sea snail ', wining `bandage'; about gr. ἴς compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 5702;

    barely here the name of wine: gr. οἶνος (myk. vo-no-) `wine ', οἴνη ` grapevine ', οἰνάς, -άδος ` grapevine, vinne, wine ', Armenian gini `wine ', (*u̯oi-ni̯om), alb. Geg vēnë, Tosc verë `wine ' (*u̯oinā), Latin vīnum;

the latter is not only the source of Old Irish fīn, Welsh gwin and from Gothic wein, Old High German Old Saxon Old English Old Church Slavic vīn (from which again Old Church Slavic vino and from Slavic Lithuanian vỹnas), but probably also of Faliscan Volscan uinu, Umbrian vinu, uinu; because Pontus was the starting point of the wine culture;

compare Proto Semitic *wainu (arab. äthiop. wain, hebr. jajin, assyr. īnu) and Hittite wi-ja-na-a-, Hieroglyphic-Hittite wa(i)ana-, Luvian dial. win-; s. lastly Laroche BSL 51, XXXIII, A. Kammenhuber Münch. stem f. Spr. 6, 53 f.

    F. With r-formant:

    Gr. ἶρις ` rainbow ' (Fῖρις) = ῏Iρις and Εἶρις (ἐFῖρις) ` the rainbow personified as god's messenger ';

Old English wīr ` metal wire, winding jewellery', Middle Low German wīre ` metal wire ', Late Old Icelandic vīra-virki `work of metal wire '; besides Germanic wīra-, that because of gr. Fῖρις probably goes back to Indo Germanic *u̯ī-ro, stands Germanic *wēira- from *u̯ēi-ro- in Old High German wiara ` golden wire or silver wire ';

Maybe intensified root (*vel-ver) alb. liver, ylber ` rainbow ' see above.

Old Irish fiar `slant, skew', Welsh gŵyr ` bent back on itself| bent round, an apron ', (*u̯ē̆iro-), Breton goar, gwar `courbe '; Latin viriae `a kind of arm jewellery ' is Celtic loanword;

    Lithuanian į-vairùs `twisting, manifold, numerous, various '.

    G. With t-formant:

    Old Indic vēta-, vētasá- m. ` entwining water plant, reed, horsewhip', vētra- m. `stick, duct, tube, pipe', Avestan vaēiti ` willow, willow rod '; participle Old Indic vītá- (see above);

    gr. ἰτέα ` willow '; οἰσύη, οἴσυον ` a willow kind ' (*Fοιτυο-, -υᾱ), οἶσος m. `Dotterweide ', οἶσον `rope'; ἴτυς, -υος, Aeolic Fιτ&##965;ς f. ` rim of the wheel, shield rand, willow ' (= Latin vitus);

    Latin vītilis ` plaited; interwoven ', vītis ` vine; grape vine ' (= Lithuanian výtis); vītex, -icis ` chaste-tree ', vitus f. ` rim of the wheel ' (gr. loanword??), vitta ` band| ribbon; fillet ' (from *vītā, of Fem. of participle *u̯ītos, through consonant increase);

    Old Irish fēith f. ` fiber| filament; entrails; leaf| blade of grass ' (*veiti-), Welsh gwden from *gwyden (*u̯eitinā) ` chain| bond| fetter, bandage; string '; Middle Irish fēithlenn `Epheu ' (?); but Welsh gwythïen, Cornish gwyth, Old Breton guithennou ` vein, blood vessel ' are loanwords from Latin vitta;

    Old Icelandic vīðir ` willow ', Old English wīðig ` willow ' (see above Latin vītex etc.), Middle Low German wīde, Old High German wīda ` willow ' (in addition o-grade as gr. οἰσύα : Norwegian dial. veid ` willow, vetch; sweet pea '), Old English weðel `bandage'; Modern High German Eingeweide, Middle High German (ĭn)geweide: Old High German wid(i) `rope from twisted sprout ', kuna-with `manacle', Gothic kuna-wida `manacle', Old Icelandic við, -jar ` twisted band, strap', viðja ds. = Old English wiððe `strip of willow ', Old High German witta `bandage', Old English wiðo-, wiðe-winde ` variety of climbing flowering vine ', Middle Low German wede-winde `ds., ivy, honeysuckle, climbing plant with fragrant colorful flowers ', Old English wiðu-winde ` honeysuckle, climbing plant with fragrant colorful flowers ', Old Icelandic við-vindill ds.; also (compare Gothic inwinds ` inverted ', inwindiÞa ` injustice ' to windan) Old Saxon inwid `malice, deceit', Old English inwidd ` wicked, insidious, crafty, cunning, malicious ', Old Icelandic īviðgjarn ` wicked ';

    Lithuanian Infinitive výti, vytìs (Akk. vỹtį) ` willow rod ', vowel gradation žil-vìtis ` the gray willow '; Latvian vīte ` tendril ', vîtuõls ` willow ', Old Prussian witwan ` willow ', apewitwo `Uferweide ' (: ἴτυ-ς); vowel gradation Old Church Slavic větvь `twig, branch';

    Old Church Slavic Infinitive viti; vitь (= Lithuanian vytìs) `res torta in modum funis ', pavitь ` tendril ', sъ-vitъkъ ` megillah, Hebrew scroll of religious writings ', Russian vítvina `twig, branch, rod, horsewhip', sloven. vitika `ring'.

References: WP. 1223 ff., WH. II 799 f., 802 ff., 806, Trautmann 345 f., Vasmer 1, 193 f. 195 f., 201, 205 f., Morris-Jones Welsh Gr. 101, Frisk 462.

Page(s): 1120-1122


Root / lemma: u̯ei-2, u̯ei̯ǝ- : u̯ī̆-

Meaning: to wither

Note: extended u̯ī-t- and u̯ei-s-

Material: Latin viēscō, -ere `wither, shrink ', viētus `wilted; faded, flaccid, withered, shrunk ';

Maybe alb. Geg vyshk-et, Tosc fishk `wither' a Latin loanword.

    Old Irish feugud gl. ` decay; faintness ' has derived from fēo ` wilted; faded, flaccid, withered ' (*u̯i-u̯o-) = Welsh gwyw ds.;

    Old Icelandic visinn ` wilted; faded, flaccid, withered ', participle of *wisan, whereof Germanic *wis-n-ōn, -ēn in Old Icelandic visna, Old English wisnian and (with grammatical variation) weornian, Old High German wesanēn `wither, wilt' (also it shows that Modern High German verwesen originally belongs here as Old English forweoren `rotten, decayed '); Middle High German wesel `weak, faint, languid', English dial. weasel, weazen `thin, lean ', Old Icelandic vesall ` woeful, wretched, miserable ', vesligr ds., Norwegian visa `weak person', Swedish vesa `exhaust';

    Lithuanian výsti `wither, wilt' (preterit výtau), výtinu, pa-vaitinù `make wilt ', Latvian vietēt, vītēt ds.

References: WP. I 227 f., WH. II 787 f.;

See also: the relationship to u̯eis- ` deliquesce ' is probable.

Page(s): 1123


Root / lemma: u̯ei-3, u̯eiǝ- : u̯ī-

Meaning: to reach towards smth., to pursue or wish smth.; to be strong

Material:

Hittite: huwai-/huja- (I,II)  ' laufen, fliehen ' , Pal. huja-  ' laufen lassen ' , huwat-  ' Lauf '  (? = Hitt. huda- c./n.  ' Eile ' , Tischler 318), h.l. hu(i)yanta  ' sie liefen '  (Tischler 321 ff); hwitar n. (r/n)  ' Tierwelt, Getier ' , Luw. huidwali-  ' lebendig ' , Pal. [hui-]tumar-  ' Lebewesen '  (Tischler 269ff)

Old Indian: veti, 3 pl. vyánti `to go, approach, follow, lead ' , ptc. {vyāna-}, vītá- `gone, approached; desired, loved; straight, smooth ' , vītā f. `line, row ' , vīthi-, vīthī f. `row, line; street ' , vītí- f. `enjoyment, feast, meal '  

Avestan: inf. vōi `zu erfreuen, zu gefallen ' , vāy- (väyeiti, vīvāiti `jagt weg ' , 3 pl. vyeinti) `verfolgen, jagen ' , vyāna- `der Verfolgte ' , vītar- `Verfolgter ' , vāiti- `Verfolgung '  

Old Greek: hī́emai̯, aor. (e)éi̯sato `sich vorwärts bewegen, sich beeilen, styreben, begehren ' , o^i̯mo-s / ho^i̯mo-s m. (/f.) `Streifen; Gang, Weg, Pfad; Landstreifen, Gegend ' , hom. iōkǟ́ f. `Angriff, Verfolgung ' , acc. iō^ka `id. ' , iōkhmó-s m. `id. ' ; diṓkō, aor. diō^ksai̯, diōkhthē^nai̯ `verfolgen, wegtreiben, anklagen ' ; korinth. wiōkei `verfolgt '  

Slavic: *po-vīnǭtī; *vītī `˜ treiben ' ; *vojь, *vojīnā, *vītьje; *vīdlā; *vītātī `begrüssen, bewillkommen ' ; ? *vīxorь, -ь

Baltic: *wī^- (*wej-a-) (2?) vb., *waj-u- c., *at=wej-a- c., *waj-ā^- vb., *wei^-s-ul-a-, -ia- (1)c., -ā^ f., *wei^-s-ō^l-a- (1) c., *wi-dr-a- c., *wī^-dr-ā

Germanic: *wái-ʮ-i- c., *wái-ʮ-ī(n-) f.; *wái-ʮ-ō f., *wái-ʮ-iō f.; *wī-d-a-, *wī-d-i- adj.

Latin: via f. `Weg ' , vēnārī `verfolgen ein Wild, jagen ' ; proelium n. (< *pro-woiliom) `Treffen, Gefecht, Kampf ' ; vītāre `meiden, vermeiden, ausweichen '  

Other Italic: Osk víú, Umbr abl. vea, via `via ' ; Osk amvían(n)ud `Strassenviertel, Strasse '  

Celtic: Ir fīad `wild ' , fīadach `Jagd ' ; Cymr gw^ydd `wild ' , OCorn guit-fil `fera ' , Bret gouez `wild '  

 

Old Indic vḗti, 3. Pl. vyánti, also váyati `pursues, strives, transfers (the weapons), drives, steers ', also `enjoys', participle vītá- ` pursued, liked, beloved, fancied ', Adj. ` straight, in a straight line ', vītā `row', vīthí-, vīthī f. `row, way', pravayaṇa- `useful for driving ', m. ` goad, device used to urge an animal in a certain direction, prod ', pravḗtar- ` charioteer, car driver ', vīti- `horse' (`*pursuer, follower '?); pada-vī f. ` way, path, track ', padavāyá- ` signpost, leader ' (lengthened grade); with the meaning ` strive after - have gladly '; vītá- ` liked, beloved, fancied, enjoyed with pleasure ', vītí- ` eat, drink; relish, enjoy, enjoyment, meal', deva-vī- ` the pleased gods ', devá-vīti- `enjoyment, feast for the gods';

    Avestan vōi Infinitive `to cheer, to favor '; vāy- (vayeiti, vīvāiti ` chases away ', 3. Pl. vyeinti) ` pursue, hunt, chase', vyāna- `the victim of persecution ', vōiϑwa- Adj. `of hunting, chasing ', vītar- ` pursuer ', vātay- ` pursuit ';

    with the meaning `fly' Old Indic ved. vēvīyatē `flies' and Avestan ā-vayeinti ` they fly up '; Old Indic vēnati ` longs ', vēná- ` yearning, longing ';

    gr. ἵ̄εμαι ` move forth, hurry, strive, lust, desire', (reshuffling of a *Fῑ-ι̯ομαι; Asper after the Medium from ἵημι), ἱ̄έμενος ` eager/passionate ', εἴσατο(F-), ἐ[F]είσατο ` leave; wade in, start energetically ', οἶμος ` gait, way, pathway', (*Fοῖμος), hom. ἰ̆ωκή ` pursuit ' (F-), Akk. ἰ̄ῶκα ds., ἰ̄ωχμός (ῑ metr. lengthening) ` battle tumult ', παλί̄ωξις, παλι-ίωξις ` repel in battle ', korinth. Fιώκει ` pursues ' (compare διώκ-ω : δίεμαι); ἱερός (Fῑερος), Doric Fῑαρὸς (ὄρνις) `nimble, quick, fast' (ῑ metr. lengthening), besides *Fῑ-ρος, assumed through ep. Ionian ἴ̄ρηξ, -ηκος ` hawk' (the quicck), Attic (through narrow connection an ἱερός) ἱέρᾱξ, -ᾱκος ` hawk';

    ί̄ς ` power ' (= Latin vīs, vim), γίς ἰσχύς Hes., ἶφι `with power ' (Instrumental in -bhi), whereof ἴφιος; about ἴς `sinew' see above S. 1121;

    Latin via f. `way', Oscan viú, Umbrian ablative vea, via ds., Oscan amvían(n)ud `street quarter, road' (*u̯ē̆i̯ā); Latin vīs ` be willing; wish ' (*u̯ei-si = Old Indic vḗṣi), vīs, vim ` power, force, might ' (= gr. ἴ̄ς ds.), Pl. vīrēs (from an s-stem); invītāre ` host, invite ', with in- `in'- compared with negative in- `un'- in invītus ` reluctant; unwilling; against one's will ' (: Old Indic vītá- ` liked, beloved, fancied ');

Nasalized:

Whether Latin vindex ` warranter, bondsman, avenger, defender, protector ' to Old Church Slavic vīna `blame'?

Maybe alb. (*u̯ē̆i̯ā) faj ` guilt '

    (about Old Irish fīad ` animals killed in a hunt; bighorn, wild deer; venison, deer meat ', fīadach ` hunt' etc. see below *u̯idhu- `tree');

    Middle Welsh gwit `dish, food', mel-wit ` honey ' (: Old Indic vītí- `enjoyment, meal'), Ifor Williams BBCS. 11, 143;

    Old Icelandic veiðr ` hunt ', Old English wāð ` hunt, journey' = Old High German weida `food, pasture, hunt ((art of) hunting), fishing ', also ` drive, travel, journey', Middle High German anderweide ` for the second time ', Modern High German anderweit, Middle High German drī-weide ` for the third time ', Old Icelandic veiða, Old English wæðan `hunt, chase, roam around, wander ', Old High German weidōn `hunt, chase; seek food ': Indo Germanic *u̯oi-tā ` hunting'; Old Saxon wī in PN Wī-rīc, Gēr-wī (: Latin vīs);

    Lithuanian vejù, výti `hunt, chase, pursue ', výtas (= Old Indic vītá-) ` pursued, hunted ', vajó-ju, -ti ` chase numerously ', pavijỹs ` stretch of the way ', Latvian vajāt ` pursue ', ãt-vejai `relapse of an illness ', ãt-veja ` time ' (`*course', compare Middle High German anderweide ` for the second time ');

Maybe alb. (*vaj) faj ` guilt ' a Baltic loanword.

ō-grade Lithuanian pavõjus `danger', pavojùs `dangerous'; Old Church Slavic vojь `warrior', vojьna `war, fight', vowel gradation Old Church Slavic povinǫti ` subject, subdue', vъzvitije `profit, gain'; with the meaning ` pursuit of a wrongdoer ' probably Old Church Slavic vina `blame, punishment ', vowel gradation Latvian vaĩna `blame', Lithuanian vainóti `vilify, scold, scold, chide', Old Prussian etwinūt ` excuse, forgive ';

    Czech etc. vítati `greet' reminds a Latin invitāre; unclear is the relationship to Russian vitátь etc. `stay, dwell', and to Lithuanian vietā, Latvian vīeta `place' (*u̯eitā), Trautmann 345, Vasmer 1, 205;

Maybe nazalized alb. (*vietā) vend `place'

    es-stem, respectively s-extension: Old Indic váyas- n. ` vitality, youth strength, young age ', vīḍayati (*u̯i-z-d-) `makes strong, tight, firm', vīḍú- `tight, firm', vivēṣṭi, vḗṣati `is active, works, manages, aims ', Latin vī-r-ēs (see o).

References: WP. I 228 ff., WH. I 713 f., II 749 f., 800 f., Trautmann 345 f., Vasmer 1, 201, 215;

See also: compare also u̯ī̆ro-s `man'.

Page(s): 1123-1124


Root / lemma: u̯eip-, u̯eib-

Meaning: to turn, sway

Material: 1. u̯eip-: Old Indic vḗpatē, -ti ` stirs, trembles ', vēpáyati, vipáyati `makes tremble', vípra- ` excited, aroused, motivated, stimulated, stirred ', vip- if `rod, horsewhip', vipātha- m. `a kind of arrow ' (compare tela vibrāre); Avestan vip- `throw, send away (seed, semen) ';

    Welsh gwisgi `restless, mature, ripe, mellow, seasoned ' (of nuts) from *u̯ip-skī-mo-?;

    Gothic biwaibjan ` twist around ', Old High German ziweibjan `scatter'; Old Icelandic veifa ` be swinging, shaking, toss, fling, gobble, wrap', Old English wǣfan ` cover, clothe'; Old High German weibōn `waver, hover, be restless '; Old Icelandic vīfa ` wrap, cover ', Modern Icelandic vífla `bewilder', vīfl ` spool, clapper '; Old English wifel, wifer `arrow, dart ' (: Old Indic vipātha-); in addition wāfian ` solidify in amazement ', wǣfer-hūs `theater'; perhaps Old High German wīb, Old Saxon Old English wīf, Old Icelandic vīf n. `woman, wife ' as `the covered bride '; compare against it Tavernier-Vereecken RB Ph H 32, 97 f.;

    Old Prussian wipis `bough, knot ', Latvian viepe `cover, layer of the pond', viepl'is ` disguise, mask', viept ` veil, cover ', wīpnuot ` smile (twist the face) '; Lithuanian atvìpti ` hang down, of rags, lips ', vaipýtis ` twist the mouth, gawk', vypsaũ, -óti ` remain with open mouth, gawk'; (with Baltic ė from ē[i]:) Lithuanian vė̃ptis ` twist the mouth ', vėplỹs ` gawper, starer ', Latvian vēplis ` monkey mouth, oaf, lubber ' etc.; with secondary vowel gradation a (: ě) in addition Lithuanian vamplỹs, vamplė̃ ` somebody who remains with open mouth, silly person ', vampsaũ, -óti ` remain with open mouth '.

    2. u̯eib-, u̯i-m-b-:

    Gr. γίμβαναι ζεύγανα Hes., ἴμψας ζεύξας. Θετταλοί, ῎Iμψιος Ποσειδῶν ὁ ζύγιος Hes. (also probably ἰψόν τὸν κισσόν Hes.);

    Latin vibrō, -āre ` brandissh| wave| crimp| corrugate; rock; propel suddenly; flash; dart; glitter'; vībix, -īcis (in glosses also vipex, vimex) `` weal, mark from a blow, weal, callus from a blow'; compare under Latvian vībele;

    perhaps Middle Irish femm `tail, stalk, seaweed ', femman ` seaweed ', Welsh gwymon, Breton gwemon, goumon ds. (*u̯imb-, compare Old English wimpel), O'Rahilly Ériu 13, 162 ff., different Thurneysen KZ 48, 67;

    Gothic weipan (stem verb) ` crown with a wreath ', wipja ` wreath, crown '; Old Icelandic veipr ` head bandage, headscarf ', veipa ` female clothing ', Norwegian dial. veipa ` coil, swing a whip ', Old High German weif `bandage, head fascia', Middle High German weifen `swing, wind up, reel up ', wīfen (stem verb) `swing, coil ', Middle Low German wīp ` tussock, bundle, wisp ', Old English wīpian ` wipe', Norwegian vīpa ` stiff straw or stiff hair, spelt, husk ', Middle Low German wīpen `toss, fling, sprinkle';

Old High German wipf ` swing ', Middle High German also wif = holl. wip ds., Old High German wipfil, wiffil ` treetop ', Modern High German (actually Low German) Middle Low German Middle English wippen, Middle High German wipfen, wepfen ` jump ', Norwegian vippa `wisp, whisk ', nasalized Old English wimpel ` pennant, veil ', Old High German wimpal `Stirntuch, veil '; 

    Latvian viebt, viebties ` twist, spin, wrench; change the face ', Lithuanian vỹbur-iu, -ti and -ioju, -ioti ` wave '; Latvian vībele ` weals, marks from blows'.

References: WP. I 240 ff., WH. II 779 f.;

See also: compare su̯eip- above S. 1042.

Page(s): 1131-1132


Root / lemma: u̯eis-1

Meaning: to sprout, grow

Material: Latin vireō, -ēre `be green or verdant; be lively or vigorous; be full of youthful vigor', viridis `fresh| green; blooming|youthful ';

    Old Icelandic vīsir `germ, sprout, scion, shoot', Norwegian vīse `ds., panicle, stem and leaves, bloom, blossom, fruit bud ' (changing through vowel gradation vise `germ, sprout' and probably also veis `succulent stalk'); Old English wīse `scion, shoot, stalk'; Old High German wīsa, Middle Low German wese, Modern High German Wiese, Old English wīsc, Middle Low German wīsch(e) ds.;

    Lithuanian veĩsti `be increased', veislùs, vislùs `fertile', veislė̃ `brood', Latvian viestis `proliferate, thrive', Lithuanian vaĩsius `fruit', vaisà `fertility', Latvian vaisla `brood', Lithuanian į-vìsti `be increased'.

References: WP. I 242, WH. II 797.

Page(s): 1133


Root / lemma: u̯eis-2

Meaning: to turn, bend

Note: extension from u̯ei- `turn'

Material: A. Old Indic vēṣa- m. ` outfit, suit ' (compare vēṣṭayati ` coils, covers '); vḗṣṭatē ` be winded', vēṣṭáyati ` coils, wraps ', participle vēṣṭitá- ` wrapped, dressed ', vēṣṭá- m. ` loop, noose, snare, bandage', viṣṭā ds.; Armenian gi, Gen. gioy ` juniper ' (after the pliable branches used for braiding:*u̯ī̆so- or *u̯eiso-, *u̯oiso-); about gr. ἴς see above S. 1121; 

    New Swedish vese m. (Old Icelandic *veisi or *visi) ` tussock, entangled knot'; in addition Dutch wier = Old Frisian wīr- ` alga, seaweed ' (Old English wīr ` myrtle ', wīr-treo ` myrtle tree ', Tertium comparationis, presumably ` evergreen '), Old English wār ` alga, seaweed ', wāroð ds. as ` water creeping plant ';

    Old Church Slavic vichrъ `whirlwind' (*u̯ēisura-), Lithuanian víesulas ds., Russian vichatь `upset, move'; Lithuanian výstas ` tight-fitting undergarment (generally worn by women to give shape and support to the breasts, hips and waist) ', výstyti ` wrap ', Latvian vīstīt ds., vīsts `bundle' etc.

    Czech vích, věch (*u̯oiso-) `wisp, straw wipe ', věcha ds., Russian věcha `twig, branch for marking the way, marking out pole ', vichór ` topknot ', slov. vẹ́het ` tussock (hay)';

    B. With k-extension:

    Old Indic veṣ-ká- m. ` loop for strangling '; vowel gradation Old Icelandic visk f. `bundle of straw or reed', Swedish viska `small besom ', Old High German wisc `wisp, bundle of straw, chaff| husk ' (therefrom Middle High German Modern High German wischen), Old English wiscian, newer weoskian (*wiskōn) ` braid a hurdle of rods '; Latin viscus, -eris ` soft fleshy body parts (usu. pl.)| internal organs; entrails| flesh; offspring '; as ` rotary, vibrating movement ' here probably also Lithuanian viskiù, viskė́ti `quiver'; East Frisian wisk ` quick movement, darting ', Middle High German wischen ` move along lightly and fast ', Modern High German entwischen ` escape, run away, flee, get away, whip out '; 

    besides Germanic p- variant on the one hand in ndd. wispeln ` move  to and fro ', Swedish visp, visper ` changeable person', on the other hand in Norwegian visp m. ` tassel, tussock ', Swedish visp `verticil '.

    C. With g-extension:

    Latin virga `thin twig, branch, rod' (from *u̯iz-gā), in addition virgō `girl, virgin'; (common Latin -s- > -r- shift)

Maybe alb. (*verga) varzë ` girl' : Italian vergine : Spanish virgin : French vierge : Catalan verge : Latin virgo : Portuguese virgem : Sardinian Campidanesu bìrgini : Valencian verge : Breton gwerc'hez : Welsh gwyryf ` virgin'.

Maybe alb. Geg (*vergha) varza, tosk vajë  `girl, virgin' : Latin virga ` thin branch, rod ' (from *u̯iz-gā), virgō ` girl, virgin ' = similar to poln. las ` forest ' > laska ` thin girl ';

Lithuanian vizgù, vizgė́ti `tremble', vizgóti `waver'.

References: WP. I 242 f., WH. II 799, 802, Trautmann 345, 347, Vasmer 1, 195, 207, 243.

Page(s): 1133-1134


Root / lemma: u̯eis-3

Meaning: to flow; poison, * weasel

Material: Old Indic vēṣati ` melts, dissolves ', viṣá- n. ` poison ', Adj. ` poisonous ', viṣ- (Nom. viṭ) and viṣṭhā ` excrement, ordure', also ` animal semen ', visrá- ` musty smelling '; Avestan viš-, viša- ` poison ', vaēšah- ` mould, dank, rot, decay, decomposition '; Armenian gēš ` carrion, cadaver ';

    gr. ἰ̄ός ` poison ' = Latin vīrus ` venom (sg.)| poisonous secretion of snakes/creatures/plants; acrid element ' = Middle Irish fī ` poison '; Latin vēna f. `vein' from *u̯eisnā; Welsh gwyar `blood' (*u̯eisaro-); in addition Celtic FlN Welsh Gwy (*U̯eisā), English Wear (abrit. *U̯isuriā), gall. Visera > French Vesère, Visuvia > French la Vezouse etc.; Old Germanic FlN Wisura ` river in north-west Germany ', Latin Visurgis ds.: compare Russian FlN Vechra (for Sož), vowel gradation Víchera (for Kama); here the FlN Weichsel (from Old Prussian *Vīkslā, older *Vīsklā, from Pre Baltic*Vīstlā from *u̯eis-tlā), Latin Vistula (from Germanic *Wīstlō in Old English Wīstlawudu, but Old English Wīsle from Slavic Visla);

Note:

the rhotacism n- > r- in *u̯eisnā; Welsh gwyar `blood' (*u̯eisaro-) : Celtic FlN Welsh Gwy (*U̯eisā), English Wear (abrit. *U̯isuriā), gall. Visera > French Vesère : Illyrian Illuria ` Illyria'.

    Old Icelandic veisa f. `swamp, marsh', Old English Old Frisian wāse, English ooze `slime, mud'; perhaps Old High German weisunt, weisont, weisant ` windpipe| trachea| breathing tubes/passages; artery; ureter/other ducts ' (the flowing); wherefore Old English wāsend, English weasanð ` windpipe, gullet', further Old High German wisunt, -ant, Middle High German wisent, Old Icelandic visundr (*u̯is-onto-) ` bison ox ' (from Germanic derives Latin bisōn, -ontis and gr. βίσων);

in addition Old Prussian wis-sambrs ` aurochs, extinct European wild ox ', Old Church Slavic zǫbrъ ds.; named after the smell, as well as Modern Icelandic visla, Old High German wisula, Old English weosule, wesle, English weasel `weasel' and Iltis 'polecat' (above S. 304), the Germanic *wis(j)ō `polecat' assumes; compare Vulgar Latin vissiō `breaking wind, fart, fetidness '; Marstrander compares (Ériu 5, 207) still nir. fíal ` ferret ' (*u̯iselo-); 

Maybe alb. (*vikse) vithe ` buttock' common alb. -k > -th.

    perhaps moreover Indo Germanic u̯ī̆ks- ` mistletoe and other glue-delivering tree ' in gr. ἰξός m. ` mistletoe, birdlime ', Latin viscum `mistletoe; bird-lime (made from mistletoe berries) ', Old High German wichsila, Middle High German wīhsel ` sour cherry ', Russian etc. višnja ` cherry' (out of it Latvian viksna, Old Prussian wisnaytos ` cherry ') - Cherry rubber and mistletoe berry are used as a birdlime; 

Maybe alb. vishnja ` cherry ' a Slavic loanword.

Maybe alb. vishkull `rod, cane ' a Germanic loanword similar formation to alb. vetull `eyebrow from Old Prussian '.

English mistletoe, Italian vischio, Albanian veshtull, Catalan vesc ; herba del vesc, Furlan visc, Latin Viscum album, Portuguese visgo, Romagnolo vestc, Sardinian Campidanesu frisa

    after Specht (Indo Germanic Dekl. 206) in addition further Lithuanian viksvà `sedge' from *vis-k-vā besides vizgà `grass', Old Prussian wissene `Porsch '.

References: WP. I 234 f., WH. II 746, 800, 801 f., Vasmer 1, 208.

Page(s): 1134


Root / lemma: u̯ek-ti-

Meaning: thing

Note: (u̯ekʷ-ti-?)

Material: Gothic waíhts f. `thing', Old Icelandic véttr, vǣ(t)r, vitr f. ` living being, superhuman creature, thing', Old English wiht f. `thing, entity, demon', Old Saxon wikt, Middle Low German wicht `entity, creature', Old High German wiht ` living being, demon, thing', Modern High German Wicht ` wight, living creature, goblin '; Gothic ni-waíht ` nothing ', Old English ná-wiht (English naught, not) [common Celtic abbreviation]

Old High German niwiht and neowiht `not, nothing ';

    Old Church Slavic veštь f. ` thing '; compare Belorussian reèь `thing': Russian réèь ` discourse, word'.

Maybe alb. (*gu̯eh) Geg gja, Tosc gjë ` thing ' (common Armenian u̯- > gu̯- shift)

References: WP. I 246, Vasmer 1, 196;

See also: perhaps to u̯ekʷ- `speak'.

Page(s): 1136


Root / lemma: u̯ek-, u̯e-n-k-

Meaning: to bend

Material: Old Indic váñcati ` goes crookedly or slantwise ', vacyátē `be swung, flies', vakrá- ` bent, crooked', vankú- ` flying ', váṅkri- f. ` rib ', vaṅka-, vaṅkara- m. `river curvature ', vaṅkṣana- m. ` groin, flank', vakṣáṇā `belly, groin, flank, riverbed '; Avestan -vašta- ` writhed, crooked, humped '; common Old Indic -ĝh- > -kṣ- : Avestan -ĝh- > -xš- > -š-

Armenian gangur ` curled, winding bending ' (*u̯n̥kuro-);

    Latin convexus `arched, writhed, crooked, humped ', subvexus ` sloping up';

    Middle Irish feccaid `is bent ', with the preposition for: ` wendet sich gegen, beginnt zu ' (with expressive -kk-); gall. FlN *Vocalus (Matres Vocallinehae), Germanized Vacalus, Va(c)halis `Waal '; [common Celtic abbreviation]

Lithuanian FlN Vókė (*u̯ōki̯ā);

    Indo Germanic u̯onko- in Old Indic vaṅka-, Gothic un-wāhs ` without blemish, without doubt ', Old English wōh `crooked, inverted ', Old Saxon wāh n. ` evil, wickedness ', Old Icelandic vā f. (*u̯onkō) ` angle, mischief '.

References: WP. I 246, WH. I 268 f.: after Kuiper, Nasalpräs. 142 to root u̯ā- (see above S. 1108), where stand besides the present *u̯ǝ-n-ék-mi a Konj. *u̯(ǝ)-ǝ́nu̯-kō; consequently further to root u̯ā-, u̯ǝg-, u̯ǝk-, u̯eng(h)-, see there.

Page(s): 1134-1135


Root / lemma: u̯ek̂-

Meaning: to wish

Material:

Hittite: wek-, wik- (I)  ' wünschen, verlangen '  (Friedrich 251)

Old Indian: váṣṭi (1p. pl. uśmási) `to will, command ' ; vaśitva- n. `freedom of will '  

Avestan: vasǝmi, usǝ̄mahī `wollen, wünschen ' , vasah- (nom. vasɔ̄) `wollend ' ; vasnā (<instr.) `nach dem Willen '  

Other Iranian: OPers vašnā `nach dem Willen '  

Old Greek: hekṓn, kret., lokr. wekōn m., hekọ̄^sa f. `freiwillig, absichtlich ' , aékōn, att. ā́kōn `unfreiwillig, wider Willen, unabsichtlich ' , { hom. Hekáergos m. (Hom.) explained by Gramm. (EM) as = ho hékathen eírgōn or ergazómenos, Ep. epith. of Apollo, either Subst., {boeot. wheka-dāmos - nowhere found!}; hékǟti praep. `nach dem Willen, durch die Gnade; wegen '  

 

Old Indic váś-mi, váṣṭi, uś-mási, Avestan vasǝmī, usǝ̄mahī `want, desire, will, wish', participle Old Indic uśánt-, f. uśatī `willing', Avestan an-usant-, -usaitī ` aversive, grudging, reluctant, without wanting it ', Avestan vasah- (Nom. vasā́) ` wishing ', vasō, vasǝ̄ ` as one wants, arbitrary ' (Akk. Sg. of n. *vasah-), vasō-xšaϑra- ` nach Gefallen schaltend ' etc., Old Indic vaśi-tva- n. ` free will '; Old Persian vašnā, Avestan vasnā (Instrumental Sg.) ` nach dem Willen ' (Armenian vasn ` on account of somebody ' loanword);

    gr. (previous participle) ἑκών (Cretan Fεκών), ἑκοῦσα ` voluntarily, willingly ' (the Asper after ἕ ` oneself '), ἀέκων, ἄ̄κων ` against the will, without intention ', f. Doric ἀέκασσα, compare Cretan γέκαθα ἑκοῦσα Hes., Fέκα in οὔφεκα οὐκ ἀρεστῶς Hes., i.e. οὐ Fέκα, in ἕνεκα, hom. εἵνεκα ` on account of somebody ' (*ἕνFεκα; ἕν is the preposition ἐν), hom. ἑκά-εργος ` active just as one likes ', ἑκή-βολος ` appropriate  just as one likes ' (metr. lengthening for *ἑκα-βολος), out of it extended ἑκατη-βόλος, -βελέτη▖;

Boeotian Fhεκα-δαμος (with different assimilation out of it Thessalian Fεκέδαμος, Attic ᾽Ακάδημος); ἕκητι, Doric ἕκᾱτι ` nach dem Willen, wegen, (unklar) ', ἀεκαζόμενος `not willing, opposing, reluctant ' (after ἀναγκαζόμενος);

    Hittite u̯ek- `wish, arrogate'.

References: WP. I 244 f., Frisk 473 f., 477, 479.

Page(s): 1135


Root / lemma: u̯ekʷ- (*ḫuekʷ-)

Meaning: to speak

Note:

labialized old laryngeals (*ḫue-)

Material: Old Indic vákti, vívakti ` says, talks, speaks', Aor. ávōcam (= εἶπον, see below), participle uktá-, causative vācayati, Avestan vak- `speak', ū̆xta-, Old Indic vacas- n. = Avestan vaèah (= gr. ἔπος) ` discourse, word', Old Indic vacaná- ` talking, speaking, saying', vāc-, Nom. Sg. vāk = Avestan vāxš (= Latin vōx) `voice, discourse, word', Old Indic vācālá- ` gabby, gossipy, loquacious, garrulous, blithering ', vākyam ` saying, discourse '; vaktram `mouth';

    Armenian goèem ` scream, shouts to me, invites, calls ' (?);

Note:

labialized old laryngeals (*ḫue-)

common Armenian Celtic *ḫue- > gwo- > go-.

    gr. ἔπος, Elean Cypriot Fέπος n. `word', Aor. εἶπον ` speak ', Lesbian Fείπην etc. (= Old Indic ávōcam, Indo Germanic *e-u̯e-u̯kʷ-om with Dissimilation from -FεF- to -Fει-), ὄπα Akk. `voice' (also probably εὐρύοπα ), ὄσσα f. `voice', ἐνοπή `shout, call, clamor ' [augument ἐ];

    Latin vox, vōcis `voice', vocō, -āre `call, shout, cry', Umbrian sub-ocau, -ocanu, -oco ` call, conseccrate, bless ';

    Old Irish foccul `word' (= Old Indic vaktram `mouth') < *u̯okʷ-tlo-m = Welsh gwaethl `fight'; fūaimm `din, fuss, noise' (*u̯okʷ-smn̥); common Illyrian-celt. -k > -th.

gall. Vepo-litanos ` breitgesichtig ', Welsh gweb `face';

    Old High German giwahanen, -inen ` mention, commemorate ' (*gawahnjan,, Denominative *u̯okʷ-no-, compare Old Indic vacaná-; in addition tread in paradigm connection old ō-grade Pf.:) giwuog, Middle High German wüegen ` make commemorate, bring memories ', Old Icelandic vāttr ` evidence ' (*wahtaz, compare Old High German giwaht m. ` mentioning, good reputation, glory, honor '), vātta ` attest, bespeak, bear witness '; Old Icelandic ōmun f. `voice', Modern Icelandic ōmur `sound', Old English wōm(a) `din, fuss, noise' (*wōhm-);

    Old Prussian wackītwei ` entice ', enwackēmai ` we call ';

Note:

The origin of labialized old laryngeals:

    Hittite ḫuek-, ḫuk- ` adjure ', Tocharian A wak f., В wek `voice'.

References: WP. I 245 f., WH. II 823 ff., Trautmann 339 f., Vasmer 1, 196, Bergin Ériu 12, 136 f.

Page(s): 1135-1136


Root / lemma: u̯e-2, u̯edh-

Meaning: ` braid, plait, fold, roll up, twist, curl '

See also: see above S. 75 f. (au̯-). 

Page(s): 1114


Root / lemma: u̯elk-1

Meaning: to drag

Material: Avestan varǝk- ` pull, drag' only with pre verb: aipivarǝèainti ` ziehen ein Kleidungsstück darüber an '; Lithuanian velkù (vil̃kti), Old Church Slavic vlěkǫ `pull, drag' = gr. ἄ[F]ολξ (to start with Hom. for ὦλξ), Attic out of it reconverted with metathesis ἄλοξ; ὦλαξ (hybridization from ὦλξ with αὖλαξ) `furrow', with vocal suggestion *ἀ-Fl̥κ- in αὖλαξ `furrow', *ἐ-Fl̥κ-ᾱ in Laconian εὐλάκᾱ `plough'.

References: WP. I 306, Trautmann 349 f., Frisk 77; after Specht KZ. 66, 25 to su̯elk-, as selk- above S. 901.

Page(s): 1145


Root / lemma: u̯elk-2, u̯elg-

Meaning: wet, damp

Material: 1. u̯elk-: Old Irish folc ` flood ', folcaim ` bathe, wash', Welsh golchi, Cornish golhy, Breton gwalc'hi `wash'; Old High German welh (besides welc, see below) `humid, wet, mild, wilted; faded, flaccid, withered ', (ir)welhēn ` become soft, weak ', Middle Low German welen `wither, wilt', Old English wealg ` flavorless, disgusting ', English wallow, Modern Icelandic valgr `lukewarm'; probably also Norwegian valen ` insensible or dead before cold '; Latvian valks `humid, wet', valka `running potion, damp place'; Illyrian FlN Volcos, PN Οὐολκαῖα ἕλη. (common Illyrian Baltic u̯- > v- shift)

    2. u̯elg-: Old High German welc `humid, wet, mild, wilted; faded, flaccid, withered ', Middle Low German walcheit ` leanness| meagerness; poverty', welk ` wilted; faded, flaccid, withered, dry ', Middle English welkin `wither, wilt'; with other the vowel position Old English wlæc, wlacu ` lukewarm ', Middle Low German wlak ds. (with anlaut s- Middle High German swelk ` wilted; faded, flaccid, withered ', swelken, Old High German swelchen `wither, wilt'); presumably Old High German wolchan n., wolcha f., Old Saxon wolkan n. ` cloud';

    Lithuanian vìlgau, -yti, válgyti ` moisten ', vìlkkšnas `humid, wet', vowel gradation Old Prussian welgen n. `catarrh', Latvian valgums ` dampness ', vęl̂gans and val̂gs `humid, wet', also Lithuanian val̃gis `dish, food', válgau, -yti `eat' (compare Russian vológa ` fluid nourishment, food');

    Slavic *vъlgъkъ `humid, wet' in:

maybe alb. vlagë 'moist of ground' a Slavic loanword

Russian-Church Slavic vъlgъkъ, in addition poln. wilgnąć ` become humid, wet ', Russian voĺgnutь ds., vowel gradation *u̯ōlgā in Old Church Slavic vlaga f. ` dampness ', Russian vológa ` liquid, Zukost ', in addition volóžitь ` moisten, cook with butter '; here the Russian FlN Wólga (= Czech FlN Vlha, poln. FlN Wilga) from Slavic *Vьlga.

References: WP. I 306, Trautmann 358, Vasmer 1, 216 f., 219.

Page(s): 1145-1146


Root / lemma: u̯el-1

Meaning: to see

Material: Latin voltus, vultus, -ūs m. ` facial expression, countenance, appearance, shape' (*vl̥-tu-) is placed next to Irish fil `it gives', older Imperative *u̯ele (compare French voici!), Welsh gweled `see', Breton guelet `la vue ', Old Irish fili (Gen. filed, pre-Irish Ogam VELITAS) ` seer, bard' (*u̯elēts); the name of Germanic sibyl, woman who can predict the future, prophetess Veleda; in Germanic seems to have derived a probable root from *u̯el- to *u̯leid- (*u̯l-ei-d-): Gothic anda-wleizn n. (?) ` front ', Old Icelandic līta, Old English wlītan ` see, show'; zero grade Gothic wlits ` front, shape', Old Icelandic litr (Akk. Pl. litu) ` appearance, paint, color', Old Saxon wliti ` radiance, appearance, shape', Old Frisian wlite ` front, appearance ', Old English wlite ds., also ` radiance ', wlitu f. `form, kind of'; o-grade of the causative Gothic wlaiton, Old Icelandic leita (*wlaitōn) ` sich umsehen nach, suchen ' (wherefore as post-verbal leit f. ` the search ', Wissmann Nom. Postverb. 1, 11), Old English wlatian ds.;

    also Germanic *wulÞu- m. `glory, magnificence' (`*prestige'): Gothic wulÞus `glory, magnificence', Old Icelandic Ullr (*wulÞuz) ` god's name ', Old English wuldor `glory ', compare Gothic wulÞrs ` value, worth ', wulÞriza ` wonderful, marvelous, glorious '; further wulÞags `ἔνδοξος '.

References: WP. I 293, WH. II 831.

Page(s): 1136-1137


Root / lemma: u̯el-2, u̯lei-, u̯lē(i)-

Meaning: to wish; to choose

Material: A. Old Indic unthematic 3. Sg. Med. Aor. avr̥ta, Opt. vurīta, participle urāṇá-; vr̥ṇītḗ, vr̥ṇnā́ti, vr̥ṇṓti, vr̥ṇutē ` choose, prefer, love', vr̥tá- ` chosen, desirable, worth having, welcome, wanted ', vára- m. `wish, object of love ', vara- ` excellent, better, best', varīyaṁs- `better', variṣṭha- `best', varya- ` electable, excellent, distinguished ', varaṇa- n. ` choice, wish ', vāra- m. `the precious, treasure, tribute' etc., vŕ̥thā ` futile ', Avestan Old Persian var- ` choose, want, desire, will' (3. Pl. preterit Med. varatā, Opt. vairīmaidī), vǝrǝn[a]- (1. Sg. Med. vǝrǝnē), vǝrǝnav- (3. Du. Med. vǝrǝnvaitē; participle Perf. Pass. varǝta-, vairya- `the best, delicious, worth '; also Avestan var- `believe';

Maybe alb. (*urā-) uria `hunger ' (common Sanskrit alb. v- > u- shift) : [common Celtic abbreviation]

    Armenian geɫ ` pleasure, beauty' (presumably from *u̯el-no-, compare Welsh gwell `better'); Venetic PN Volti-χnos, Voltiomnus, Illyrian Voltius, Voltisa etc. (M. Lejeune BSL. 49, 41 ff.) from *u̯l̥ti-;

    gr. λείω, λήω `will', after Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 676 from *u̯lē(i)mi, Pl. *u̯leimé (?); Latin volō (*velō), vult (*velt), velle `want, desire, will' (Opt. velim), voluntas, -ātis f. `good volition' (previous parrticiple *u̯olunt-tāt-s); nōlo, nevis, nevolt `I will not' (*ne-volō); [common Celtic abbreviation]

Latin mālō ` prefer; incline toward| wish rather ', back formation after mavolt (magis volt); [common Celtic abbreviation]

Umbrian eh-veltu `jubētō ', veltu `dēligitō ', ehvelklu `a decree, proclamation; edict'; [common Greek augument]

    Middle Welsh Cornish Breton guell `better', Modern Welsh gwell (*u̯el-no- `preference, choice ', or to u̯er-2, see there); gall. VN Vellavī, Catu-vellaunī (compare Ligurian PN Genava `Geneva, city in southwest Switzerland ': Raetian VN Genauni);

    Gothic wiljan, Old High German willu, wili, wëllan etc. `want, desire, will'; Gothic wilja, Old High German uillo, willio etc. `volition'; causative Iterative Gothic waljan, Old Icelandic velja, Old High German wellen ` choose ' (= Old Indic varáyati ` chooses for oneself ', Old Church Slavic voliti); Old High German wala f., Old Icelandic val n. ` choice ' (: Old Indic vára- m.);

    Lithuanian pa-vélmi, 3. Sg. pa-vélt, Infin. pa-vélti `want, desire, will, allow', vowel gradation viltìs f. `hope' (*u̯l̥tis), viliúos ` hope, wish '; Old Church Slavic veljǫ, velė́ti `want, desire, will, order', vowel gradation volja f. `volition', therefrom voljǫ, voliti `want, desire, will, wish', in further vowel gradation do-vьljǫ, do-vъlěti ` suffice '(*u̯olē-);

    about Gothic waíla, Old High German wela, wola etc. ` good, well ' compare Feist3 543.

    B. d-extension (d-present): gr. ἔλδομαι, hom. ἐέλδομαι ` sehne mich, verlange nach etwas ', ἐέλδωρ n. `wish, desire';

    Irish fled, Welsh gwledd ` feast, festival' (*u̯l̥dā); gall. PN Vlido-rīx.

    С. p-extension: hom. ἔλπω `allow to hope ', ἔλπομαι, ἐέλπομαι ` hope ', Perf. poet. ἔολπα; ἐλπίς, -ίδος f. `hope', ἐλπίζω `hope', hom. ἐλπωρή `hope', zero grade *ἄλπιστος, Sup. to ἀλπαλέος, dissimilation ἀρπαλέος ` desirable, worth having, welcome, wanted, charming', ἔπαλπνος ` desirable, worth having, welcome, wanted ' (r/n-stem); Latin volup(e) Adv. ` pleasurable, willing ', (*u̯olpi-, *u̯l̥pi-), voluptās `pleasure';

    doubtful hom. εἰλαπίνη `festival', Aeolic ἐλλαπίνα (*ἐ-Fλαπ-ινᾱ?).

References: WP. I 294 f., WH. II 828 f., Trautmann 348 f., Specht KZ 62, 59 f., Vasmer 1, 180, 224, Frisk 78, 455, 485, 502 f.

Page(s): 1137-1138


Root / lemma: u̯el-3

Meaning: to press, push

Material: Hom. εἴλω (*Fέλ-νω); Infinitive-Aor. ἔλσαι and with suggestion ἐέλσαι, Aor. Pass. ἐάλην, ἀλήμεναι, ep. Ionian εἰλέω (*Fελ-νέω), Attic εἴλλω (*εFελι̯ω with suggestion-ε), Doric Elean Fηλέω, reduplication ἴλλω (*Fί-Fλω) ` impel, push, press, squeeze'; Laconian βήλημα κώλυμα, φράγμα ἐν ποταμῷ Hes., Messenian ἤλημα, Ionian εἴλη `troop, multitude, crowd' (Fελν-), next to which probably with i = e (as πίλναμαι) Attic ἴ̄λη, Doric ἴ̄λᾱ `troop, multitude, crowd' (*Fιλνᾱ), hom. (*ἰ̄λαδόν ` in hordes ', pamph. Fίλσιος Gen. from -ις ` crowdedness';

Maybe Greek Illyria ` hordes, multitude ' = Doric Elean reduplication ἴλλω (*Fί-Fλω) ` impel, push, press, squeeze' a nickname of Albanian neighbours

    hom. (Aeolic) ἀελλής (*ἀFελνής) ` grouped together densely ' (κονίσαλος) and ἀολλής (*ἀFολνής) ` gathered in, brought together in one place ' (with Aeolic -ολ-); compare *ἀFαλλής from *ἀFαλνής, *ἄFl̥νής going back to Ionian ἁ̄λής, ἀ̄λής ` assembled, gathered ', ἁλίζω ` assemble ', ἁ̄λίη `congregation, meeting', Doric ἁ̄λία and ἁλιαία ds. (); Attic ἡλιαία `place of the court, the highest court in Athen' together with ἡλιάζω, ἡλιαστής is borrowed from argiv. ἀ̄λιαίᾱ, ἁ̄λιάζω, with replacement from Doric α through Attic η, which found prop as the Asper in ἥλιος; the anlaut ἀ- is copulative ἀ-;

    ἅλις ` in great numbers, sufficient ' (Hom.), γάλι ἱκανόν Hes.; hom. οὑλαμός ` turmoil, scuffle ' (because of γόλαμος διωγμός Hes. metr. lengthening for *Fολαμος), Attic ἐξούλη ` ousting from possession rights ' (*Fολ-νᾱ);

    Lithuanian vãlinas ` bulwark, rampart ', valinỹs `Tuchecke ', Latvian valnis `edge', su-valýti ` collect, reap ( corn, grain)', Lithuanian iš-valýti ` move, carry, take away, take off , remove ', valýti `clean'; Old Church Slavic *velь (: gr. ἅλις) in velь-mi, -ma `very, excessive', velь-lěppъ `very beautiful', velijь, velikъ `big, large', *valъ `heap, bulk, mass' (*u̯ōlos) in Russian válom `in bulk, mass', navál `great heap', zavál `constipation, obstacle ', privál `wharf, dock; bank ' (*surge), válьmja `lots of, much, many, plenty of, in heaps ' etc.;

Maybe alb. vjel ` collect, reap ' = Latvian valnis `edge', su-valýti ` collect, reap ( corn, grain)', të vjelat ` the harvest (the collected harvest) '  [common alb. Slavic -j- infix], vel `satisfy, satiate ' = Modern Breton gwalc'ha ` satiate ' a Slavic loanword.

    g-extension is probably Latin volgus, vulgus ` the people' (= `big, giant bulk, mass of people', compare above Russian valomъ, valьmja) = Old Indic várga- m. `dividing off, partitioning off, group', Middle Breton gwalch `abundance', Modern Breton a-walc'h ` sufficient ' (compare ἅλις), gwalc'ha ` satiate ', Welsh gwala `bulk, mass, sufficient '; Tocharian В walke `long'.

Maybe alb. (*valg) varg ‘row’

References: WP. I 295 f., WH. II 826 f., Frisk 71 f., 74, 117, 455 ff., Vasmer 180, 181;

See also: original resemblance with *u̯el-7 `turn' is possible, because `press, to press together ' could originally be ` wind together '.

Page(s): 1138


Root / lemma: u̯el-4, u̯elǝ-

Meaning: hair, wool; grass, forest

Note: relationship to *u̯el- `turn' (' curly hair' ) or *u̯el- ` rend, pluck' is possible

Material:

Hittite: *hulana-, *hulani-  ' Wolle ' , Luw *hulani- `Wolle '  (Tischler 278-279); hulija- c.  ' Wolle '  (Tischler 280ff.)

Old Indian: ū́rṇā f., ūrṇa- n. `wool ' ; vā́la-, vā́ra- m. `hair of animal ' s tail; bristle ' ; válśa- m. `shoot, branch, twig '  

Avestan: varǝsa-  ' Schössling, Zweig '  

Other Iranian: NPers gurs  ' Schössling, Zweig '  

Old Greek: l[ǟ^]nos n. `Wolle, Wollfaser, Wollflocke '  

Slavic: *vь́lnā; *volsъ

Baltic: *wal-a- c.; *wil^-nā^ (1) f., *wiln-[i]-

Germanic: *wull-ō(n-)

Latin: lāna `Wolle ' ; vellus  ' abgeschorene, noch zusammenhängende Wolle der Schäfe, Vliess '  

Celtic: *u̯lǝnā > MIr olan `Wolle ' ; Cymr gwlan `Wolle ' , Corn gluan `Wolle ' , Bret gloan `Wolle '  

 

A. Old Indic ū́rṇā f. (compare Old Indic ū́rṇā-vábhi- ` spider ', above S. 1114) `wool', Avestan varǝnā ds., gr. λῆνος, Doric λᾶνος n. `wool'

Maybe truncated alb. (*lenos) lesh wool a Greek loanword [common Celtic abbreviation].

Latin lāna ds., lānūgō ` wool; fleece; soft hair; down; trifles ', Gothic wulla, Old High German wolla etc. `wool', Lithuanian vìlna ` woolen fiber ', Pl. `wool', Latvian vilna `wool', Old Prussian wilna ` skirt ', Russian-Church Slavic vlъna, Serbian vù́na `wool'; woolen fiber' ablaut form *u̯lǝnā in Welsh gwlan, Cornish gluan, Breton gloan (brit. loanword is Middle Irish olann) `wool';

    other vowel gradation in Latin vellus, -eris `fleece' (villus ` shaggy hair| tuft of hair ') = Old English wil-mod ` large intestine; colon; pain in large intestine| colic ' (i.e. ` woolen pole ', as wul-mod), probably also Armenian geɫmn `wool, fleece'; relationship to Latin vellere (u̯el-8) from *u̯el-s-ō lies near; *u̯lō- in gr. λῶμα n. `hemline ', Germanic *wlōha- (under B) and Indo Germanic *u̯lō-ro- (u̯el-7) S. 1143.

    B. guttural extensions:

    Old Indic valká- m. `bast, splint', valkala- ` bast garment ', vr̥kala- n. ` bast garment; a certain intestine, entrails '; Icelandic lō f., Danish lu ` cloth flock ', Old English Old Saxon wlōh ` fibre, filament, fringe, tuft of wool, tuft of hair' (Germanic *wlōha-); Old Icelandic lagðr ` tuft of wool or hair ' (*wlagaÞa-); Old Church Slavic vlakno, Russian voloknó ` fibre, filament '; with Indo Germanic k̂: Old Indic válśa- m. `sprout, twig, branch' (this points to ` flexible rod') and Avestan varǝsa-, New Persian gurs = Old Church Slavic vlasъ, Russian volos `hair'; to one of both root forms belongs gr. λάχνη f. ` frizzy hair' (*u̯l̥ksnā), λάχνος m. `wool';

    compare under *u̯el- `turn' likewise in *u̯olk- indicating Old English wielgan `roll', Old High German wal(a)gōn.

    C. Dental extensions:

    Gr. λάσιος (*Fλατιος, Indo Germanic *u̯l̥t-ii̯os) ` dicht mit Wolle oder Haaren, auch Gestrüpp bewachsen '; Old Irish folt `hair', Welsh gwallt, Old Cornish gols, Old Breton guolt ds., therefrom Old Breton guiltiat, guiliat, guoliat, Middle Breton guilchat ` fleece, tonsure, act of cutting one's hair, act of shaving one's head ' and Welsh gwellaif, Old Cornish guillihim `scissors', perhaps also Welsh gwellt, Cornish gwels `grass', Old Breton gueltiocion `fenosa ' (or to Middle Irish geltboth ` fodder| forage| food for cattle; food/sustenance; fuel (for fire) ', gelid ` grazes ' S. 365, with gw after gwallt?);

    Old High German Old Saxon wald `wood, forest', Old English weald ds., Old Icelandic vǫllr `meadow'; after E. Lewy (KZ. 40, 422) and Holthausen (KZ. 46, 178) would belong Wald as *(s)u̯altus to Latin saltus ` defile, narrow passage between mountains, mountain forest ', which would have to be separated then from saltus ` leap| spring| jump; stage| step ' (above S. 899), while Ernout-Meillet 2889 combine both (compare Pas de Calais etc.); others place Wald to Gothic wilÞeis `wild', Old Icelandic villr `wild, crazy', Old English wilde, Old Saxon Old High German wildi `wild, uncultivated ' (*u̯eltii̯o-), Modern High German Wild (*u̯eltos), wherefore further Welsh gwyllt `wild, phrenetical, mad, quick, fast' (*ueltī-), Cornish guyls `wild, uncultivated ', Old Breton gueld-enes ` untamed island ' (Middle Irish geilt ` madman ' is probably brit. loanword);

    Lithuanian váltis `oat panicle, oat spelt ' (also `thread, string'), Old Prussian wolti ` ear ', Ukrainian volótь ` panicle, loose cluster of flowers ', Serbian etc. vlât ` ear ';

    with voiced-aspirated Old Church Slavic vladь, Old Russian volodь `hair'.

    D. Old Indic vāla-, vāra- m. ` tail, hair sieve', vowel gradation Lithuanian valaĩ ` tail hair of the horse'.

References: WP. I 296 ff., WH. I 756, II 745, Trautmann 341, 359, Vasmer 1, 220 f.

Page(s): 1139-1140


Root / lemma: u̯el-5, u̯elǝ-

Meaning: to deceive

Material: Lithuanian vìlti `cheat, deceive', Latvian vil̂t ds., Old Prussian prawilts ` betray ', Lithuanian vỹlius `deceit, artifice', zero grade Old Prussian po-wela `be betrayed ', Latvian velts ` futile ', Lithuanian véltas ` useless'; (gr. οὖλος = ὀλοός above S. 777); Middle Irish fell ` deception ' (Middle Irish fall, newer faill ` negligence ', Welsh gwall `ds., lack', Breton gwall `evil, bad' are probably to be put as particular group); after Būga Kalba ir sen. I 34 f. the Baltic words belong to u̯el-2.

    An extension from *u̯el- perhaps in:

    gr. ἐλεφαίρομαι `cheat, deceive, swindle; betray, be disloyal; gull, fool, injure ' (*u̯el-ebh-), ὀλοφώιος `deceitful'; Lithuanian vìlbinti (*u̯ḷ-bh-) ` entice, lure '.

References: WP. I 298; Frisk 493; different Mühlenbach-Endzelin IV 534, 596.

Page(s): 1140


Root / lemma: u̯el-6

Meaning: warm

Material: Armenian gol `heat', golanam `be warm '; Lithuanian vìlditi ` make lukewarm '.

References: WP. I 302;

See also: perhaps to S. 1142 under (u̯el-7).

Page(s): 1140


Root / lemma: u̯el-7, u̯elǝ-, u̯lē-

Meaning: to turn, wind; round, etc..

Note: extended u̯el(e)u-, u̯l̥-ne-u-, u̯(e)lei- (these also ` twist around, wrap = enwrap')

Material:

Hittite: hulali- n.  ' Wickel, Binde, Spinnrocken '  (Tischler 277ff)

Tokharian: A, B wāl-  ' cover, conceal; surround, enclose '  (Adams 588); B wäl-  ' curl '  (596)

Old Indian: valati, -te, ptc. valitá- `to turn, turn round ' ; (?) valá- m. `cave, cavern; (round?) beam or pole ' ;

Armenian: gelum, aor. geli `drehen, umdrehen, zusammendrehen, winden ' , med. `sich drehen, winden ' , glem `rolle, werfe nieder ' , gil `runder Wurfstein '  

Old Greek: ẹ̄léō `rollen, drehen, winden, wälzen ' , íllō `id. ' , att. ẹ̄́llō `id. ' ? *wéli-: gélin = orkia^n (leg. ormián) Hsch.; héliks, -kos f. `Gewinde, Windung, gewundene Spange, Ranke, Locke, Spirale, Hebewinde ' ; o^u̯lo- `kraus, zottig, wollig, gewunden ' ; alindéō, alíndō, aor. ǟ́līsa `wälzen ' ; ẹ̄lǘō, pfmed. ẹ̄́lǖmai̯, aor. kat-ẹ̄lǘsante `umwinden, umhüllen, bedecken ' , eilǘomai̯ `sich winden und krümmen, sich fortschleppen, vorwartskriechen ' , `kribbeln ' , aor. pass. elǘsthē `rollte ' , elüsthẹ̄́s `sich krümmend, windend, duckend; umhüllt, bedeckt ' ; ion., att. élütro-n `Hülle, Schalle, Futteral, Behälter ' , elǘtǟ-s `Art Backwerk, etwa Brezel '  

Slavic: *vālъ; *valī́tī

Baltic: *wel^- (2) vb. tr., *wel^-t-uw-a- c., -iā̃ f.; *wō^l-ā^ (1) ff., *wō^l-a- (2) adj., *wō^l-a- (2) c.; *wāl-iā̃ f.

Germanic: *wil-t-a- vb., *wal-t-(i)a- vb., *walw-ia- vb., *walw-is-ō- vb., *wōl-ja- vb., *wal-a-, *wal-ta-, *wal(w)-ō, *wōlw-ia- vb., *wul-st-ō f.

Latin: volvō, -ere, volvī, volūtum `rollen, kollern, wälzen, drehen, wirbeln ' , volūta f. `Volute, Spirale des ionischen Kapitäls ' , volūcra f. ` Wickelraupe ' , volvola f., volvulus `Winde (Pflanze) ' , volūmen, -inis n. `Rolee; Papyrusrolle, Buch ' ; ? vellere  ' zupfen, rupfen, ausreissen '  

Celtic: OIr fillim `biege '  

 

A. Old Indic válati, -te ` wends, turns ' (?), causative vā̆layati ` makes turn, roll', valanam ` the rolling, bending, flowing waves '

Maybe alb. vala `wave', valë ` boiling water, bubbling water, surging water '

Old Indic valá- m. `covering, cave' (*u̯er-?), vala-, valaka- m. perhaps `(round) balk, beam, shaft, pole', lengthened grade cakra-vāla- n. ` hoarfrost, ring, circle, bulk, mass', āla-vāla- n. `immersion round the root of a tree ' (compare Mayrhofer 1, 79 f.), probably also vāra- m. `(* turn) row, result, succession, time, weekday ' = New Persian bār ` time ';

    from u̯ḹ-mi-: Old Indic ūrmí- m. f. ` surge, wave', Avestan varǝmiš ds.

    from the u-basis: Old Indic vr̥ṇóti, ūrṇóti ` wraps, covers, surrounds, encircles, restrains, resists ', Avestan vǝrǝnavaiti ` covers wrapping ' (contain partly Indo Germanic *u̯er-5), Avestan word also ` turns ' as Old Indic válati; compare S. 1160;

    Old Indic varútra- (= gr. ἔλυτρον) n. `mantle ' (uncovered, úlva-, úlba- m. n. `wrapping of embryo, womb, uterus' (compare Latin volva);

    from the i-basis: Old Indic valaya- m. n. ` circle, round frame, bracelet ', valitá- ` skilful, agile, crooked ', valli-, vallī ` creeper, climber, creeping plant ', vallari-, vallarī f. ` tendril, creeping plant ';

Maybe alb. (*úlva-r, úlba-r) ylber ` rainbow, arch ' (common alb. Sanskrit v- > u- shift);

    Armenian gelum (Aor. geli) `turn, turn over; turn round, coil ', Med. ` turn, coil ' (the present to u-basis, compare thematic Latin volvo), gelumn ` rotation ' (= Latin volūmen, εἴλῡμα?), glem ` roll, throw, bring down, cast down, put down, crush ' (*gilem from *u̯ēl- or *gulem from *u̯ōl-), gil (*u̯ēl-) `round throw stone ' (compare gr. ὅλμος, Russian valún `round pebble'), presumably lamb (-i, -iv) `ring, circle ' from *u̯l̥-m-bhi- (due to n-stem, compare Lithuanian vilnìs, Old Church Slavic vlъna, Old High German wëlla);

    gr. εἰλέω ` turn, twist, rotate, coil' (*Fελ-ν-έω), ἴλλω ds. (probably *Fί-Fλ-ω, in addition ἰλλάς ` rope, band, cord; close-packed, herding together, of cattle';

  ̓Ιλιάς = Troy, the Troad

 

gr. ἰλλός ` squinting (the eye) ', Boeotian Fίλλων, ἴλλαι συστροφαί, δεσμοί Hes.), Attic εἴλλω ds. (*ἐ-Fέλι̯ω); from Aeolic ἐλλέω (*Fελνέω): ἐλλεδανός ` the rope with which the sheaves are tied together '), εἶλιγξ and εἴλιγγος `whirl, turn, dizziness, giddiness; swindle ' (after εἰλέω), ἕλμις, Pl. ἕλμεις, ἕλμιγγες, ἕλμινθες f. ` intestinal worm ', εὐλή `worm' (*ἐ-Fλ-ᾱ), ὑάλη σκώληξ Hes. (i.e. Fάλη), ἑλένη ` plaited basket', ὅλμος ` a round smooth stone (from which passage it was taken to signify the human trunk; any cylindrical or bowl-shaped body: mortar, kneadingtrough, hollow seat on which the Pythia prophesied, support, drinking-vessel, mouthpiece of a flute, stone used as a weight ', hom. οὖλος ` frizzy, fleecy, woolly, woolen; of plants, twisted, curling; twisted, crooked ' (*Fόλνος), reduplication ἴουλος ` Milchhaar, Korngarbe, ein Insekt ', οὖλος ` fascicle, sheaf ', οὖλον `the gums' (as ` torose, rounded ');

    from the i-basis: ἕλινος ` vine-layer, vine-tendril, the vine ', ἕλιξ `winded', f. ` bracelet ', therefrom ἑλίσσω, Attic ἑλίττω, and (after εἰλέω) εἰλίσσω ` curl, wind, turn; making it roll; turn round, to turn a chariot round the doubling-post; of any rapid motion, esp. of a circular kind; to roll or wind round, as the wool round the distaff; metaph. to turn in one's mind, revolve; to turn oneself round, turn quick round, turn to bay; of a serpent, to coil himself, of a missile, to spin through the air; to turn hither and thither, go about; to whirl in the dance ', vowel gradation ἀλίνδω, Attic ἀλινδέω ` turn, twist, rotate, roll '; ἀλίζω ds.; about ῏Ηλις s. S. 1142;

    from the u-basis: ep. εἰλύω `  wrap, envelop, cover; to crawl or wriggle along, of a lame man ', Med. ` writhe, drag oneself along ' (*Fελνύω, compare καταείλυον), compare participle εἰλυφόωντες; εἰλῡφάζειν `whirl, turn, roll' (from *Fελ-νυ-ς); εἰλυός, εἰλυθμός `hiding place, nook, bolt-hole', εἰλεός (after εἰλέω) ` intestinal obstruction, twisting of the bowels, cramp of the intestine, volvulus; lurking-place, den, hole; butcher's block; a kind of vine '; vowel gradation *FολοFό- ` whirl, gyration ' in ὀλ(ο)οί-τροχος ` running in whirl ' = ` rolling stone '; Fελυ- in Aor. Pass. ἐλύσθη ` was dragged, was rolled ', ἐλυσθείς ` wrapped ', Ionian Attic ἔλυτρον (Hes. γέλουτρον) ` bow-case; sheath of a spear; mirror-case; case of a shield; sheath of the spinal cord, the shard of a beetle's wing; shell of a crab; of the eye-lids; of the umbilical cord; husk or capsule of seeds; the body, as being the case or shell of the soul; reservoir for water; tank for fish; container ', ἔλυμος ` case, quiver, a kind of Phrygian pipe, made of box-wood, with a horn tip and bend in the left pipe, millet; sheath ', ἐλύτης `kind of pastry, perhaps pretzel ' (besides εἰλύτας, ἐλλύτας); hom. εἶλαρ n. ` a close covering, shelter, defence, fence, protection ' (*FέλFαρ, with prior dissimilation to *ἔλFαρ; compare ἔλαρ βοήθεια Hes.; basic meaning probably ` barrier or netting from winding branches '); *Fλῡ- in πέλλῡτρον ` sock or bandage worn by runners on the ankle; foot-wrapper ', Perf. εἴλῡμαι, εἰλῡμένος ` veiled '; secondary υ: in εἴλῡμα ` sleeve, garment, wrapper, ' (Latin volūmen, Armenian gelumn);

    in addition also ἑλίκη ` willow ', ΏΕλικών `* mountain pasture, of osiers, of the willow-copse ' (Fελικών of Korinna-Papyrus), like Old English welig, etc. ` willow ', different from Indo Germanic *salik- ` willow ';

    after Frisk 36, 42, 80 here αἰέλουρος m. f. ` tomcat, cat ' or `weasel', also αἴλουρος (from αἰόλος + οὐρά `tail') and αἰόλος `quick, fast, movable, nimble, shimmering, varicolored; wriggling; changeful of hue, gleaming, glancing, of arms and armour; changeful, shifting, varied; shifty, wily, slippery ' from *(F)αι-Fόλ-ος; ἅλυσις f. ` chain, manacle' (*Fάλυ-τις);

Maybe Αἴολος, ου, ὁ, lord of the winds, properly the rapid or the changeable, Od.

    alb. vjel ` harvest ', vjell `vomit' (*u̯elu̯ō); valë f. ` surge of boiling water; wave, surge ' (*u̯elǝnā); [common alb. Slavic -j- infix]

Note:

Wrong etymology, since alb. vjell `vomit' derived from abbreviated Lithuanian vémti `vomit', vėmalaĩ `vomit' > maybe truncated alb. (*vėmalaĩ) vjell `vomit', see Root / lemma: u̯em-, u̯emǝ- : to spit, vomit [common Celtic abbreviation]. probably alb. employes -ll- to distinguish vjel ` harvest ' from vjell `vomit' as alb. does not like homonyms.

    Latin vola f. ` roundness, cavity of the hand or the sole, the hollow of the hand; a handful ' (compare Old Icelandic valr ` round ', Old Indic vala- m. `cave'); from the u-basis volvō, -ere, -ī, volūtum `roll| causse to roll; travel in circle/circuit; bring around/about; revolve ' (*u̯elu̯ō), volūmen ` pulley, book| chapter| fold ', involūcrum `sleeve, wrapping, sheath ', involūcre ` small leaf or group of leaflets at the base of a flower cluster or umbel (Botany); membranous covering ', probably also volva, vulva ` womb; (esp. sow's womb), caul of the mushrooms ';

    reduced grade vallus `picket, pole, palisade, fence made from stakes; protective fence made from poles that are inserted into the ground ', wherefore as collective vallum ` wall| rampart; entrenchment| line of palisades| stakes' [out of it borrowed Old Saxon wal, Old English weall, Middle High German wal(l) ` bulwark, rampart, embankment, defensive wall, parapet ']; vallēs, vallis `valley' (`*incurvation ') [common Celtic abbreviation]

= gr. *Fᾶλις > ῏Ηλις (*u̯elnis), valvae `double or folding door (usu. pl.)| one leaf of the doors ', valvolae `pod ' (*u̯elu̯ā);

    Old Irish fillid `bends' (previous n-present), Breton goalenn ` twig| sprout| stalk ' (`*flexible rod'); Old Irish félmae (= fĕlmae) ` hedge; fence, anything planted/erected to form surrunding barrier ' (presumably `*wickerwork'); ō-grade Middle Irish fāl m. `fence, paddock ', Welsh gwawl ` wall, rampart, entrenchment';

    doubtful Middle Irish fail, foil (Gen. falach) `ring' (*u̯elik-, vowel gradation with ἕλιξ?);

    Old Icelandic vil Pl., Gen. vilja ` intestines, entrails ', Old English we(o)loc, weolc, uioloc `Trompeterschnecke ', Dutch welk, wulk ds. from Germanic *weluka-, probably to u-basis, as certainly Gothic walwjan ` writhe', walwisōn `wallow', Old English wielwan ` writhe, roll' (*walwjan), walwian transitive. intransitive ` writhe, roll'; Old Icelandic valr ` round ', Old English walu f. ` weal, mark from a blow, knock' (*u̯olo-, -ā, compare Latin vola), Middle Low German walen `turn, writhe, roll', Old High German wulsta f. ` bulge;  bead;  lip;  torus;  wreath;  roll;  bulb '; Gothic walus `staff', Old Icelandic vǫlr `round staff', Old Frisian walu-berа ` verger, officer who carries verge or staff before a bishop ', Old English uyrt-wala (`rootstock'), Old High German wurzala `root';

n-present Old High German wellan `round, roll', Old Saxon bíwellan ` blemish ' (`*roll in the dirt '), Old Frisian biwullen participle ` spotted, speckled; polluted ', wherefore Old High German wella ` upsurge, wave', compare with formants -mi- (as Old Indic ūrmí-, Avestan varǝmi-) Old High German walm ` surge, boil, heat', Old English wielm, wylm ` surge, seething, boiling, boil ';

    with the meaning `throw waves ' (compare Old High German wella etc.), ` to bubble up, boil up, surge up' (from springs and esp. from seething water, from which also originate words for `vapor, heat') besides Old High German walm, Old English wielm also Old Icelandic vella, vall `effervesce, simmer, seethe, boil', Old High German (etc.) wallan, wiel ` surge, seethe, bubble up, boil up, surge up, simmer, cook', causative Old Icelandic vella ` cause to boil, weld together ', Middle Low German Middle High German wellen ds., Old Icelandic vella f. ` boil ', Old Frisian walla, Old English wiell f. `wellspring, boiling ', zero grade Norwegian olla f. `wellspring', Gothic wulan `simmer, seethe, boil', Old Icelandic ylr ` warm smoke ', ylja `warm', olmr ` furious ': Old High German walo Adv. `tepide ', walī ` warmth| mild heat '; here u̯el-6 S. 1140?

    lengthened grade Old English wǣl m. n. `whirlpool, pool', wǣlan (*wōljan) ` writhe', Middle Low German wӧ̄len ds., Old High German wuolen `dig, stir up, incite ' (compare to vowel gradation Old Church Slavic valiti ` writhe', and to meaning ` stir up, incite ' also Modern High German Wal, Wehle, Wuhle ` water hole, pit filled with water, large puddle of rainwater ');

    Lithuanian veliù, vélti (heavy basis) ` bend ', váltis `thread, string, fishing net' (= Russian vólotь ` filament, fibre ' besides the intonation), Latvian vel̂t ` writhe, bend ', Lithuanian apvalùs, Latvian apál̨š ` round ',

Old Prussian walis ` transom in a cart ', Lithuanian volė̃ `wooden hammer', pavõlai ` platen, roller used to press paper against ink, barrel, drum, cylinder ', Latvian vā̀le f. `Waschbleuel ', vī-vala ` der Laufstock beim Garnwinden ' (: vīvaluot ` be exuberant '); Lithuanian vė̃lei, vė̃l ` again, on the other hand, once again ', Latvian vêl `still, further' (`again, on the other hand ' from ` turn ') and with meaning-development ` squirm = hesitate' perhaps Lithuanian vėlùs, Latvian vę́ls `late', Lithuanian valandà ` while ' (out of it Russian valánda `the slow ');

Maybe Polish adjective wolny ` slow ' = alb. adverb (*u̯ō̆lna-) vonë ` slow ' = adjective Latvian: novēlojies, Lithuanian: vėluojantis ` late, coming etc after the expected or usual time ', adjective Latvian: vēls, Lithuanian: vėlus ` late, far on in the day or night ', adjective Dutch: wijlen, Lithuanian: velionis, Swedish: nyligen avliden ` late, dead, especially recently ', adverb Latvian: vēlu, Lithuanian: per vėlai ` late, after the expected or usual time', adverb Latvian: vēlu, Lithuanian: vėlai ` late, far on in the day or night'.

    Slavic *valъ m. in Church Slavic valъ `wave', Russian val `wave, surge, roller ' (Balto Slavic *u̯ō̆la-), obvál ` landslide ', provál ` collapse';

Maybe alb. valë `wave' a Slavic loanword.

Old Church Slavic valiti sе̨ `κυλίεσθαι ', Russian valítь ` writhe', Iterative Serbian váljati, Russian valjátь ` writhe, bend ', vowel gradation Russian-Church Slavic obьlъ ` round ', Russian óblyj `roundish' (*ob-vьlъ); about Russian vólotь see above;

    Balto Slavic *u̯ilnā- (*u̯l̥nā) f. `wave' in Lithuanian vilnìs, vilnià, Latvian vilna `wave'; Slavic *vьlna in Old Church Slavic vlъna, Russian volná ds.; in addition Old Church Slavic vъlati `in seething, boiling bring '.

Maybe alb. vloj `boil' a Slavic loanword.

    Tocharian A walyi Pl. ` worms '.

    B. d-present (respectively d-extension): Old Icelandic velta, valt, Old High German walzan, Middle High German walzen, wielz `wallow ', Old High German also ` roll lively ' (wgrm. a-present to a Perf. with Indo Germanic о neologism with help of Iteratives:) Gothic waltjan `wallow', uswaltjan `roll over ', Old Icelandic velta, Old English wieltan, Old High German welzan transitive ` writhe, roll, turn', Old Norse valtr, Old English wealt `rolling, changeable '; Old English wlatian impersonal `be sea-sick; feel sick ', wlǣta, wlǣtta m. ` disgust, repulsion, loathing ' (*wlātiÞa), wlǣtan `defile; pollute; disfigure| disgrace; sully ', Middle Low German wlaten ` disgust ' (u̯lē-d- : u̯lǝ-d-); also besides Old High German wal(a)gōn `wallow, roll' stands Middle High German the meaning ` feel disgust, repulsion, loathing ', walgunge ` seasickness ', also Norwegian dial. valg ` disgusting, evil' (see below);

    d-suffixed also in Latvian velde, veldre ` das vom Regen niedergelegte (wie gewälzte) Getreide '; compare from the i-basis above gr. ἀλίνδω, ἀλινδέω, ἀλίζω.

    C. further formation:

    u̯lei-s-, u̯li-s- in: Old Irish flesc `rod' (*u̯liskā), Gothic wlizjan `hit, chastise, castigate' (if derivative from a *wliza- `rod'), Slavic *lěska (*vloiskā), Russian-Church Slavic lěskovъ ` made from the wood of the styrax, gum tree ', Serbian lijèska ` hazel shrub ' etc.;

Maybe alb. lajthi ` hazel shrub, hazel fruit ' a Slavic loanword [common alb. -k > -th shift]

about Russian lés `wood, forest, wood ' (*lěsъ), lesá `fishing line, fence', which perhaps belong here, s. Vasmer 2, 33 f. and above S. 665.

Maybe from a *u̯lei-s > *wlaza- `rod' derived alb. valza, varza, vajza ` girl (*as a thin rod) ' like Slavic las-ka ` girl ' from  (*vlois-) `wood '

Maybe alb. lis `oak, oak forest' a Slavic loanword from Old Church Slavic: lěsъ `forest, wood(s)', Russian: les `forest, wood(s)', Ukrainian: lis `forest, wood(s)'.

    u̯lē-ro-, u̯lō-ro-, u̯lǝ-ro-: gr. εὔληρα, Doric αὔληρα Pl. `rein', ἄβληρα ἡνία Hes. (*ἐ-, ἀ-Fληρο-), Latin lōrum ` leather strap| thong; shoe strap; rawhide whip; dog leash; reins ', lōrica ` coat of mail; breastwork| parapet| fortification ' , Armenian lar `rope, cord, bowstring, muscle ', compare above S. 1139.

    D. guttural extensions:

    u̯olg- in Old Indic válgati `(* wangles, turns, twists), hops, jumps ', with sam- ` sits down in rolling movement ', with abhi- ` surges ', valgā `bridle, rein', Latin valgus ` knock-kneed| having legs converging at the knee and diverging below ', Old English wealcan, wéolc `roll (transitive and intransitive), move to and fro, roll lively ', Old High German walkan, Middle High German walken, wielc ` bend, roll, felt, thrash', Middle High German also `wallow', Old Icelandic valk n. ` the throwning back and forth, esp. on the sea ', Old English gewealc n. ` the rolls ', wealca m. ` surge ';*walkōn in Old Icelandic valka ` move from place to place, torment, roll lively ', Old English wealcian `roll' (intransitive), English walk ` wander ', Middle Low German walken ` drum, tumble, full, mill, flex, bend, knead'; Latvian valgs `rope, cord';

    nasalized Old Saxon wlank `minxish, wanton, bold', Old English wlanc `minxish, wanton, stout, proud, stately', if evolved from the meaning ` jumping ' (: Old Indic válgati).

    u̯olk-: in Middle Low German walgen `wrestle, struggle, fight, feeling of sickness', Norwegian olga ` be disgusted ', Old High German wal(a)gōn `wallow, roll', transitive ` writhe, twist, be tormented (by pain), roll', Middle High German impersonal m. Dative ` feel disgust, repulsion, loathing ', walgunge ` seasickness '.

References: WP. I 298 f., WH. I 822, II 728 ff., 825, 832 ff., Trautmann 349, Vasmer 1, 165 f., 234, Frisk 36, 42, 457 f., 461 f.;

See also: compare u̯el-3.

Page(s): 1140-1144


Root / lemma: u̯el-8

Meaning: to tear, wound; to steal

Note: with the vowel gradation u̯ol- : u̯ōl-, maybe are to be removed as an independent group (A.)

Material:

Hittite: walh-  ' schlagen, niederschlagen '  (Friedrich 242-243)

Tokharian: ? B wālts-  ' crush, grind '  (Adams 588)

Old Greek: ọ̄lǟ́ (˜ ou̯-, ou̯o-) f. `vernarbte Wunde, Narbe '  

Latin: volnus/vulnus, gen. -eris n. `Wunde '  

Celtic: *gwoli- > OIr fuil `Blut ' , flann `Blut; blutrot ' , MIr fuili `blutige Wunden ' ; Cymr gweli m. `Wunde ' ; Cymr gwellaif `Schere ' , OCorn gwillihim `Schere ' , Corn goly, pl. goleow, golyow `Wunde ' , MBret goulyou `Wunde '  

 

A. Old Irish fuil f. `blood', Middle Irish fuili `bloody wound ', Welsh gweli (*u̯olīso-?) `wound', Cornish goly, Pl. golyow, Middle Breton goulyow ds.; Old Icelandic valr m. ` the corpses on the battlefield ', Old English wæl n. `ds., battlefield, bloodbath ', Old High German wal n. ds. (`battlefield '), Old Saxon wal-dād `murder', Old Icelandic valkyria ` Valkyrie ', Old English wælcyrige ` erinys, magician, enchantress ' m.; lengthened grade Old High German wuol ` defeat, downfall, epidemic ' (but wuolen `dig' see below *u̯el- `turn'), Old Saxon wōl, Old English wōl m. f. ` epidemic, pestilence, plague ';

   Ukrainian valjava ` battlefield covered with the fallen ', Czech váleti `fight, battle', válka `war, fight', Belorussian valka `fight, struggle, tree-felling, cutting down of trees ', valèić `win, triumph', Old Prussian ūlint (from *wālint) `fight' [common alb. Old Prussian, Indic w- > u- shift];

    Lithuanian vẽlės or vė̃lės ` the ghostly figures of the deceased ', vêlinas, nowadays vélnias `devil' (originally `ghost' as Old Lithuanian veluokas), Latvian veli ` the spirits of the deceased '.

    B. Gr. ἁλίσκομαι ` become imprisoned ' (Thessalian Fαλίσσκε̃ται, Arcadian Fαλόντοις), Aor. (F)αλῶναι, ἑά̄λων (*ἠ-Fάλων), ἁλωτός ` captured ', presumably also Ionian Attic εἵλωτες, εἱλῶται ` Helot, member of an inferior slave class ' (from lak. *ἥλωτες for *ἐ-Fελωτες); ἀνᾱλίσκω (*ἀνα-Fαλίσκω), Fut. ἀνᾱλώσω ` expend, consume, slay', ἀνᾱλόω `destroy, smash';

    hom. Attic οὐλή `wound, scar' (*Fολνά̄ or *Fολσά̄), np. valāna, vālāna `wound', Latin volnus, -eris `wound' (*u̯l̥snos = Old Irish flann `blood; blood-red, sanguine, having the color of blood '); γέλλαι τῖλαι Hes. (i.e. Fέλλαι; Fick KZ. 44, 438);

    Latin vellō, -ere, velli and volsi (vulsi), volsum (vulsum) `pluck, tear, rend; tear out, pluck, pluck off ';

    Gothic wilwan `rob', wulwa ` robbery ';

    Hittite u̯alḫmi ` fight, battle, struggle ';

    in Germanic further formations Middle Low German wlete f. `wound, gash ', Middle High German letzen `injure' (Indo Germanic *u̯[e]led-), probably also Old Frisian wlemma `damage, injure', Middle Low German wlame ` disability, sinfulness ';

    Hittite hullāi-, hullii̯a- `fight, struggle' (?).

References: WP. I 304 f. WH. II 729 f., 827, Trautmann 348, Frisk 74;

See also: perhaps in addition u̯elk-1 ` pull '.

Page(s): 1144-1145


Root / lemma: u̯e-4, u̯o-, u̯es-

Meaning: ` down, downward '

See also: see above S. 73 (au-). 

Page(s): 1114


Root / lemma: u̯e-5, u̯o-

Meaning: ` those, that, pronoun used to indicate specific people or objects '

See also: see above S. 75 (au-).

Page(s): 1114


Root / lemma: u̯em-, u̯emǝ-

Meaning: to spit, vomit

Material: Old Indic vámi-ti, newer vamati ` vomit', vānta- ` spat, thrown up', vamathu- m. ` nausea, act of attempting to vomit', Avestan vam- `vomit'; New Persian vātāk `saliva' (*u̯m̥̄-to-);

    gr. ἐμέω (for *ἔμε-μι), Aor. ἐμέσσαι `vomit', ἔμετος m., ἔμεσις f. ` nausea, act of attempting to vomit' (ἐμύς ` mud turtle '?);

Maybe alb. vem, vemje ` larva, grub, caterpillar ' [alb. Slavic -j- infix]

    Latin vomō (*u̯emō) ` vomit', vomitus ` nausea, act of attempting to vomit', vomica `ulcer, abscess, boil ';

    Norwegian dial. vimla ` feel nausea ', vimra ` cause nausea ', Old Swedish vami m. ` disgust, repulsion, loathing '; Old Icelandic vāma `nausea ', vāmr ` disgusting person';

    Lithuanian vémti `vomit', vėmalaĩ `vomit', vìmdyti ` vomit make', Latvian vemt ` vomit';

Maybe truncated alb. (*veml) vjell `vomit', older vel `overeat, feel nausea ' , a Lithuanian loanword

    very dubious is kinship from Gothic Gen. Pl. wammē ` stain ', gawamms Gen. Pl. `speckled; polluted, impure, unclean', Old Icelandic vamm n. `fault, error, disability ', Old English wamm m. n. ` stain, disability, wrong; injustice ', Adj. `mad, wicked, evil, bad', Old Saxon wam n. `evil, harm', Adj. `mad, wicked, evil' (*u̯om-no-); compare Weisweiler IF 41, 46.

References: WP. I 262 f., WH. II 835, Trautmann 350, Frisk 504 f., 508.

Page(s): 1146


Root / lemma: u̯endh-1

Meaning: to turn, wind, plait

Material: Old Indic vandhúra- m. ` cart seat ', originally ` cart basket ' (from netting), Armenian gind `ring', gndak ort`oy ` vine tendril ';

Maybe through metathesis nasalized alb. (*uanda) unaza `ring' (common alb. Sanskrit v- > u- shift)

Note:

The inanimate suffix -ur- : Old Indic vandhúra- m. ` cart seat ' : Ἰλλῠριοί , οἱ, Illyrians,  Ἰλλυρία , ἡ, Illyria, also Ἰλλυρίς , ἡ, Adj. Ἰλλυρικός , ή, όν, Illyrian: -κή, the region or province of Illyria, Ἰλλυρίζω , speak the Illyrian language,  Ἰλλυρία:--hence Adv. Ἰλλυριστί.

    gr. Rhodian ἄθρας ` cart ' Hes., κάνν-αθρον `Korb weigh ' (*u̯n̥dh-ro-); Umbrian pre-uendu `advertitō ', aha-uendu `avertitō ';

    richly evolved in Germanic: Gothic Old English Old Saxon windan, Old High German wintan, Old Icelandic vinda ` coil ', causative Gothic wandjan etc., Modern High German wenden `turn ', Old Icelandic vindr `slant, skew', Gothic inwinds ` inverted ', Middle High German windeht `winded', Old High German wanda ` round| circle ', Old Icelandic vandr ` precise, difficult, hard' (`*inverted, coiled'), vandi m. ` trouble, difficulty, adversity, hardship ', Old English wandian `hesitate, respect, shy '

Maybe alb. vonë `late, delayed, postponed ', vonohem`be late '

Gothic wandus = Old Icelandic vǫndr `horsewhip, rod', vandahūs ` house of wickerwork ', Swedish dial. vann ` Schlingfaden an Pflanzen ', (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Old Icelandic vǫndull `` bundle of hay twisted together ', Modern High German wandern, wandeln `change ' among others m.

Note:

Old Icelandic -ul = Old Indic -ur = Illyrian -ur = Albanian -ul common suffix)

References: WP. I 261, WH. II 787;

See also: *u̯endh- is perhaps nasalized Forme to u̯ē̆dh- ` tie, knot, bind'.

Page(s): 1148


Root / lemma: u̯endh-2

Meaning: to disappear

Note: see above S. 1047 (s)u̯endh- ds.;

Material: unclear is the relationship to Old Church Slavic pri-svędati, pri-svęnǫti ` wither| shrivel up; fade/pine away, torrefieri ', Old Czech svadnúti, Czech vadnouti `wither, wilt', poln. świędzieć `itch', swąd ` smell of burning, fetidness ' etc.; compare Holub 406.

Maybe nasalized alb. fendë ` offensive smell, fetidness, fart ' (w- > f- is a Celtic phonetic shift).

References: WP. I 261 f.

Page(s): 1148


Root / lemma: u̯endh-3

Meaning: hair, beard

Material: Gr. ἴονθος m. ` root of a/the hair, young beard, Gesichtsausschlag' (*u̯i-u̯ondhos), ἰονθάς `villous, shaggy';

    Middle Irish find ` hair of the head ', Old Irish Gen. Pl. finnae (*u̯endhu-), (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), newer Nom. Sg. Middle Irish finna ds., nir. fionnān ` marsh grass ', from which Middle Welsh gwynnawn ds.; Middle Irish fēs ` pubic hair, hair' (*u̯endh-s-o-); Old High German wintbrāwa `eyelash' (hair rand); Old Prussian wanso f. `the first beard', Old Church Slavic vǫsъ, ǫsъ `barba, mystax' (Balto Slavic *u̯ondh-s-o-, -ā).

Maybe diminutive alb. vetull ‘eyebrow’ : Old High German wint-brāwa `eyelash'

Note:

Old Icelandic -ul = Old Indic -ur = Illyrian -ur = Albanian -ul common suffix)

References: WP. I 262, Trautmann 341, Vasmer 3, 189 f., Frisk 729 f.

Page(s): 1148


Root / lemma: u̯e-n-gh-

Meaning: to be bent

Material: Germanic *wanga- `field' in Gothic waggs m. `paradise, Garden of Eden, home of Adam and Eve before the Fall ', Old Icelandic vangr, Old Saxon wang, Modern High German-Bavarian- Austrian Wang `meadow, grassland' etc. (actually `bend'); with weak inflection Old High German etc. wanga `cheek', derivative Gothic waggareis m. (or -i n.) `pillow', Old High German wangari ds. and Old Icelandic vengi (*wangia), Old High German ōr-wengi ds.; here also Middle Low German wingeren ` crook oneself, grovel, truckle, creep '.

References: WP. I 218, WH. I 268 f.; after Specht Indo Germanic Dekl. 216 could be attached also *u̯enk-, if one accepts Indo Germanic *u̯onkó- etc..

Page(s): 1149


Root / lemma: u̯e-n-g-

Meaning: to be bent

Material: Old Indic váŋgati `goes, limps' (Grammatical), vañjula- `name of different plants', e.g. `calamus Dragon's Blood ' etc.;

    alb. vank, vangu ` rim ', vek ` handle, part of an object designed to be gripped by the hand ', vegëlë `handle, hold, grasp' (u̯n̥g-); (the lack of nasalization in alb. vegël ` tool ' and the -e gradation makes it the oldest cognate)

Maybe alb. vëngër ` cross-eyed, angry ' = Old English wincian `wave, beckon, nod, wink ' see below (common alb. Old Icelandic -r- adjective suffix) but the same gutturals as Latvian vingrs `fresh, nimble, skilful'.

    Old High German winchan, Middle High German winken `waver, wave, beckon', Old High German winch, Middle High German winc ` beckoning gesture, sway ', compare Old English wince ` winch ', English winch; Old English wincian `wave, beckon, nod, wink ', Middle Low German winken ds., Old High German winkil ` angle, earth';

    vowel gradation Old Icelandic vakka ` err about, amble', Old Saxon wancon, Old High German wankon, Middle High German Modern High German wanken `sway, shake, wobble '; Old English wancol `changeable ', wencel n. `kid, child, maid ', Modern English wench;

    Lithuanian véngiu, véngti `avoid, prevent', actually ` veer, swerve, turn about '; vowel gradation Iterative vángstyti, vangùs `idle, sluggish'; vìngis `curve, curvature ', išvéngti `avoid', víngiuoti `curve, make detour', vingrùs `be winding, sharp, keen, shrewd'; Old Prussian wīngriskan Akk. Sg. `artifice, cunning ', wangan Akk. Sg. `end'; Latvian vingrs `fresh, nimble, skilful'.

References: WP. I 260, Trautmann 350 f.; Wissmann Nomina Postverb. 40, 110; Jokl Lingunder-k.-Unters. 102 ff.;

See also: compare u̯ā-, u̯ek- etc.

Page(s): 1148-1149


Root / lemma: u̯e-n-k-

See also: see above S. 1134 f. (u̯ek-).

Page(s): 1149


Root / lemma: u̯en-1, u̯enǝ-

Meaning: to strive; to wish for, to love

Material:

Hittite: wen-, went- (I) `have sexual relations with'  (Friedrich 252)

Tokharian: A wañi, B wīna  ' pleasure ' , A winās-, B wināsk-  ' honor, worship '  (PT *wäināsk-) (Adams 601 f)

Old Indian: vánati, vanóti `to like, love, wish, desire ' ; vāñchati `to desire, wish ' , vánas- n. `loveliness; longing, desire ' , vaní- f. `wish, desire ' , vāñchā f. `id. '  

Armenian: gun `storzo, tentativo '  

Germanic: *wan-an- m., *win-ja- m.; *wun-a- vb.; *wun-sk-ō f.; *wun-jō f., *wun-ē- vb.; *wan-ja- vb.

Latin: venus, -eris f. `Liebe, Liebesgenuss; Anmut, Liebreiz; Geliebte ' ; Venus, -eris f. `Göttin der Liebe ' ; venustus, -a `anmutig, reizend, lieblich ' ; vener࣑rī `verehren '  

Celtic: *wenjā: OIr fine `Verwantschaft, Stamm, Familie ' , fin-galach `parricidalis ' , coibnis `Verwandtschaft ' , OBret coguenou `indigena ' , Bret gwenn `race, germe ' , Cymr gwēn `risus, subrisio, arrisio ' ; MIr fonn `Wunsch, Vergnügen '  

 

Old Indic vánati, vanṓti ` wishes, loves, wins, triumphs ', participle vanita-, -vāta-, váni-tr̥-, vantŕ̥- ` gainer, winner ', Avestan vanaiti, vanaoiti ` wins ', Middle Persian vanītan `defeat, conquer, hit'; Old Indic Aor. - present vanáti `defeat '; causative vanáyati and vānáyati (previously not covered);

as -sk̂- present Old Indic vā́ñchati ` wishes ', compare vāñchā f. `wish'; vanas- n. `lust, desire ' (compare Latin Venus), vani- f. `desire, wish', wherefore vanīyati ` begs ', vanīyaka- ` beggar', vanú- as noun agentis m. (compare Avestan -vanuš in Nom. Prussian); in compositions appears ványa-; s. further vantā- as Nom. Sg. m. (Avestan vantar ` victor'), vanti- Nom. Act. (uncovered, however, compare Avestan -vantay-); Old Indic vā́ma- ` left ' and vāmá- `darling, lascivious';

    venet. VN Venetī from *u̯enetos ` dear, precious, beloved '; compare Venostes in the Alps, Venetulani in Latium (Krahe IF. 58, 137); Latin-Germanic Venethi (Plin.); Old High German Winida `Wende ' point to proto Germanic *Venéto-, against it Latin-Germanic Venedi (Tacitus), Old English Winedas `Wenden ' from *Venetó-;

Maybe alb. (*venedi) vendi 'country, homeland, fatherland', vendos 'place, put, settle, judge, decide'

    Latin venus, -eris f. `love, sexual activity/appetite/intercourse; charm', Venus name of the love goddess, venustus `graceful, charming, mellifluous', veneror, -āri `adore| revere| do homage to| honor| venerate; worship; beg| pray| entreat ', here also vēnor, -āri `pursue in the wild, hunt, chase';

    Old Irish fine (*venjā) ` kinship, stem, family ', Middle Irish fin-galach ` parricidal| of/connected with parricide/murder of near relative', coibnius ` kinship' (*con-venestu-), Old Breton coguenou ` native ', Middle Breton gouen `bloodline ', Welsh gwen ` smile ' (out of it Middle Irish gen ds.?);

   the root u̯en- is represented exceptionally widely in Germanic Languages:

    to Indo Germanic *u̯eni-s goes back: gall. Veni- in PN Veni-carus etc., Old Icelandic vinr `friend', Old Saxon Old High German wini, Old Frisian Old English wine; a jā-derivative is Gothic winja ` pasture, food', Middle Low German Old High German winne, Old Icelandic vin f. ` meadowland ' (compare Old Irish fine ` kinship'); zero grade Old High German wunnia, wunna, wunnī `lust, bliss, joy, happiness, delight, pleasure ', Old Saxon wunnia, Old English wynn ds. (Middle High German wunne ` meadowland ', only in the formula wunne und weide ` graze' replacement for the old winne);

    Indo Germanic *u̯enistro- is assumed through Old Icelandic vinstri ` left ', Old Saxon winistar, Old Frisian winister etc., a comparative formation as Latin sinister etc. (compare moreover Old Indic vāma- ` left ');

    frequent, often is the junction to ` be satisfied, pleased, be accustomed ' in Germanic; compare zero grades Gothic unwunands `not rejoicing ', Old Icelandic una (*wunēn) ` be satisfied with', Old Frisian wonia, Old Saxon wonōn, wunōn `stay, dwell', Old High German wonēn ` be used to, acclimate, abide, remain, dwell';

Maybe alb. vonë `late (*hesitate) ', vonoj `delay, stay late'

Old Saxon giwono, giwuno, Old English gewun, Old High German giwon ` habitual, customary '; Old Icelandic o-grade vanr ds.; derived Old Saxon giwono (*-wunan-) ` consuetude ' etc., Old Icelandic vani m. ds.; Old Icelandic venja (*wanjan), Old Saxon gi-wennian, Old English wennan etc. ` accustom '; (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-).

    the lengthened grade has assumed Germanic meaning ` hope, expect '; Gothic wēns (i-stem) ` expectation, hope', Old Icelandic vān, Old Saxon wān ds., Old Frisian wēn `opinion', Old High German wān also ` supposition, delusion, intention' etc.;

Adj. Old Icelandic vǣnn (*vēnja-) `to hope, pretty, pleasant', wherefore Old Icelandic vænd (*vēniÞō) `hope, expectation ', Gothic wēnjan ` expect, hope ', Old Icelandic vǣna ds., vǣnask ` boast ', Old Saxon wānian etc.;

zero grade Old Icelandic ōsk (*wunskō) `wish', Old English wūsc-, Old High German wunsc `wish' etc., Old Icelandic ø̄skja `wish', Old English wȳscan ds. (compare gewȳscan ` adopt '), Old High German wunscen ds. etc. (compare above Old Indic vāñchati);

    the meaning `work, suffer, bear, endure, quarrel, gain ' is shown in Germanic family Gothic winnan `suffer, bear, endure', Old Icelandic vinna `work, align, overcome, conquer ', Old Saxon winnan `quarrel, fight' etc., Old English wiðerwinna m. ` adversary ', Old High German widarwinno ds.; Gothic winnō, winna ` affliction, enthusiasm, fervor, zeal ', Old Icelandic vinna `work', Old High German winna `fight', Middle High German winne `pain'; eventually Gothic wunns ` affliction '; (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-).

    Church Slavic uniti ` wish| want| prefer; be willing| will ', unjii, uněji `better';

Maybe alb. unj, ul ` lower, lessen; let down; diminish, humiliate ' a Slavic loanword [common alb. Old Indic Slavic w- > u- shift].

    Hittite u̯en-, u̯ent- ` have sexual relations with '; Tocharian A wañi, В wīn- `pleasure'.

References: WP. I 258 f., WH. II 752 f., Vasmer 3, 184.

Page(s): 1146-1147


Root / lemma: u̯en-2

Meaning: ` punch, hit, strike '

See also: see above under u̯ā-1.

Page(s): 1147


Root / lemma: u̯en-

Meaning: to hit, wound

Note: (: u̯ā-, similarly as gʷem- : gʷā- `go, come')

Material: Armenian vandem `destroy, smash'; Gothic wunds ` wounded ', Old High German Modern High German Old Saxon Old English wund, Subst. Old High German wunta, Old English wund, Old Icelandic und `wound' (*u̯n̥-tós, -tā́), Old English wenn `swelling, lump, growth' (originally probably `swelling, blister as a result of a blow '), English wen, Middle Low German wene, Danish dial. vann, væne (proto Germanic *wanja); Welsh ym-wan `fight', Middle Welsh gweint `I pierced ', 3. Sg. gwant; gwân ` puncture; pricking pain ', Cornish yth ym-wanas ` percussit ', gwane ` perforate '.

Maybe alb. (*u̯n̥-tós, -tā́) hundë, hunda `nostril, nose (*hole of the nose) ' [common alb. Old Indic w- > u- shift]

References: WP. I 212.

Page(s): 1108


Root / lemma: u̯ep-2

Meaning: to throw, throw out

Note:

Root / lemma: u̯ep-2 : `to throw, throw out' derived from an extended Root / lemma: u̯er-3: G. u̯er-p-, u̯r-ep- (*su̯erkʷh-): `to turn, wind'.

Material: Old Indic vápati ` throws, scatters (sperm, seed, grain)', vápra- m. n. `Aufwurf (of earth), earthwall', vaprā `fireplace ', Avestan vafra-, Middle Persian vafr, New Persian barf `snow' (actually [*snowdrift, mound or pile of snow, bank of snow);

Maybe alb. borë ` snow ' < New Persian barf ` snow '.

Old Church Slavic veprь, Latvian vepris `boar'; different about Balto Slavic *u̯epri̯a- `boar' above S. 323; remains far off Latin veprēs `briar, thorn shrub ' (see 1156).

References: WP. I 256 f., WH. II 732, Trautmann 351, Vasmer 1, 183.

Page(s): 1149


Root / lemma: u̯(e)rād-, u̯erǝd-, u̯rǝd-

Meaning: twig, root, branch

Material: Gr. ῥά̄δῑξ, -ῑκος `twig, brannch, rod' (= Latin rādīx), ῥάδαμνος m., Aeolic *Fρόδαμνος (from ὀρόδαμνος to erschließen) `young twig, branch' (about ῥαδινός, ῥαδαλός u̯er-, u̯red- `turn'); compare ῥίζα Lesbian βρίσδα `root' (*Fρǝδι̯α?);

Nasalized:

    alb. Geg (*rãdãcinã) rrânzë `root', Tosc rrënjë `root' (Mann Lg. 26, 388; 28, 37);

Note:

English   root      

 Italian   radice      

 Spanish   raíz      

 French   racine      

 Albanian   (*rãdãcinã) rrënjë [common Celtic abbreviation]       

 Breton   gwrizienn       

 Calabrese   radìca ; ràrica       

 Furlan   lidrîs       

 Latin   rādīx

 Napulitano   ràdeca       

 Old Greek   ραδιξ       

 Portuguese   raiz       

 Saami   ruohtas       

 Sardinian Campidanesu   rèxini ; arrèxini       

 Sicilian   radici ; radica       

 Swedish   rot       

 Valencian   arrel       

 Welsh   gwraidd ; gwreiddyn 

Danish: rod

Icelandic: rót

Norwegian: rot

Romanian: rãdãcinã

Latin rādīx, -īcis f. `root'; probably rāmus `bough, twig, branch' (as *u̯rādmos) and radius `staff, spoke, ray of a bright body, rod ';

    Welsh gwraidd `roots' (*u̯rǝdi̯o-), singular gwreiddyn, Old Cornish grueiten gl. `root', Middle Breton gruizyenn, Modern Breton grisienn; Welsh gwrysg `bough, branch ' (*u̯r̥d-sko-); Old Irish Middle Irish frēn `root' (*u̯r̥d-no-), newer frēm; Welsh greddf `instinct, nature' (*u̯r̥d-mā-; also perhaps originally -mn-suffix, compare above gr. ῥάδαμνος);

    Gothic waúrts `root', Old English wyrt, Old High German wurz `herb, plant', Middle High German also `root', Old High German wurzala, Old English wyrtwalu (actually `herb-stock') `root' (here also Old Saxon wurtia, Middle High German würze ` seasoning, spice ', next to which the changing by vowel gradation Old Saxon wirtea, Middle High German wirze ds.; besides these in  *u̯erǝd- based forms stands *ur(ǝ)d- in Old Icelandic urt `herb'; Old Icelandic rōt `root';

    Tocharian В witsako `root'.

References: WP. I 288, WH. II 414, 415, 416, Pokorny ZcP. 26, 1 ff.

Page(s): 1167


Root / lemma: u̯erdh-, u̯redh- (*ḫu̯erdh-)

Meaning: to grow; high

Note:

Root / lemma: u̯erdh-, u̯redh- (*ḫu̯erdh-)

Meaning: to grow; high derived from Root / lemma: leudh-1 : to grow up; people; free

Material: Old Indic várdhati, várdhatē, vr̥dháti ` grows, increases ', várdha- m. ` the advancing ', vardháyati `makes grow', vr̥ddhá- ` grown, big, large, old', vŕ̥ddhi- f. ` strengthening '; Avestan varǝd- `make grow '; Old Indic ūrdhvá- `high' (*u̯or-dh-u̯o-); Old Indic vrādhant- ` climbing ';

    gr. ὀρθός, Doric βορθό- `erect, straight, right, true' (*u̯ordh-u̯o-), in addition also ὄρθρος `the early morning ', ὄρθριος, ὀρθρῑνός `early, matutinal', ὀρθρεύω ` be up early ', therefore anlaut F is ensured through Laconian βορθαγορίσκος Hes., otherwise ὀρθαγορίσκος (from *ὀρθρ-) ` sucking pig ' (ἐπεὶ πρὸς τὸν ὄρθρον πιπράσκονται); ῥέθος `limb, member, body, face (with the eyes and mouth)';

Without nasalized formant:

    alb. rit `grow, increase '; [common Aryan -i- gradation]

Maybe nasalized alb. derivative (*rindi) rini `youth', m. i ri, f. e re `young',

    perhaps Gothic gawrisqan ` grow fruit ', Old Icelandic rǫskr `proficient, large ', rǫskvask ` grow up, ripen', rǫskinn ` grown';

    Old Church Slavic etc. rodъ ` offspring, generation, clan with common male ancestor, nature; birth ', roditi, raždati ` create ', redъ `dish, nourishment, food', nslov. redíti ` nourish ', Latvian radīt ` create, to give birth to children ' (probably loanword), raža ` prospering; flourishing, rich harvest' (*radi̯ā), rasma, rasme ` prospering; flourishing, productiveness ', Lithuanian rasmė̃ ds.; doubtful Lithuanian rẽsnas `strong, proficient', Latvian resns `thick, fat, sturdy ' (Russian loanword?); Old Church Slavic ranъ `ὄρθρος ', Czech poln. rano `the time early in the morning, the earliness ' (compare Bulgarian ražda se ` the sun rises ') from *u̯rōdhno-.

Maybe alb. Geg randë , Tosc rëndë `heavy, thick, sturdy'  (*pe-rondim) perëndim west (the sun goes down heavily', pe-rëndii, perëndia `goddess, divinity' [common Slavic, Baltic, alb. pe-, po- prefix]

References: WP. I 289 f., Trautmann 234, Vasmer 2, 491, 527 f., Mayrhofer 1, 117.

Page(s): 1167


Root / lemma: u̯er-g-, u̯er-ĝh-, u̯er-k- (*ḫu̯er-ĝh-)

See also: see above S. 1154 f. (u̯er-3: D. u̯er-g-, etc..)

Page(s): 1169


Root / lemma: u̯erĝ-1, u̯reĝ- (*ḫu̯erĝ-1)

Meaning: to close, enclose; pen

Note: extension from u̯er-5.

Material: Old Indic vrajá- m. ` hurdle, Umhegung ', vr̥jana- m. `Umhegung, enclosure, confinement, closure of area, fencing, fences, seclusive settlement ', Gatha-Avestan vǝrǝzǝ̄na-, Younger Avestan varǝzāna-, Old Persian vardana- n. ` community' (out of it borrowed Old Indic vardhana- `town, city', Wackernagel KZ. 67, 168 f.); Avestan varǝz- ` block, barricade'; Ossetic æruæz (*wraza- = Old Indic vrajá-) ` herd, deer';

Maybe alb. varrezë `cemetery, graveyard, burial ground', varr `grave'.

    hom. ἔργω, ἐργάθω (F-) and (with Vorschlags ἐ-) ἐέργω, Attic εἴργω ` lock up, enclose, surround ', Attic εἱρκτή, Ionian ἐρκτή ` jail ', Attic εἱργμός ` jail, lock ', Cypriot ka-te-vo-ro-ko-ne `be besieged '; in addition Old Irish fraig `wall', nir. fraigh `wall of wickerwork, roof, hurdle ', because of Middle Welsh ach-vre `wattled fence' from *u̯regi- (Loth RC. 38, 301).

References: WP. I 290, Frisk 465 f.; Benveniste BSL. 52, 34;

See also: compare u̯erĝh- above S. 1154.

Page(s): 1168


Root / lemma: u̯erĝ-2, u̯reĝ- (*ḫu̯erĝ-2)

Meaning: to do, work

Material: Avestan varǝz- (vǝrǝzyeiti = Gothic waúrkeiÞ; s. also gr. ῥέζω) ` work, do, make', participle varšta-, varǝza- m. ` work, occupation ' (New Persian varz, barz ` field work, agriculture '), varšti- f. ` action, deed ', varštva- Adj. ` what is to be done '; Armenian gorc `work' (with secondary o);

gr. ἔργον, Fέργον ` work' (= German Werk ` work '), ἐργάζομαι ` work ', thereafter ἐργάτης `worker' (for *ἐργότης), ἔρδω (occasionally ἕρδω) `do, sacrifice ' (*Fερzδω, *u̯erĝi̯ō lengthened grade after Fέργον as in Old Saxon wirkian), Fut. ἔρξω, Aor. ἔρξα, Perf. ἔοργα), ῥέζω `do' (from ῥέξαι neologism, hom. ἄρεκτος ` undone, not done ' reconverted with metathesis from *ἄ[F]ερκτος); ὄργανον `tool', ὄργια `(secret) worship', ὀργιάζω ` celebrate mysteries ', ὀργεών ` member of a religious brotherhood '; ὀργάζω, Ionian ὀργάω, ὀργίζω `knead, mix thoroughly, tan, convert hide into leather' (as Modern High German Teig wirken with meaning- contraction in the professional jargon), wherefore ἐόργη ` verticil, whorl, group of parts (leaves, flowers, etc.) arranged in a circle ' (probably reduplication Fε-Fόργᾱ);

    Zero grade alb. (*u̯reĝ-) rregj `clean, tan, convert hide into leather ', Mediopassiv rregjem ` trouble about, strain, strive' (stem E. Mann Lg. 26, 382 f.); (common Slavic Baltic Albanian Greek u̯re- > rre- see ῥέζω `do').

Old Breton guerg ` effective| capable of filling some function; (person/medicine); legally valid ', gall. vergo-bretus ` uppermost authority of Aeduer ', also verco-breto (Pokorny, Vox Romanica 10, 266 f.); Middle Welsh gwreith `feat, dead, act' (*u̯reĝ-tu-), 1. Pl. Imperative Old Welsh guragun, newer gwnawn etc. (n instead of r through influence of *gnī- `make', S. 373), Cornish gruen, mbr. gr-(u)eomp (*u̯reĝ- `make'), Lewis-Pedersen S. 336 f.;

    Old Saxon wirkian (neologism after werk), warhta, Old High German (Franconian) wirkan, wirchen, war(a)hta ` be active, work '; Gothic waúrkjan (= Avestan vǝrǝzyeiti), Old Icelandic yrkja, orta, Old English wyrcan, worhte, Old High German (Upper German) wurchen, wor(a)hta ` work, do, make, effectuate ', Old High German gawurht f. `feat, dead, act, action', Gothic frawaúrhts ` sinful ', f. ` sin ' etc., Gothic waúrstw n. `work' (*waúrh-stwa-; similarly Avestan varštva-); Old High German werc, werah, Old Saxon werk, Old Icelandic werk n. (= ἔργον) `work, occupation, job', Old English weorc also ` hardship, agony', wherefore also Old Icelandic verkr, Gen. verkjar (m. i-stem) `pain, affliction' could belong here;

    Old High German wirken ` sewing, embroidering, weaving manufacture ' = Old Saxon wirkian, Old English wircan, and if not separable Old High German werih ` coarse flax, tow, oakum ', āwirihhi, āwurihhi ` oakum ' show use of root `weaving'; s. against it Marstrander IF. 22, 332 f. (Werg ` oakum ', wirken `to weave' would like to assign to the root *u̯erg- `turn, coil '); Modern High German Werg reminds Welsh cy-warch ` hemp, flax' = Breton koarc'h, Old Breton coarcholion gl. ` canabina '; Marstrander ZcP. 7, 362 seeks in it an Indo Germanic *u̯er-k- `turn', see above S. 1155.

References: WP. I 290 f., Frisk 548 f.

Page(s): 1168-1169


Root / lemma: u̯erĝ-3, u̯orĝ- (*ḫu̯erĝ-3)

Meaning: to abound, to be full of strength

Material: Old Indic ū́rj-, ūrjā́ f., ūrjá- m. ` vitality and power, nourishment, food' (*u̯orĝ-?), ūrjáyati ` nourishes, strengthens', ū́rjasvant- ` plentiful ';

    gr. ὀργή ` spiritual, violent urge, sensation, rage, fury' (ὀργίζω ` enrage somebody ' ), ὀργάω ` `von Feuchtigkeit und Saft strotzen, heftig begehren, in leidenschaftlicher Stimmung sein ', ὀργάς, -άδος (γῆ) `üppiger fruchtbarer Erdboden, Marschland, Au ';

    e-grade Old Irish ferc, Middle Irish ferg f. `rage, fury' presumably also gr. ὠκεάνος Οὐεργιουιος by Ptol. (i.e. vergivios `the furious '? or still `the swelling, surging '?); Middle Welsh y werit `sea' (that is to say y werydd) rather from *u̯eri̯o- to *au̯er- above S. 80 and 1165; compare Pedersen Celtic Gr. II, 669 f.

Maybe alb. (*u̯erĝ- > reĝ) rrjedh ` pour ';

References: WP. I 289, Mayrhofer 1, 116.

Page(s): 1169


Root / lemma: u̯er-10 (*ḫu̯er-10)

Meaning: ` river, flow '

See also: see above au̯er- S. 80 f.; in addition Var- in many FlN (u̯er-).

Page(s): 1165


Root / lemma: u̯er-11, u̯erǝ- (*ḫu̯er-11)

Meaning: friendship; trustworthy, true

Material:

A. root noun u̯ēr-: gr. Fηρ- in hom. (ἐπι) ἦρα φέρειν ` grant a favor, do a good turn, help someone, do a favor, do a good deed ', Pherek. ἦρα ἴσθι, Bacchyl. ἦρα with Gen. `χάριν '; ἐπιήρανος ` agreeable, pleasant'; Nom. Pl. ἐρί-ηρες ` confidante, intimate ', Sg. o-stem ἐρίηρος ` trusted, dear'; βρίηρον μεγάλως κεχαρισμένον Hes.; PN Περιήρης, Διώρης from Διο-Fήρης.

    B. derivative u̯ērā: Germanic *wēra `pact, declaration, covenant' in Old Icelandic GN Vār `goddess of oath of allegiance ', Pl. vārar ` loyalty vows ', Old English wǣr f. `pact, covenant, loyalty, protection', Old High German wāra ds., Middle Low German wāre `pact, covenant, peace'; Old Church Slavic f. `faith, belief'.

    C. compounds in -u̯ēro-s, -uēri-s, formal ass gr. ἐρίηρoς, βρίηρος: Latin se-vērus ` stern| strict| severe; grave| austere; weighty| serious; unadorned| plain ', therefrom assevērāre ` act earnestly; assert strongly/emphatically| declare; profess; be serious ', persevērāre ` persist| persevere; continue '; counterpart gall. PN Co-vīrus, Welsh cywir `right, loyal, faithful'; *u̯ēri-s in Gothic alla-werei ` homely goodness; good, benefit, asset ', Old Icelandic ǫlvǣrr `friendly, hospitable ', Old English eal-werlic ` kindly| benevolently| obligingly; courteously| cheerfully; freely| generously ', Old High German alauuari, Middle High German alwære `simple, oafish, clownish ', Old High German zur-wāri `dubious ' = Gothic *tuzwērs (tuzwērjan `doubt'), *unwērs(un-wērjan ` be reluctant '), Old High German miti-wāri `gentle'.

    D. adjective u̯ēro-s `true': Latin vērus, Old Irish fīr, Welsh gwir; Old Saxon Old High German wār, Modern High German wahr.

    E. verb derivations: gr. ἑορτή (*FεFορτά̄) ` celebration, festival', Aeolic ἔροτις ds. (*Fεροτις? rather assimilate an ἐροτός, hom. ἐρατός ` mellifluous'); ἔρανος ds.;

    Old High German werēn, giweren, giwerōn, Modern High German gewähren, Old Saxon waron ` accomplish, execute, perform a duty or task; provide; produce '.

    Here probably also Germanic werðuz (= Indo Germanic *u̯ertú-) in Old Icelandic verÞr (Dative Sg. virÞe besides frequent verÞe) `repast, meal', Gothic wairdus `ξένος ', Old Saxon werd, Old High German Wirt ` householder, husband, host ', Old Frisian hus-werda ` landlord, householder '.

References: WP. I 285 f., WH. II 528, 768, Wissmann Nom. postverb. 115 ff., The ältesten Postverb. of Germanic 45, Frisk 531, 547 f., 565, Trautmann 351, Vasmer 1, 184.

Page(s): 1165-1166


Root / lemma: u̯er-12 (*ḫu̯er-12)

Meaning: to burn

Material: Armenian vaṙem ` set on fire, ignite ', vaṙim `burn'; perhaps alb. (*vorva) vorbë ` saucepan, cooking pot '

Wrong etymology:

see Root / lemma: u̯er-3: B. u̯er-b- and u̯er-bh- : to turn, bend

common Baltic -va suffix : common alb. Old Prussian v- > b- shift

Germanic *u̯arma- `warm' in Gothic warmjan `warm', Old Icelandic varmr, afr. Old Saxon Old High German warm `warm', changing through vowel gradation Old High German wirma ` warmth ' (*wirmia) and wirmina, Middle High German wirme and wirmen;

Old Icelandic orna ` become warm, warm'; Old Church Slavic varъ `heat', variti `cook' (different above S. 81); in addition also Balto-Slavic u̯arna- m. `raven' in Lithuanian var̃nas, Old Prussian Vok. warnis, Akk. Pl. warnins, Old Church Slavic vranъ, Russian vóron, probably a nominalized adjective *u̯arna- `black, burnt ' in Old Church Slavic vranъ, Russian voronój `black' etc.; with lengthened grade (Vriddhi) femin. Balto Slavic *u̯ārnā- `crow' in Old Prussian warne (secondary ē-stem), Lithuanian várna, Russian Church Slavic vrana, Serbian vrȁnа, Russian voróna (glottal stop through Vriddhi);

Maybe alb. vranët, vrenjtur `cloudy ', vranësirë  `darkening of the sky, bad weather ' Slavic loanwords.

Maybe alb. (*u̯arant) vrëndë `drizzle, (*bad weather) '

Hittite u̯ar- `burn', participle u̯arant- ` burning ' (Intransitive), u̯ar-nu- `kindle, inflame, burn '.

References: WP. I 269, Trautmann 343, 361, Vasmer 1, 169, 228 f., Szemerényi Kratylos 2, 121 f., also adds to it Germanic *swarta- `black' (different above S. 1052).

Page(s): 1166


Root / lemma: u̯er-13

Meaning: squirrel, etc..

Note:

Root / lemma: u̯er-13 : squirrel, ferret, weasel etc.. derived from Root / lemma: u̯eis-3 : to flow; poison, *weasel (common Celtic Latin -s- > -r- shift)

Note:

with reduplication u̯er-u̯er-, u̯e-u̯er-, u̯ai-u̯er-, u̯i-u̯er-, u̯ā-u̯er-

Material:

Maybe alb. (*u̯ā-u̯er-g) Tosc hamuridhe, Geg yr, urith ` mole ' [common Baltic alb. guttural suffix -g]

New Persian varvarah ` squirrel '; Latin vīverra f. ` ferret ' (*vī-ver-sa); Welsh gwiwer, Breton gwiber from Latin; unclear nir. iora rūadh, Scots Gaelic feorag;

Note:

Albanian and Basque derivatives derived from a nasalized Celtic cognate for squirrel. Alb. (*gwiñtver) kitërr > Bulgarian: катерица (katerica) ` squirrel '

English: squirrel

Albanian: ketër, ketërr, kitër, kitërr m . [common alb. -i- > -e- shift]

Basque: katagorri

Bulgarian: катерица (katerica)

Breton: gwiñver m . -ed pl . , kaz-koad m . kizier-koad pl .

Scottish: feòrag

Welsh: gwiwer

 

Whille the Basque: katagorri is a misinterpretation of Celtic cognate while the original Basque name for squirrel must have derived from proto Uralic:

Proto Uralic: *ora

English meaning: squirrel

Finnish: orava ' squirrel '

Estonian: orav, oravas (gen. orava)

Saam (Lapp): oar're -rr- (N), årrē (L), vi̊øirrev (T), uøirrev (Kld.), uairrev ' squirrel'

Mordovian: ur (E M) ' fiber '

Mari (Cheremis): ur (KB U B) ' squirrel '

Komi (Zyrian): ur (Le. Ud. P PO) ' squirrel '

Sammalahti's version: FP *ora

Addenda: Mot. (S) orop 'Sciurus striatus'

It seems that the Uralic name for squirrel derived from an abbreviated Celtic cognate.

   Balto-Slavic *u̯ēu̯er- and *u̯āu̯er- *u̯aiu̯er- f. ` squirrel, small bushy-tailed rodent ' in Lithuanian vaiverìs (vaivaras, vaivarys) `male of polecat or marten', vaiverė̃, voverė̃ ` squirrel '; Latvian vãvere, vāveris ds.; Old Prussian weware ds.; Old Russian věverica, nslov. vẹ́verica ` squirrel ', Ukrainian vyvirka, Czech veverka, Bulgarian ververica ds.;

Dubious etymology:

    not reduplicated in 2. part from Old English āc-weorna, Old Swedish ēkorne, Old High German eihhurno, eihhorn etc. ` squirrel ' (see below *aig- ` move violently ').

Note:

Germanic name for squirrel is made of 2 parts. 1. part is Root / lemma: aig-2: oak + Root / lemma: u̯er-13 : squirrel, etc.. meaning oak-squirrel

References: WP. I 287 f., WH. III 808, Trautmann 356, Vasmer 1, 176.

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Root / lemma: u̯er-1, also su̯er- (*ḫu̯er-1)

Meaning: to bind, to attach

Material: A. Gr. ἀείρω from *ἀFέρι̯ω (with suggestion -α-), since Homer αἴρω (anyhow contracted from *ἀέρι̯ω, with αι instead of ᾶι): α) ` queue, add, couple, connect ', β) `lift high, raise, uplift';

    to α) ` connect, join together':

    ξυναίρεται συνάπτεται Hes., συνήορος Hom. (συνά̄ορος Pind.) ` joined tightly, coniunx ', Attic συνωρίς ` Zweigespann ', τετρά̄ορος, Attic τέτρωρος `Viergespann ', hom. παρήορος ` Beipferd neben dem Zweigespann ';

    to β) `lift high, let hang ':

    ἤερτο ἐκρέματο Hes., hom. ἠερέθονται ` they flutter '; hom. μετήορος, Attic μετέωρος, Aeolic πεδά̄ορος ` elevated, highly swinging, hanging loosely, hovering, soaring, gliding ' (μετά `in the middle of '); κατήορος, κατωρίς; κατώρης κάτω ῥέπων Hes.; ἐπήορος; ἀπήορος;

in addition with lengthened grade and Intensive reduplication αἰώρα (*FαιFώρᾱ) ` suspension, swing ', with αἰωρέω. further in addition ἀορτήρ ` sword belt ', ἀορτή `leather sack' (*ἄFορτά̄ because of Latin loanword averta ` saddle-bags| traveling bag| luggage for horseback '), also probably ἄορ n. `sword'; ἀορτ- or rather ἀαρτ- contracted to ἀ̄ρτ- in ἀρτηρία ` windpipe, artery ', besides ἀορτή ` aorta '; ἀερτ- contracted to ἀ̄ρτ- in ἀρτᾶν ` suspend ' (compare ἠέρτησε ἠέρτημαι Alexandrinian ἀρτάνη `rope, loop, noose, snare ', ἀρτεμών ` topgallant sail, sail above the topmast ');

    alb. vjer, var ` hang on', avarī `together', vark, -gu `row, wreath, crown, chain ', vargarࣻ `row, group '; (common alb. Baltic Germanic -g- suffix) : (common alb. Slavic -j- infix)

    Lithuanian veriù, vérti ` thread, put a thread through a needle, weave'; Latvian veru, vẽrt ` thread, put a thread through a needle, weave, prick, sew ', in addition the iterative Lithuanian várstyti, Latvian vãrstīt ` thread repeatedly, put a thread through a needle, weave', Latvian savāre ` stick for binding ', East Lithuanian vìrtinė `bundle', Latvian virtene, virkne (*virtne) f. ` the lined up, row', also Lithuanian pa-varė̃ and vorà f. `long row' (of carts, animals etc.), Lithuanian virvė̃, Latvian vìrve `rope, band', Old Church Slavic vrъvь ds. (= Old Prussian wirbe ds.), Lithuanian apì-varas ` shoelace ', varanda `netting of withe ', vóras ` spider '; Old Church Slavic vъvrěti `stick into, put in ', provrěti ` stick through, pierce, perforate', Russian veratь `stick, insert', Old Church Slavic obora (*ob-vora) `rope, knitwear, knitted clothing, clothing made from yarn or thread that has been looped together '

Maybe alb. (*ob-vora) oborr ` yard, court ' a Slavic loanword = Bulgarian obor, Serbian obor ` yard, court '

Russian vereníca `long row, line', Old Church Slavic verigy f. Pl. `chains ', slov. veríga, verúga ` chain ', in addition also Gothic wriÞus ` ranges ', Old English wrǣd ds.; Russian voróna, vorónka `funnel ', veretá `sack, bag', Old Church Slavic vrětiště n. ds. etc.;

Maybe alb. veriga ` chain ring ', varg ` chain ' a Slavic loanword.

    B. With the meaning `row, swarm etc.':

    Old Indic vr̥ndam `troop, multitude, crowd, bulk, mass'; Old Irish foirenn f. ` faction, group, troop, multitude, crowd', Old Welsh guerin ` faction ', Modern Welsh gwerin `people, bulk, mass, troop, multitude, crowd', Old Breton guerin `factions' (*varīnā); Old English weorn, wearn `troop, multitude, crowd, bulk, mass, troop'; Tocharian В war̃nai `with'; about Russian vereníca, Lithuanian vorà, Latvian virkne, alb. vargarī see above.

    C. With to-formants: *u̯rēto- in Old Indic vrāta- m. ` multitude, crowd, troop, bulk, mass', Old English wrǣd `herd', Gothic wrēÞus (Hs. wriÞus).

Maybe alb. Geg (**u̯rēto-) randë, Tosc rëndë ` heavy' = Old High German swāri ` heavy' see below

    D. with s mobile: su̯er- in

    Lithuanian sveriù sver̃ti ` dare ', in addition svãras m. ` scales ', svarùs ` heavy ', and svirù, svìrti ` preponderate, overhang '; svìrtis f. `Brunnenschwengel ', Latvian sveŕu, svèrt ` dare, sway', svars ` weight ', svēre f. `Brunnenschwengel '; Welsh chwar-, Breton c'hoar- ` befall ';

    Germanic swēra- ` heavy ' in Gothic swers ` esteemed, held in high regard ', Old High German Middle High German swār (Old High German swāri) ` heavy, pressing, hurtful '; doubtful gr. ἕρμα n. `ship ballast, heavy object used to stabilize boats ' (see 1152) and Latin sērius ` grave, serious, earnest '.

References: WP. I 263 ff., WH. II 521, Trautmann 296, 351 ff., Jokl Lingunder-kult. Untersuchungen 194, Vasmer 1, 184 ff., 226 f., 229; 2, 243, Frisk 23 f., 49, 153 ff.; H. Lewis BBC S. 4, 136 f. about Celtic *su̯ar- ` befall ' (`*fall').

Page(s): 1150-1151


Root / lemma: u̯er-2 (*ḫu̯er-2)

Meaning: highland, high place, top, high

Note: extended u̯er-d-, u̯er-s-

Material: A. Latin varus `Gesichtsausschlag, Knöspchen ' (= Lithuanian vìras, Pl. viraĩ, compare East Lithuanian virỹs, Pl. viriaĩ m. ` bladder worm in pork '), Latin varulus ` sty in the eye', varix m. f. ` varix, varicose vein, enlarged vein ';

    perhaps Middle Irish ferbb f. `Hitzblatter, fin' (*u̯erbhā), from which borrowed Old Breton guerp ` brand, mark made by burning ', Middle Breton guerbl `bubon ';

    Modern Icelandic var n. ` ocular mucus ', Swedish var n. `pus'; compare Old High German warah, Old English wearh, worsm ds.; Old English wer-nægl m. `ulcer', Modern English warnel ds.; Dutch weer `weal, callus', Norwegian dial. vere `swelling, lump, growth under the skin of cows ';

    with n-suffix: Swedish dial. verna, Old High German werna ` varix, varicose vein, enlarged vein ', Modern High German dial. Wern ` sty in eye' (*wernō);

    with the meaning `lip' (*swollen elevation): Gothic wairilom Dative Pl., Old English weleras Pl. (metathesis from *werelas), Old Frisian were, as from the s-extension Old Icelandic vǫrr f. Old Prussian warsus `lip'.

    u̯er-d-: New Persian balū ` wart ' (Iranian *vard-); Old High German warza, Old English wearte, Old Icelandic varta f. (*u̯ordā) ` wart '; vowel gradation Old Church Slavic vrědъ `damage', Russian vered `ulcer, abscess, boil '.

    u̯er-s-: Latin verrūca ` a steep place, height, a wart on the human body, an excrescence on precious stones ' (by Cato also `locus editus et asper'), Old English wearr `weal, callus, wart ', Flemish warre `weal, callus, knag', Old High German werra ` varix, varicose vein, enlarged vein ', Modern High German Werre ` sty in the eye'.

    B. Old Indic varṣmán- m. `height, headmost, topmost, highest, uppermost ', várṣman- n. `height, headmost, topmost, highest, uppermost, cusp, peak' = gr. ἕρμα n. `pad, reef, hill' (? after Frisk 561 ff. identical with ἕρμα n. ` ballast, heavy object used to stabilize boats ' and from Indo Germanic *su̯er-mn̥ ` heavy weight '), Old Indic várṣīyas- `higher', várṣiṣṭha- `highest'; Lithuanian viršùs ` the upper, highest cusp, peak', Latvian vìrsus m. ` the upper ', f. vìrsa; Slavic *vьrchъ in Old Church Slavic vrьchъ, Russian verch ` headmost, topmost, highest, uppermost, acme, apex ' (Old Church Slavic vrъchu `above', of u-stem); Old Irish ferr `better' (*u̯erso- ` upper ') to Positive fern `good' (*u̯er-no-); Welsh etc. gwell `better' either from *u̯el-no- ` choice ' or after Thurneysen Gr. 236 ferr and gwell from *u̯er-lo- with different development from -rl-; Middle Irish farr f. ` jamb ' = Welsh gwar f. ` nape ' (*u̯r̥sā); many connect Gothic waírsiza, Old High German wirsiro `bad' with Irish ferr, so that (Modern High German see above 1105)

` in higher degree ' to ` leading about the right measure '; doubtful gr. ῥίον ` the mountainous, foreland, promontory ' (*u̯rison?) and Old Icelandic risi, Old High German riso, Middle Low German rese ` giant ' (*wrisan-), Old Saxon wrisil ds., wrisilīc ` towering, huge ' (the forms without w through support in Germanic risan above S. 331); perhaps also Thracian -Phrygian βρία `fortress' (*u̯rii̯ā) and Tocharian AB ri `town, city' (whether not to u̯er- ` enclose '); doubtful Phrygian ὅρου `ἄνω ';

    after Specht (KZ 66, 199 ff.) here also gr. οὐρανός, Lesbian ὤρανος (more properly ὀρρ-), ὄρανος, Boeotian Doric Laconian ὠρανός m. `sky, heaven' from *u̯orsanos, to *u̯orsos `high' (in Old Indic várṣīyas- `higher', see above), further vowel gradation gr. ῎Ερρος ὁ Ζεύς (Hes).

References: WP. I 266 f., WH. II 734, 762 f., Trautmann 360, 362, Vasmer 1, 190 f., 230.

Page(s): 1151-1152


Root / lemma: u̯er-3 (*ḫu̯er-3)

Meaning: to turn, bend

Note: here perhaps under u̯er-1 mentioned Balto Slavic words. Generally only abstraction for derivatives and root extensions.

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Root / lemma: u̯er-3: A. u̯r̥mi-s, u̯r̥mo-s (*ḫu̯er-3)

Meaning: worm

Material: Latin vermis (from *vormis, *u̯r̥mis); Gothic waúrms m. `snake', Old Icelandic ormr, Old English wyrm, Old Frisian wirm ds. ` worm ', Old Saxon Old High German wurm m. ds.; Balto-Slavic *u̯arma- m. `worm, insect' in Lithuanian var̃mas `insect, mosquito ', Old Prussian wormyan Vok. `red' (`worm color'), vowel gradation urminan ds., Slavic vьrmьje n. ` insects ' in Old Russian vermije, Ukrainian vermányi `red'; with same meaning Old Frisian worma ` purple, crimson ', Old High German gi-uurmōt ` colored red ', Old English wurma m. ` Mediterranean sea snail, snail emitting purple dye, woad, type of plant, purple ', out of it borrowed Old Breton uurm `dark', Welsh gwrm `dark(blue)', from which again Old Irish gorm ds.;

gr. PN Fαρμίχος and ῥόμος (Aeolic *Fρόμος from *u̯r̥mos) ` woodworm ' Hes.; compare from the g- or gh-extension in the same meaning Middle Irish frige f., Nom. Pl. frigit ` flesh worm ' (*u̯r̥g(h)-n̥tes), Welsh Pl. gwraint ` worms in the skin' (*u̯rg(h)n̥toi), gallo- Latin brigantes (*vrigantes) ` worms in eyelid'; Middle Breton gruech, Modern Breton grec'h f. `mite' (from brit. *vriggā, with intensification).

Maybe alb. (**vriggā) vrug ` blight '

References: WP. I 271, WH. II 760, Trautmann 342 f., Vasmer 1, 189, Frisk 501;

See also: rhyme word to kʷr̥mi-, above S. 649.

Page(s): 1152


Root / lemma: u̯er-3: B. u̯er-b- and u̯er-bh- (*ḫu̯er-3)

Meaning: to turn, bend

Material:

Hittite: hurpasta(n)-/hurpusta(n)- c.  ' leaf, tree, bowl, shell, skin '  (Tischler 307)

Old Greek: rhámno-s f. `briar

Slavic: *vьrbā, *vorba (> Rus pl. воро́бы  ' thread reel, thread coil ' )

Baltic: *wir̃b-a- c., *wirb-ā^, -iā̃ f.

Germanic: *wrib-ō(n-) f.

Latin: verbēna f. `leafy branch/twig from aromatic trees ' ; pl. verbera, -um n. ` rods ' 

Gr. ῥάμνος `a kind of briar, Rhamnus paliurus L.' (*ῥαβ-νος, *u̯r̥b-nos), ῥάβδος `rod, horsewhip, staff', Aeolic gloss ῥυβόν `ἐπικαμπές ';

    Latin Pl. verbera, -um ` rods, beating rod, castigation, hitting' (verberāre ` hit with rods '), verbēna ` leafy branch/twig from aromatic trees/shrubs (religious/medicinal purposes) ' (*u̯erbes-nā; compare then in subverbustus the underlying -es-stem);

    Lithuanian vir̃bas m. `rod, horsewhip', vir̃balas `thin chopstick, knitting needle', virbìnis ` loop, noose, snare ', Latvian virbs ` twig ', virba ` shaft, pole', Old Church Slavic *vrъba ` willow ', Russian vérba ` willow branch ' (with the accentuation of Akk. Sg.; Russian dial. verbá has older Slavic accentuation), voróba `Zirkelschnur, Zirkelbrett', voróby ` thread reel, thread coil ';

Note:

Similar to lat. corbis ` basket' (*`plaited '); Middle Irish corb ` cart, coach' see Root / lemma: (s)kerb(h)-, (s)kreb(h)-, (s)kremb- : to turn, curve, there is alb. vorbë ` saucepan, cooking pot (*wickerwork, basket) ' a Slavic loanword.

    Gothic waírpan `throw' (`*turn'), Old Icelandic verpa `throw' and ` produce a fabric ', aldri orpinn ` stricken in years, old, aged ', verpask ` shrivel up, shrink before heat ', Old English weorpan, Old Saxon werpan, Old High German werfan `throw'; Old Icelandic varp n. ` the throwing, piece of paper, weft, woof of texture ', Old Saxon warp, Old High German warf, Old English wearp n. ds.;

   Latin and Balto Slavic words (also gr. ῥάμνος) could also be cover Indo Germanic *u̯erbh-; to such a root could be attributed the nasalized *u̯rembh- indicating ῥέμφος τὸ στόμα, ἤ ῥίς Hes., τὸ ῥάμφος ` crooked bird's beak ', probably hybridization from ῥεμφ- and ῥαφ-), ῥαμφή ` curved knife', ῥαμφίς ` crooked hook', ῥαμψός `crooked ', Low German wrümmeln `crumple, crease ';

    nasalized u̯remb-: gr. ῥέμβω ` turn, twist, rotate in a circle ', Med. ` turn, twist, rotate, drive around', ῥόμβος (Attic ῥύμβος) ` circular movement, swing, spinning top ', Welsh gwrym ` hemline, seam ' (*u̯rembo-); Middle Low German wrimpen, wrempen `pull together the face, sniff', wrempich ` misshapen, coiled, twisted ', wrampachtich `winded, sinuous, askew, crooked', holl. wrimpen, wrempen ` twist this way and that ' (besides Germanic *hremp- and remp-, Old High German hrimpfan, rimpfan ` sniff').

References: WP. I 275 f., WH. II 756.

Page(s): 1153


Root / lemma: u̯er-3: C. u̯(e)r-ed- (*ḫu̯er-3)

Meaning: to bend down, to sway

Material: Gr. ῥαδινός, Aeolic βράδινος (i.e. Fράδινος) ` sway, slim, agile', ῥοδανός ` sway ', ῥοδάνη (by Hes. ῥαδάνη) ` the rotated thread, weft, woof ', ῥαδαλός ` slim, lanky ';

    Gothic wratōn ` wander, travel', Icelandic rata `wander about, travel, meet, find', Middle High German razzeln `turn', Old High German rāzi ` cruising, grasping| rapacious '; Lithuanian randù, radãu, ràsti `find'(`come upon; discover| find; invent| contrive; reach| manage to get '); Latvian rūodu, rast ds.;

    suffixed -st- (Krahe PBB 71, 242) show Old Icelandic rǫst ` water whirls ', Old English wræstlian, Middle Low German worstelen `wrestle, struggle' (as ` twiddled, twisted, rotated, revved, revolved ' placed partly here or to *u̯ert- Old High German wurst, Modern High German Wurst `sausage ' s. Kluge-Götze16 288).

References: WP. I 273 f., Trautmann 236.

Page(s): 1153-1154


Root / lemma: u̯er-3: D. u̯er-g- (*ḫu̯er-3)

Meaning: to turn

Material: Old Indic vr̥ṇákti, várjati ` rotates, turns ', vr̥jiná- `crooked, two-faced, scheming, deceptive, manipulative' (rather with g-formants to vr̥nṓti ` protects, surrounds ', s. u̯er- ` enclose '); Latin vergō -ere ` incline| lie| slope '; vermina n. Pl. ` vermins ' (*u̯erg-mena); holl. werken ` sich werfen, krummziehen (von Holz) ', Swedish vurken ` crooked by humidity '; Latvian sa-vergt ` shrivel, shrink due to excess dryness, wrinkle up '; Old Church Slavic vrьgǫ, vrěšti `throw' Russian ot-vérgnut' ` turn down, decline ' etc.; compare under S. 1181; Maybe alb. Tosc vreshtë, Geg vneshtë  ` vineyard (*climbing plants, tendrils) ' a Slavic loanword, neither from alb. Geg. venë, Tosc verë ` wine ' which is folk etymology nor from alb. hardhi ` vine, climbing plants '. After all -sht is a Slavic formant.

    Welsh gwraint ` worms ' etc. (see above S. 1152) can have g or ĝh in root final sound.

Note:

-g guttural is a Baltic

   Nasalized *u̯reng-:

    Old English wrenc (*u̯rongi-) `( gyration), modulation of the voice, trick, cunning, insidiousness ', wrencan `turn, coil, cheat, deceive', wrincle `wrinkle', Old High German birenkit `luxated ', Middle High German renken ` pull spinning ', Middle High German ranc, Pl. renke m. ` gyration, curvature, quick movement ', Modern High German verrenken, Rank ` tendril ', New Swedish vrinka ` sprain, strain a joint ', New Norwegian vrinke ` become tasteless ';

Without nasalization:

Maybe alb. rrek ` pull, bother, strain ', rrekem ` wrestle ' the shift -g > -k formant: a Germanic loanword.

Lithuanian reñgtis ` bend down slowly, crook', rangùs ` ductile ', rangštùs `hasty', rìnga ` sitting crookedly ' ; perhaps Old Indic abhi-vlaṅgá- m. ` net, trap, snare', abhi-vlag- ` capture '; Latin ringor (rictus ` jaws; open mouth' then with analog. i for e) ` snarl| show the teeth; be angry ', Church Slavic ręgnǫti `hiscere ', rǫgъ ` derision, ridicule, mockery, travesty ' etc.

Maybe nasalized alb. rreng `trick, prank ' contaminated by alb. rrenj ` lie, cheat ' see Root / lemma: u̯er-6 (*ḫu̯er-6): to talk, speak.

References: WP. I 271 f., WH. II 436, 752 f., Vasmer 2, 543 f.

Page(s): 1154


Root / lemma: u̯er-3: E. u̯er-ĝh- (*ḫu̯es-3)

Meaning: to turn, press, strangle

Note: nasalized u̯renĝh-

Root / lemma: u̯er-3: E. u̯er-ĝh- (*ḫu̯erĝʷh-): `to turn, press, strangle' derived from g- extension of Root / lemma: u̯eis-2 : `to turn, bend' [common Latin Germanic -s- > -r-].

Material:

Old Icelandic virgill `rope', urga `rope end', Old Saxon wurgil `rope', Middle High German erwergen stem verb ` strangulate ', Old High German wurgen ` tie up the throat, strangle ', Old English wyrgan ds.; Old Icelandic vargr (`*shrike '=) `wolf, outlawed criminal ', Old English wearg, Old Saxon Old High German war(a)g ` robber, criminal ', Gothic launawargs ` ungrateful person', gawargjan `condemn' = Old English wiergan ` curse ', Old Saxon waragean ` punish as a criminal, curse' etc.;

Maybe alb. Geg varza `girl, virgin' similar to Latin virga ` thin branch, rod ' (from *u̯iz-gā), virgō ` girl, virgin '; 

Root / lemma: u̯er-3: E. u̯er-ĝh- (*su̯erĝʷh-): `to turn, press, strangle' < [common Latin Germanic -s- > -r-]. of Root / lemma: u̯eis-2 : `to turn, bend'.

    alb. z-vjerth, zvjerdh ` wean ' (`unbind, untie, unfasten, loosen, open '; doubt, if not to *u̯ert-, by Pedersen KZ. 36, 335); [common alb. negative prefix s-, z-]

    Lithuanian veržiù, ver̃žti ` tighten, restrict, lace, tie, press', veržỹs, viržỹs `rope', viržė́ti `bind', váržas `fish snaring net', Latvian vērzt ` turn, sweep, steer', varzi `Setzkorb ', var̃za ` fish snaring net; a complicated thing ';

Maybe Geg alb. varza ` spinning girl, lanky woman (*binding stalk, straw strip) ' = Ukrainian veréslo (*u̯erĝh-s-lo-) ` pumpkin stalk '

Old Church Slavic -vrьzǫ, -vrěsti `bind', Russian pá-vorooz ` pull string (at the bag)', poln. powróz `rope', sloven. vrzēl f. `fence, hedge ', perhaps also Russian vérša, poln. wiersza (*u̯erĝh-si̯ā) `creel, basket for holding fish after they have been caught ', Ukrainian veréslo (*u̯erĝh-s-lo-) ` pumpkin stalk ', Czech povříslo ` sheaf strip, straw strip ', Serbian vrijèslo ` pothook, metal hook used to hang or lift pots ';

    Lithuanian viržỹs, Latvian vìrsis (*u̯r̥ĝhi̯o-) `heath', changing through vowel gradation Russian véres, véresk `heath', poln. wrzos, Serbian vrȉjes ds.; Lithuanian vir̃kštis, Latvian virksne (*virsk) `stiff, strong tops of beans, potatoes; tendrils of peas, hops '; compare from the i-extension *u̯(e)rei-k- the words for heath gr. (F)ἐρείκη, Old Irish froech, Welsh grug (*u̯roiko-).

   Nasalized *u̯renĝh-:

    Gr. ῥίμφα (*u̯renghu̯-, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 302) `rash, hasty, agile ' (`be spinning ');

    Old High German (ge)ringi `light', Old Frisian ring, Middle Dutch gheringhe, Middle Low German Middle High German (ge)ringi `light, quick, fast, willing, ready', if Middle Low German Frisian r- to be expected instead of wr- is to be explained through old dissimilation decrease of w- in the preliminary stage of proto Germanic *wrinʒwja- (from *u̯renghu̯-);

    with other meaning development:

Old English Old Saxon wrengan ` turn together firmly, coil, press', Old High German ringan `grow around, entwine itself around, strain, wrestle; struggle; fight ', Modern High German ringen `wrestle', Danish vringle ` coil ', Middle Low German mnl. wrang `bitter, acrimonious ', Middle High German rang `rotation', Old English wrang n. (English wrong) ` wrong; injustice ' (< Old Norwegian vrang), Old English wrang(a) m. `ship's belly' (< Old Norwegian vrǫng), Alemannian rang ` convolution, bend '; Gothic wruggō ` loop, noose, snare '; Old Icelandic rangr (Old Swedish vranger) `crooked, coiled, wrong ', Middle Low German wrank, wrange `sour, bitter', Old Icelandic rǫng f. ` twisted piece of wood ', Old English wrang, Middle Low German urange f. ds.

Maybe alb. vrug `blight, disease ' = Low German wrang `bitter, acrimonious ' a Germanic loanword.

References: WP. I 272 f., II 373, Trautmann 355, 362, Vasmer 1, 186 f., E. Fraenkel KZ. 72, 193 f.

See also: compare u̯erĝ- under S. 1168.

Page(s): 1154-1155


Root / lemma: u̯er-3: F. u̯er-k- (*ḫu̯e-3)

Meaning: to turn, wind, bend

Note: nasalized u̯renk-

Material: Nir. feirc f. (Old Irish ferc) ` hump, hunchback, hunch, handle '; Welsh cywarch ` hemp, rope, band' (*kom-u̯orko-), Old Breton coarcholion Pl. ` hemp ', Breton Vannes koarc'h ` hemp ', Cornish cûer ds.;

Maybe alb. (*u̯er-ul) bërryl ` elbow, angle ' [common alb. Latin v- > b- shift]

    u̯renk- : u̯ronk- in German *u̯ranhō, Old Icelandic vrā f. ` angle, point, edge, corner ' (*u̯ronhā) = Scots Gaelic frōg f. `cave, swamp, marsh, hideout ' (Marstrander ZcPh 7, 362 f.); in addition late Latin branca ` paw ' (`the crooked '), from gall. (probably not of Celtic origin) *u̯rankā, Indo Germanic *u̯ronkā = Balto-Slavic *rankā `hand' in Lithuanian rankà, Latvian ruoka `hand, arm '; Old Church Slavic rǫka `hand', Russian ruká `hand, arm '; further to Lithuanian renkù, riñkti ` compile, gather, collect', parankà f. `gleanings, collection of facts or information '.

References: WP. 1 273, WH. II 759, v. Wartburg French etym. Wb. 498, Corominas Dicc. de la langua castellana 1, 509, Specht Indo Germanic Dekl. 131, 158, Trautmann 237, Vasmer 2, 545.

Page(s): 1155


Root / lemma: u̯er-3: G. u̯er-p-, u̯r-ep- (*ḫu̯er-3)

Meaning: to turn, wind

Material:

Hittite: (anda)warpai- 'encircle'

Tokharian: A wärp-, B wārp- (PT *wärp-) 'surround', A warp 'enclosure' (Adams 587)

Old Indian: várpas- n. `artifice, device, design'

Old Greek: 1) rhémbomai̯ `sich herumtreiben, umherirren, -schweifen, aufs Geratewohl handeln', rhómbo-s, att. rhǘmbo-s m. `kreisförmige Bewegung, Kreisel, Brummkreisel, Zauberrad, Tamburin'; 2a) rháptō, aor. rhápsai̯, érraphon, pass. rhaphē^nai̯, pf. pass. érramai̯ `(zusammen) nähen, flicken, anzetteln', rhaphǟ́ f. `Naht, Saum', rhámma n. `id.', rháptǟ-s m. `Flicker', rhapís, -ídos f. `Nähnadel'; 2b) rhépō, aor. rhépsai̯ `sinken, sich neigen; hinüberschwanken, ausfallen, die Überhand nehmen', rhopǟ́ `Ausschlag, Neigung', rhópalo-n n.`Knüttel, Keule', rhóptro-n `Stellholz in der Falle, Klopfer, Ring an der Haustür, Handpauke', rhapís = rhábdos (Phot.) Hsch.; 3) rhī́p-s, gen. rhīpós f. (/m.), rhī^pos n. (/ rhī^po-s m.) `Weidenrute, Flechtwerk, geflochtene Matte, Hürde '

Slavic: *vorpā, *vorpъ (складка); *vorbā, *vorbъ (> Rus dial., Vasmer)

Baltic: *wer̃p- vb. tr., *war̃p-ī^- vb., *war̃p-a- c., *war̃p-s-t-iā̃ f., -ā^ f., *wirp-el-iā̃ f.

Germanic: 1) *wirp-a- vb., *warp-a- n.; 2) *wrap-[ō]- vb.; *wra[f]-Vl-ō- vb.; *wrimp-a- vb., *wramp-ian- vb.; 3) *wrīb-á- vb.,

 

Old Indic várpas- n. `artifice, trick ', originally `* curvature, dodging ';

    gr. ῥάπτω (*Fραπι̯ω, *u̯r̥p-) ` stitch together, mend, repair with stitches', ῥαπίς `needle' (also ῥαφίς, as ῥαφή ` suture, seam ' with φ probably through derailment); ῥέπω `be bent', ῥοπή ` rash, leaning, tendency', ἀντίρροπος `gleichwiegend ', ἀμφιρρεπής `sich auf beide Seiten neigend ', καλα-ῦροψ (καλα-Fροπ-) `shepherd's crook; crosier'

Maybe alb. (*hu̯er-p-a) kë-rrabë `shepherd's crook; crosier '. [common solidification of IE laryngeal in alb. and Altaic languages]

Gr. δεῦρο (*δε-Fροπ) actually ` skilful, agile !', ῥόπαλον ` throw stick, cudgel, club', ῥόπτρον `club, mace, joint, door knocker, Stellholz in einer Falle ', ῥαπίς `rod, staff' (perhaps also ῥάβδος with β from p, see above *u̯erb-); lengthened grade ῥῶπες Pl. ` branch, shrubbery, bush', ῥωπήιον `shrubbery, bush, thicket ';

    alb. vrap ` quick gait ';

    Latin repēns ` sudden| unexpected ';

    perhaps veprēs (mostly Pl.) `briar, thorn shrub, thorn bushes ', if dissimilation from *vreprēs, and verpa ` penis; penis (as protruded from foreskin); erect penis ', if actually `*rod', from *u̯orpā or *u̯r̥pā (: ῥαπίς), verpus ` circumcised ';

    Old Icelandic orf, Old High German worf, Middle High German worp, Modern High German dial. worb ` scythe handle ' (from `*rod'; vowel gradation equally with gr. ῥαπίς and perhaps Latin verpa); Danish dial. vravle ` coil, maunder, drivel ', Middle English wrappen `wind, coil';

    Lithuanian verpiù, ver̃pti (Latvian vērpt) ` spin ', varpstė̃ `coil, spool, spindle', Latvian vàrpste ds., verpeli `whirlwind', Lithuanian vìrpiu, -ė́ti, virpu, -ti `waver, tremble, quiver', virpulỹs `trembling of the limbs ', and with the development to ` toss spinning, fling, throw, release, let go, set free ', Old Prussian etwierpt ` release, let go, set free ' (`*toss spinning, fling'), anuirpis `Wasserablaß, Flutrinne ', craujawirps ` phlebectomy, phlebotomy ', pouiērpt ` set free ', pouirps `free';

Russian-Church Slavic vьrpu, vьrpsti ` fissure, pluck, loot, spoil, plunder'; changing through vowel gradation Lithuanian var̃pas ` ear ' (`*the picked '), Latvian vãrpa ds., Lithuanian varpýti ` poke, stick in '; formally comparable Czech vrápa, vráp `wrinkle', sloven. vrâpa, rápa ` skin wrinkle ', Lower Sorbian ropa, Upper Sorbian (w)ropa ` crease '.

References: WP. I 276 f., WH. II 425 f., 754, Trautmann 353, Vasmer 1, 189, 229.

Page(s): 1156


Root / lemma: u̯er-3: H. u̯er-t- (*ḫu̯er-3)

Meaning: to turn, wind

Grammatical information: causative-iterative u̯ortei̯ō

Material:

Hittite: hurtalli-  ' Gemengsel, Mus ' , hurutai- (I)  ' umstoßen '  (Tischler 312, 314)

Tokharian: B wrattsai  ' against '  (Adams 615)

Old Indian: vártate, -ti, vavartti, vartti, ptc. vr̥ttá- `to turn, roll; to be, exist ' ; vartana- n. `turning, rolling ' , vartula- `round, circular ' ; vŕ̥nta- n.`stalk, stand of a water-jar ' 

Avestan: varǝt- `sich wenden ' 

Armenian: gaɫth `Reise, Auswanderung ' 

Old Greek: 1) peri-rrēdḗ-s `hintaumelnd ' , rhadinó-, aeol. (Sappho) wrá́dino- [geschr. b-] `schwank, biegsam, schlank ' , rhodanó-, rhadaló- `id ' , rhodánǟ `Einschlagfaden ' ; 2) *wratánǟ: rhatánan = torǘnēn Hsch., bratánan = torǘnēn (Elean) Hsch.; rhotaría = torǘnion Hsch.

Slavic: *vьrtjǭ, *vьrtḗtī; *vьrtǭ, *verstī; *verteno; *vortъ; *vьrst(v)ā, *vьrstь

Baltic: 1) *wer̃t- vb. tr., *war̃t-ī^- vb., *wer̃-t-uw-a- c., -iā̃ f., -t-aw-ā^ f., *wir&##771;t- vb. intr.; *wer^t-ē^- vb.; 2) *rē̃t-a- adj.; *rad- (*rada-/*rañda-) vb. tr. 3) *reĩt- vb. tr., *reĩt-ē^- vb., *at=raĩt-a c., *rit- (*rit-a-) vb. tr., *raĩt-ī^ vb.; *rid-ē^- (*reĩd-a-) vb., *raĩd-ā^ f.

Germanic: 1) *wírʮ-a- vb.; *wír-ʮ-a- adj., *wurs-t=; 2) *wrat-a- vb., *wrat-ō- vb., *wrast-ō f.; 3) *wrī́ʮ-a- vb., *wríʮ=, *wráiʮ-ō/*wraid-ṓ f., *wráiʮ-i- adj.; *wrīt-a vb.

Latin: vertō/vortō, -ere, vertī, versum/vorsum `kehren, wenden, derehen ' , vortex/vertex, -i cis m. `Wirbel, Scheitel ' , vertebra f. `Gelenk, Verbindung; Wirbelknochen ' , versāre `drehen, wälzen ' ; versus/vorsus `Ackermass, 100 Fuss im Geviert ' 

Other Italic: Umbr kuvertu, covertu `convortitō ' , trahvorfi `trānsversē ' ; Osk wersorei `Versōrī ' 

Celtic: OIr adbbartaigiur `adversor ' , honaib adbartaib `adversariis ' , di-fort- `ausgiessen, ausschütten, einschenken ' ; Ir feirt `Radspur ' , MIr foirsed `eggen ' , MIr fertas f. `Schaft, Stange, Axenspindel ' , Ir fearsaid, Cymr gwerthyd `Spindel ' , OCorn gurhthit gl. `fusus ' , OBret pl. guirtitou gl. `fusis ' , MBret guersit `id. ' , OIr praef. frith-, praep. fri, MCymr gwrth, NCymr wrth, Corn orth, Bret ouz ` against

 

Old Indic themat. present vartati(-tē) ` turns ', Med. ` turns, rolls, runs, proceeds ', Avestan varǝt- ` turn '; other present tenses Old Indic vavartti, vartti, causative vartáyati ` sets in spinning movement '

(= Gothic fra-wardjan, Old Church Slavic vratiti, Lithuanian vartýti), vártman- n. `pathway', vartana- n. ` rotation ', Mitanni-Indic aika-vartana etc. `a circle (racetrack)'; vartula- ` round ', vartulā `Spinnwirtel ' (: Middle High German wirtel), vr̥ttá- ` twiddled, twisted, rotated, revved, revolved, round ' (= Latin vorsus, virsus, Lithuanian vir̃stas etc.), vr̥tti- f. ` the turning, nature, type, sort ' (= Latin versi-ō, Old Church Slavic vrъstь), varti `the rounded '; a present *vr̥natmi is accepted because of vŕ̥nta- m. ` leafstalk, petiole, stem of a leaf ', vr̥ntāka- m. `Eierpflanze '; vr̥kkáu (*vr̥tka-) ` kidneys ' (actually ` bulge; bulb '), Avestan vǝrǝδka- vǝrǝt̃ka- ds., compare Pahlavi gurtak, New Persian gurda `kidney' from Old Persian *vr̥t(a);

    gr. ῥατάνη (Fρατ- from *u̯r̥t-) ` mixing spoon ', βρατάνην τορύνην ᾽Ηλεῖοι Hes., ῥοτάρια (ῥοτ- Aeolian; -τάνια?) τορύνιον Hes.; ἄρρατος `hard, not revolvable ' (*ἀ-Fρᾰτ-ος);

    Latin vertō (neologism to replacement of old causative?), vertī, versum ` turn| turn around; change| alter; overthrow| destroy ', revertor `turn back| go back| return; recur '; vortex, vertex `whirlpool| eddy| vortex; crown of the head; peak| top| summit ', versus, adversus `opposite| directly facing| ranged against; ADVerse| evil| hostile; unfavorable ' (to-participle), versus, -ūs m. `line, row, furrow'; Umbrian kuvertu, covertu `convertitō ', trahvorfi `transverse', Latin versi-ōn-, Oscan Dative Fερσορει a god epithet; Oscan Umbrian vorsus a piece of wood as field measure is a term of the Roman settler in Campania (M. Leumann); compare Old Irish forrach `a piece of wood as field measure ';

    Venetic goddess Vrotah ` turner, Juno, goddess of marriage and wife of the god Jupiter ' (Vetter Gl. 20, 72);

    Old Irish ad-ferta `aversatur ', adbart `enemy| ADVersary| antagonist| opponent| rival| foe; of an opposing party', vowel gradation dī-fort- `diffuse, pour, let flow' (compare French verser), Middle Irish fertas f. ` shaft, spindle, earthwall' (newer fersat), Welsh gwerthyd ` spindle', Old Cornish gurhthit gl. `spindle; (e.g.| of the Fates) ', Old Breton Pl. guirtitou gl. `fusis ', Middle Breton guersit ds.; root noun as Adverb *u̯r̥t: Old Irish preposition fri, preverb frith-, Middle Welsh gwrth, Modern Welsh wrth, Cornish orth, Breton ouz ` against ' (to basic form s. Thurneysen Grammar S. 515, Jackson Language and History S. 337); Welsh gwerthu ` sell ', Cornish gwerthe, Breton gwerza ds. (but Welsh gwerth `price' could be Old English loanword);

    Gothic etc. wairÞan, Old High German werdan `become' (`to turn'); Gothic fra-wardjan, Old High German frawarten `spoil' (causative to frawairÞan `be destroyed, perish', actually `eine Wendung zum evil, wickedness nehmen'), Gothic etc. -waírÞs, Old High German -wert,, Modern High German -wärts `wohin gewendet'; perhaps Gothic etc. wairÞs, Old High German wert, Subst. ` value, worth, price' (compare Old Irish frith-, Latin vorsus ` against ' together with dem relationship from Old Indic práti ` against ': Latin pretium `as equivalent value dienender price)' Old High German wurt `fate, destiny' (*u̯r̥ti- ` turn ');

   Balto-Slavic *u̯erti̯ō ` turn, twist, rotate ' (older *u̯ertō) in Lithuanian verèiù, ver̃sti, Latvian veršu, verst ` turn, rotate ', intransitive Lithuanian virstù (*vr̥t-stō), vir̃sti ` fall down, fall, change into something, be transformed ', Iterative vartýti ` turn continuously ', Old Prussian wirst ` becomes '; Slavic *vьrtjǫ, *vьrtěti in Old Church Slavic vrьtěti sę `περισπᾶσθαι ', Iterative vratiti sę `στρέφεσθαι ', Russian-Church Slavic vrěteno ` spindle'(*u̯erteno- n.), Old Church Slavic vrěmę `time' (*u̯ert-men n.), Lithuanian var̃stas `plow turn', compare Old Prussian ainawarst `once'; Balto-Slavic *u̯irstā f. ` turning point ' in Old Church Slavic vrъsta `ἡλικία ', Russian verstá `row, age, verst, russian measurement of length '.

Maybe alb. Geg vërsë `age', vërsnik `peer, of the same age' Slavic loanwords.

compare the participle Lithuanian vir̃stas: Latin versus, Old Indic vr̥ttá- and Latin versus, -ūs `furrow, line, row'; Old Indic vr&̥ttá- n. ` way of life, lifestyle, behavior '; Balto-Slavic *u̯irsti- f. ` kind, way ' in Russian-Church Slavic sъvьrstь ` the same age, pair', slov. vr̂st `row, kind, way ', compare Lithuanian Infin. vir̃sti: Old Indic vr̥tti- f. see above.

Maybe alb. vërtit ` turn, throw' a Slavic loanword.

    Tocharian A wärt- `throw', В wrattsai ` against ' (*wart, *u̯r̥t), yerter `(wheel) rim ', A wërkänt, В Obl. yerkwantai (*yertwantai), Pedersen Tocharian 235.

References: WP. II 274 f., WH. II 763 ff., Trautmann 354 f., Vasmer 1, 189, 190, 229, 230, 235, Frick 151.

Page(s): 1156-1158


Root / lemma: u̯er-3: I. u̯r-ei-: α) u̯rei-n-: (*ḫu̯er-3)

Meaning: to be confused; to clench the teeth

Material: Norwegian dial. vrīna, vrein ` grin; lift the upper lip or twist the nose in the rutting season ', then also `cry, neigh, of horses in heat ' (hence Old English wrǣne `horny, lustful', Old Saxon wrēnisk, Old High German reinisc ` frivolous, horny, lustful', Old Saxon wrēnio, Old High German reinno `stallion' ), Danish dial. vrinsk `very cross, very sour ' (`pulling the mouth ')

References: WP. I 277, WH. II 433 f.

Page(s): 1158


Root / lemma: u̯er-3: I. u̯r-ei-: β) u̯rizd- (*ḫu̯er-3)

Meaning: to be confused, ashamed

Material: perhaps from s-suffixed and with probably present formation d:

Old Indic vrīḍatē `is embarrassed, is ashamed ', vrīḍa- m. ` embarrassment, shame ' (*u̯ri-z-d-), Latin rīdeō, -ēre `laugh'; Old English wrǣstan `turn, bend', Norwegian dial. (v)reist `Weidenring; Querkopf ', Icelandic reista `wrench, crook', could require an Indo Germanic *u̯roizd-.

Page(s): 1158


Root / lemma: u̯er-3: I. u̯r-ei-: γ) u̯reiĝ- (*ḫu̯er-3)

Meaning: to be crooked (?)

Material: In Avestan urvizō-maiδya- ` die Leibesmitte schnürend ', zaranyō-urvixšna ` with golden lacing (in the shoe) ' (inorganic x); Gothic wraiqs `σκολιός ', Old Frisian wrāk `crooked', Swedish vrēk `stubborn person' (*u̯roiĝ-u̯o-s); here that in vocalism irregular gr. ῥαιβός `crooked';

    gr. ῥοιβός is hybridization from ῥοικός and ῥαιβός.

References: WP. I 279.

Page(s): 1158


Root / lemma: u̯er-3: I. u̯r-ei-: δ) u̯reik̂- (*ḫu̯er-3)

Meaning: to turn, bind

Material: Avestan urvisyeiti (*vriśyati) ` wends, turns ', causative urvaēsayeiti ` rotates, turns ', urvaēsa- m. ` gyration ' (= gr. ῥοικός, Dutch wreeg); Old Indic vréśī- ` water whirl ';

    gr. ῥοικός ` writhed, crooked, humped, arched ', ῥικνός ds.; ῥίσκος ` chest, bags, hutch, box ' maybe from *u̯rik̂-skos;

Maybe alb. (*u̯rik̂-) urith ` mole, (*snake?) ' [common alb. Indic v- > u- shift]

    Latin rīca `headscarf ', rīcinium, originally dial. rēcinium `small headscarf ' (*u̯reikā);

    Middle Low German wrīch (wrīg-) ` bent, coiled, (therefrom) stiff; crazy, stubborn, insidious, crafty, cunning, malicious ', English wry `slant, skew', Old English wrīgian `pitch tent| encamp; pull tight; draw (bow); press on| insist; exert oneself, attempt/try/endeavor| make an effort; exert oneself; try to go/rise/speak, press/lean upon; struggle; advance; depend on (with abl.); strive| labor', Old Frisian wrīgia `be bent, bow' (?), Old English urīxl f. `variation, exchange, earnings', Old Icelandic rǣxn m. `knot', hence probably also Old English wrāsen, wrǣsen f., Old High German reisan n. ds. Middle English wrāh ` inverted, obstinate, stubborn, inflexible, obdurate, stiff-necked ', Dutch wreeg ` stiff ', Subst. `foot bend ', Old Icelandic reigiask ` the head zurückwerfen, violent become', Old Icelandic riga f. `bend', riga `move',

Modern Icelandic rig n, rigr m. `stiffness in the limbs ' (from `*luxated'), Middle High German rigen, widerrigen ` strive against, oppose', Low German wrigge(le)n ` turn sideways, twist to and fro ', English wriggle ` crook oneself ', Low German uriggel ` waywardness ', Norwegian rigga ` connect, wrap; upset; doubtful go', rigla `wobble, sway, wrap ';

Middle High German ric, rickes `band, strap, manacle, knot; bowels, the entrails, narrow way', Swiss rikch ` Heftel von Faden ', Middle High German ric ` neck ' (probably as `*turner'), with expressive consonant stretch of the Intensive Middle English Low German Dutch wrikken ` turn to and fro, jiggle, wobble, sway', Middle Low German vor-wrikken ` dislocate, luxate ', Norwegian (v)rikka, Swedish vrikka ` dislocate, luxate '; Dutch gewricht `joint';

Middle Low German wrist, Old English wrist, wyrst, aschw. vrist, Old Icelandic rist ` ankle', Middle High German rist ` wrist, ankle' (*wrihst-); Old High German rīho m. `
calf of the leg
, knee ', Middle High German rīhe ` instep of the foot', Modern High German Reihen ds., Middle Dutch wrīghe, Dutch wreeg ` foot bend '; with the meaning ` wrap' (: Latin rīca): Old English wrīon, wrēon (*wrīhan) `enwrap, cover, shield ', wrigels `sleeve, wrapping, cover ', Old High German int-rīhhen, -rīhan, participle intrigan ` uncover, unveil ', Middle High German rigel m. `a headpiece';

    Lithuanian rišù, rìšti `bind', ryšỹs m. `bundle', raišaũ `bind', raĩštis `band, strap, bandage, head fascia', also raĩkštis with k-insertion, as rýkštė `horsewhip', iš-si-rýkšti ` separate in threads ' (perhaps ` curl, frill, friz '), ráišas and raĩšas `lame' (`*luxated, crooked '), ráištu, -šau, -šti ` become lame ', ríešas ` ankle ', Latvian risu, rist `bind', riešu rist ds., ristu, rīstu (*u̯rī̆k-stō, barely nasalized) ` join, attach oneself '; Old Prussian senrists ` connected ', perrēist ` connect '.

References: WP. I 278 f., WH. II 433, Trautmann 236, 246, Holthausen Aengl. etym. Wb. 408.

Page(s): 1158-1159


Root / lemma: u̯er-3: I. u̯r-ei-: ε) u̯reip-, u̯rīp- (*ḫu̯er-3)

Meaning: to turn

Material: Gr. ῥί̄ψ, ῥῑπός, Ionian ῥῖπος n. ` wickerwork, mat ', ῥί̄πτω `throw, cast', ῥῑπή ` spinning movement, swing, throw, shot' (in addition Εὔρῑπος), ῥῑπίς ` flabellum, bellows';

Maybe alb. rrip, rryp ` belt' a Greek loanword.

    Old High German rīban, Middle High German rīben ` turn rubbing ', Modern High German Bavarian reiben `turn', Middle Low German wrīven, Frisian wriwwe `rub', Low German wribbeln `turn'.

References: WP. I 280, Kluge-Götze16 607.

Page(s): 1159


Root / lemma: u̯er-3: I. u̯r-ei-: ζ) u̯reit- (*ḫu̯er-3)

Meaning: to turn

Material:

Old Swedish vrīÞa, Old Icelandic rīða `turn, wring, squeeze, coil, tie, bind, knot ', Old English wrī-ðan, Old High German rīdan `turn, coil, bind', Old English wriða m. `rein, ring';

Old Icelandic riðull ` tussock, bundle ', Icelandic riðill ` walziges Holzstück zum Netzbinden ', Old High German ridil m. `hairband, headband ';

Old English wrǣð, wrǣð f. `band, strap, bundle', Middle Low German wrēden ` turn together ', Old High German reid, reidi ` curly, frizzy ';

with the meaning ` rage wrinkling ' Old Icelandic reiðr `angry, irate', Old English wrāð `angry, irate, hostile, violent', Old Saxon wrēth, Middle Low German wrēt ds.;

    Lithuanian rieèiù (*reiti̯ō), riẽsti ` coil, wind, roll', Latvian riešu, riest ` fall down, be disconnected ', therefrom Lithuanian rietė́ti ` hatch out, get out of an egg ', changing through vowel gradation ritù, -aũ, rìsti `roll, writhe', Latvian ritu, rist ds., iterative Lithuanian ráièioti `roll to and fro ';

    an additional form with Germanic t (phonetically influenced from wrītan ` rend '?) in old ndrhein. wrīten `turn, wrench, wring, squeeze', Dutch wrijten `turn'.

References: WP. I 279 f., Trautmann 242.

Page(s): 1159-1160


Root / lemma: u̯er-4 (*ḫu̯er-4)

Meaning: to find, take

Note: besides u̯erē(i)-, u̯ērī-

Material: Armenian gerem `take captive, loot, spoil, plunder';

    gr. (with unclear ευ as by εὐρύς, 8. u̯er-; Aspiration after ἑλεῖν) εὑρί̄σκω `find' (quantity of ι: unacquainted), εὑρή-σω, εὕρη-κα (*Fέ-Fρη-), εὗρον, εὑρέ-θην, εὑρε-τής;

    Old Irish fūar ` come upon; discover| find; invent| contrive; reach| manage to get ' (*u̯e-u̯r-a), frīth `is found ' (*u̯rē-to-);

    *u̯rēt- in Lithuanian su-rė̃sti, sùrėèau `catch, grasp', Old Church Slavic obrěsti `find', sъ-rěsti `find, encounter, meet', Aor. -rětъ (present -ręštoὈ), ob-ręšta `invention'.

References: WP. I 280, Vasmer 2, 244, Frisk 589 f.

Page(s): 1160


Root / lemma: u̯er-5 (*ḫu̯er-5)

Meaning: to close, cover; to guard, save

Note:

Root / lemma: u̯er-5 (*ḫu̯er-5): to close, cover; to guard, save derived from Root / lemma: tu̯er-2 : tur-, tu̯erǝ- : to grab, to enclose (common Aryan tv- > v- shift)

Material: A. With prefixes: `shut' and `open'; `door'; u̯ortom `gate'.

    Old Indic api-vr̥ṇóti ` closes, covers ', apa-vr̥ṇoti ` opens '; also Latin operiō ` cover (over); bury; overspread; shut/close; conceal; clothe| cover/hide the head ', aperiō ` V TRANS
uncover| open| disclose; explain| recount; reveal; found; excavate; spread out
' (from *op(i)- and *ap(o)-u̯eriō); Oscan veru `portam ', Umbrian verof-e `in portam ', Oscan vereias Gen. Sg. `Jungmännerbund ' (originally ` gate watch, gate guard ', Vetter Gl. 29, 240);

    Lithuanian ùžveriu, -vérti `shut', atvérti `open' ((from which previously without preverb veriù, vérti `open', and `shut'; Old Church Slavic (za)/vьrǫ, vrěti `shut', Iterative ot-voriti `open';

   derivatives: *u̯ortom in Nom. Pl. Lithuanian var̃tai, Latvian vàrti `gate, door', Old Prussian warto `Haustüre '; Old Church Slavic vrata, Russian voróta `gate, door'; also could belong to 3. u̯er- Old Church Slavic verěja and za-vorъ ` lever, hoist ', Russian verejá `Torflügel ', zavor ` blocked passage ';

    perhaps here Lithuanian varýti `drive, push' (formally = Germanic warjan, Old Church Slavic ot-voriti, compare also Old Indic causative vāráyati) as ` the open gate to expel the cattle from the hurdle '; in addition Russian provórnyj `fast, rapid, hurried, agile'.

    B. u̯er-, u̯eru-, u̯rū- `close, shut, cover, shield, rescue'; u̯er-to- ` paddock ', u̯er-tro ` protection', u̯r̥-ti- ` fence '.

    Old Indic vr̥ṇṓti (also várati and causative varáyati) ` surrounds, resists '; Avestan Akt. -vǝrǝnav-, Med. vǝrǝn- `cover, wrap';

derivatives from a light basis: Old Indic vr̥tá- participle Perf. Pass., vr̥ti- f. ` fence, enclosure ' (Avestan hąm-varǝtay- ` bravery '), varman- n. ` protective weir ', vártra- n. ` protective dam, dyke, earthwork' (osset. vart `shield' from Iranian *vr̥ϑra-, s. Bailey IRAS 1953, 110 f.), vr̥tra- n. `defense, enmity, fiend', (Avestan vǝrǝϑra- `resistance, defence, protection, rampart; weir, dam, sluice-gate, shield'), Sg. GN Vr̥tra- (`shuts the waters '), varatrā- `strap', várdhra-, vadhra- m. va(r)-dhrī ds., vara- m. ` enclosure, encircling ', also vala- (Avestan vara- ds.), lengthened grade vāra- (Avestan -vāra-) ` shelter, defence, protection, rampart; weir, dam, sluice-gate ';

Avestan varǝna- `wrapping, covering ' (thereafter Old Indic várṇa- `paint, color' probably from `covering '), varǝϑa- `defensive weapon, protection, rampart; weir, dam, sluice-gate ', vārǝϑman- `defence, protection, rampart; weir, dam, sluice-gate, parapet' etc.;

    u̯erū̆- besides in present vr̥ṇṓti in Old Indic varū-tár- m. `guarder, protector', várū-tha- n. ` protection, shield, army, herd, swarm ', perhaps the GN Váruṇa- as `the binder' (as Mitra above S. 710);

Varuna

[Hindu] Though he only has about a dozen hymns addressed to him in the Rig Veda, Varuna seems to be one of the most important of the Vedic gods. In pre-Vedic times, he was the supreme lord of the cosmos, the keeper of divine order, the bringer of rain, the enforcer of contracts. He is called omnipotent and omniscient; he is responsible for the sun to move in the sky, for day and night to stay separate, and for the earth to keep its form; he watches the flight of every bird, is present at every gathering, and knows every thought. His name means "he who covers", and this probably refers to the sky. Varuna is the keeper of the cosmic order, a force called rta. It is rta which keeps everything working as it should, and Varuna's role as the one who governs rta makes him very important indeed. He is very closely linked to the god Mitra. Varuna is one of the Adityas and considered to be an asura, when those beings were still god-like and had not yet degenerated into demons.

Uranus

[Greek] Uranus, also known as Ouranos, was the embodiment of the sky or heavens, and known as the god of the sky. He was the first son of Gaia (the earth) and he also became her husband. According to Hesiod, their children included the Titans: six sons (Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus and Cronus) and six daughters (Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe and Tethys). There were other offspring: the Cyclopes, (who were named Brontes, Steropes and Arges and were later known as "one eyed giants"), and also the three monsters known as the Hecatonchires, who each had one hundred hands and fifty heads. Their names were Briareus, Cottus and Gyes. Other offspring of Uranus and Gaia were the Erinyes, who were spirits of punishment and goddesses of vengeance. The Erinyes avenged wrongs which were done to family, especially murder within a family. After Uranus had been castrated, his blood fell to earth (Gaia) and conceived the Giants.

here also Old Indic uruṣyáti ` relieves, frees, saves ' as uru-ṣ-yáti, compare Hittite u̯arressesta `protected'; about Old Indic Váruṇa- s. Wackernagel-Debrunner II 2, S. 485 (to u̯ē̆r- `water', above S. 80);

    gr. perhaps εὐρώς, -ῶτος ` mildew, mould,, dank decay, mustiness ', (would be *ἐ-Fρω-τ-, compare Old Indic arṇō-vr̥t ` the enclosing floods ');

    Fερῠ- in hom. ἔρυσθαι ` ward off, rescue, preserve, protect', Impf. ἔρυ:-σο, -το, themat. has changed ἐρύ̄ετο, Perf. εἴρῡμαι (*Fε-Fρῡμαι), Ionian εἰρύομαι (*ἐFερύομαι) `hold firmly, preserve', ἔρυμα ` protection, protective weir ', ἐρυμνός ` protected, fortified ', ἐρυσί-πτολις ` town-protecting '; Εὐρυσί-λαος, Εὐρύ-λαος  (ἐ-Fρυ-);

    other vowel gradation grade Fρῡ- without vocal suggestion in Infinitive hom. ῥῦσθαι, hom. Ionian ῥύ̆ομαι `shelter, save, rescue; hold firmly, hide ' (the latter meaning, also the k-extension is inherent ἐρύ̄κω, ἐρῡκάνω, ἐρῡκανάω ` prevent, restrain ', Pass. `hesitate', Perf. εἴρῡμαι (*Fε-Fρῡμαι), ῥῦμα ` protection, defense ', ῥύ̄σιος ` guarding, protecting, saving ', ῥύ̄τωρ, ῥῡτήρ `savior, redeemer, liberator', ῥῡσίπολις ` town-protecting '; lengthened grade ἠρίον `burial mound';

    alb. varr `grave' (*u̯ornā), vathë ` paddock '; [common alb. -r- dissimilation]

Note:

alb. Geg vorr, Tosc varr `grave' simultaneous -a- and -o- gradation

Maybe alb. Tosc (*u̯ornā) varrë `wound, mortal wound', varrezë `graveyard, cemetery' like qytezë ` city ' etc -zë diminutive suffix

    Old Irish ferenn (*u̯ereno-) `belt, girdle', fertae (Middle Irish fert) `burial mound' (sealed with stones) = Old English weorð (see below), Old Irish feronn, ferann (*u̯erono-) `land, farmland' (probably `* watched over'); Middle Welsh gwerthyr `fortress' (*u̯ertro-; compare above Old Indic vartra-); here probably Old Irish (*u̯ereno-) Ériu, Gen. Érenn, (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Welsh Iwerddoon `Irland' as *epi-u̯eriō, Gen. -i̯onos `hill, island' (compare Old High German werid) after Pokorny KZ. 47, 233, ZcP. 15, 197 ff.;

    Gothic warjan `defend, resist ', Old Icelandic verja `defend, hinder, protect ', Old English werian `ds., aufdämmen ', Old High German weren `protect, shield ', Old Saxon werian `defend, shield, hinder', Germanic -varii (`defender', out of it `inhabitant') in Chatuvarii, Bojuvarii, Old Icelandic e.g. Rūm-verjar `Roman';

Proto Norse waru ` the surrounding stone circle around a grave ' (see above Irish fert) = Old Icelandic vǫr f., New Norwegian vor m. `row of stones ', also `hill or bank from stone or gravel ', Old Icelandic ver n. ` dam, fish weir', Old English wer m. ds., Middle High German wer n. `weir ', Old High German werī `defence, rampart; weir, dam, sluice-gate, protection', Old English mylen-waru, -wer `Mühlenteich ', waru ` protection';

lengthened grade Old High German wuorī f. ` dam ', Swiss wuhr `defence, protection, rampart; weir, dam, sluice-gate'; Old Icelandic vǫrn `defence, protection', Old English wearn `resistance, refusal ' (in Middle High German warne, werne `caution, attention, warning' is influenced by a *u̯er- `aware, attentive '), Old Icelandic varna ` contain, enclose, avoid, withhold ' = Old English wearnian `warn', refl. ` contain, enclose ', Old High German warnōn ` watch out, warn ', Old English wiernan ` contain, enclose, avoid, withhold, reject';

    Old English waroð n. `bank, border, shore, beach, seaside', Old High German werid `island, peninsula' (Modern High German Werder), Middle High German wert ` ridge of a land between swamps, bank, border, shore', Middle Low German werde(r) ` embanked land ';

    Old English weorð, worð n. m. ` courtyard, household ' (*u̯er-to-, *u̯r̥-to-), Old Saxon wurth f. ` rammed or paved place ' (= Old Indic vr̥ti-), Middle Low German wurt, wort, wurde, worde f. ` elevated place, court site; garden, Feldstück ', Old Icelandic urð f. `heap of a boulder ';

    compare alb. vathë ` paddock, yard in the house, hurdle, sheepfold ' (*u̯or-tā), Tocharian В wärto, wart(t)o `garden, wood, forest', Irish fert `burial mound'; in the meaning also Old Church Slavic vora ` fence| enclosure '.

References: WP. I 280 ff., Frisk 568 f., 593 f., 643 f.;

See also: in addition u̯erĝh-1.

Page(s): 1160-1162


Root / lemma: u̯er-6 (*ḫu̯er-6)

Meaning: to talk, speak

Note: also u̯ere-, u̯rē-

Material: Avestan urvāta- n. ` determination, command ' (= ῥητόν), next to which from the light basis *u̯ere-: Avestan urvata- n. ` determination ' = Old Indic vratá- n. ` command, statute, declaration ', and Old Church Slavic rota `oath'; vowel gradation Old Prussian wertemmai ` we vow ';

    gr. εἴρω `say' (*Fερι̯ω), Fut. ep. Ionian ἐρέω, Attic ἐρῶ, Pass. Aor. Ionian εἰρέθην (*ἐFρέθην), Attic ἐρρήθην (*εFρήθην), Perf. εἴρη-κα, -μαι dissimilation from *F&##949;Fρη-, compare renamed Argolic FεFρημένα; ῥητός ` arranged = settled ', ῥήτωρ, Aeolic Fρήτωρ ` speaker ', ῥήτρα, Elean Fρά̄τρᾱ f. ` saying, pact, covenant', dissimilation to Cypriot Fρήτα, whereof εὐFρητάσατυ `pact, covenant, law ', ῥῆμα `word', ῥῆσις ` discourse, speech ', εἴρων ` someone who pretends ' (*Fερι̯ων), εἰρωνεία `pretending, putting on a false appearance';

Maybe expressive alb. rrenë `lie', rrenj `I lie', rremë `false' m/n allophones contaminating alb. rreng `trick, prank ' see Root / lemma: u̯er-3: D. u̯er-g-: to turn.

    Russian vru (*vьrǫ), vratь `lie, maunder, drivel ', with k-suffix (*u̯orkā): Russian vráka `empty gossip', Old Church Slavic vraèь (*u̯orki̯os) `physician, medicine man (*sayer of a magic spell), magician, sorcerer ';

Maybe alb. Tosc (*vrat) vras `I kill', vret `you kill' (common alb. -s/-t allophones)This cognate is related to the revenge killing examined by the medicine man. Similar cognates Old Church Slavic rokъ ` time, period, date, deadline ', rěèь ` accusation ' and *u̯rōk- in Germanic Gothic wrōhs ` accusation ' also point to revenge killing deadline, blame and accusation. Revenge killing must have been a widespread Aryan custom.

    Hittite u̯erii̯a- `call, shout, cry, entrust ', particle -u̯ar- actually ` said ';

    perhaps (in spite of Vasmer 2, 508 f. and above S. 860) here Balto-Slavic u̯rēk-, u̯rek- in Lithuanian rėkiù, rė̃kti, Latvian rēkt `cry', rę̃kuôt ` be entertained ', Old Church Slavic rekǫ, rešti `say', vowel gradation Old Church Slavic rokъ ` time, period, date, deadline ', rěèь ` accusation ' and *u̯rōk- in Germanic Gothic wrōhs ` accusation ', wrōhjan `blame' = West-Germanic *wrōgjan, Old High German ruogen, Modern High German rügen;

   dh-extension u̯er-dho- etc.:

    Gr. βέρθει φθέγγεῖαι Hes. (Specht KZ 59, 65);

    Latin verbum `word' (not from *vorbom because of:) Umbrian uerfale ` an open place for observation, place marked off by the augur's staff ';

    Gothic waurd, Old High German wort etc. `word' = Old Prussian wirds `word'; Lithuanian var̃das `name'.

References: WP. I 283 f., WH. II 756 f., Trautmann 238, 360, Vasmer 1, 234 f., 2, 539, Frisk 469 ff.;

See also: here probably u̯rek-.

Page(s): 1162-1163


Root / lemma: u̯er-7 (*ḫu̯er-7)

Meaning: to tear

Note: base for extensions:

Material: A. u̯erd-: Avestan varǝdva- `soft, lax ', Old Church Slavic vrědъ, Russian véred `wound'; u̯red-: Old Indic avradanta ` they became soft ', vrandín- ` becoming crumbly '; u̯rēd-: Old Prussian redo ` field furrow ', Old Danish vraade, vrode `dig, drill out '; u̯rōd-: Latin rōdō, -ere ` gnaw, peck, consume', rōstrum (*rōd-trom) n. ` beak| curved bow (of a ship); speaker's platform (in Rome's Forum) ', Old English wrōtan ` gnaw, dig', Old Icelandic rōta ds., Old High German ruozit `suscitat, movet ', Old English wrōt, Middle High German ruozel, rüezel, Modern High German Rüssel (*wrōtila-); in addition zero grade in Swedish dial. rota, ruta `dig'; after Frisk (Etyma Armen. 30) in addition still Armenian gercum `shave' from *u̯erd-s- (originally Aorist formation).

    B. u̯ornā: alb. varrë `wound', Russian voroná ` oar hole in the ship rear, hen's rump ' (therefrom vorónka `funnel '), poln. wrona, Czech vrana `aperture '; (common Germanic alb. -rn- > -rr- shift)

Maybe alb. vras `kill, wound mortally ' a Slavic loanword.

u̯re-no-, u̯ro-no- in Old Indic vraṇá- m. n. `wound, crack' besides u̯rō-nā in Old Church Slavic Russian etc. rana `wound'.

Maybe alb. (*varna) varr `grave' [common alb. rn- > rr- shift].

    C. u̯erĝh-: Old Indic vr̥háti ` run off; tear out, pull out ', Aor. varhi, participle vr̥ḍhá-, mūla-vr̥t ` tearing out the roots ' (Wackernagel KZ. 67, 166 ff.).

Note:

Common Indic alb. -ĝh > -ḍh = Avestan -ĝ;h > -z shift

    D. u̯erk-, u̯rek-: gr. ῥάκος, Aeolic βράκος (*Fράκος) n. `rag, ragged dress; wrinkle'; βράκαλον ῥόπαλον Hes.; βράκετον δρέπανον, κλαδευτήριον Hes., ῥάκετρον ds.;

    E. u̯resk- (from *u̯rek-sk-), u̯r̥sk- Old Indic vr̥ścáti ` cavitates, hews, clears out, splits', vráścana- ` cutting down, scooting, scramming ', n. ` the cutting down, clearing out ', pra-vraska- m. `cut'; ava-vraśca- `splinter'; Russian-Church Slavic vraska etc. `wrinkle' (*u̯orskā).

Maybe alb. vras 'kill' [alb. possible -ska > -s]

    F. u̯r-ei-, u̯rī-: gr. ῥί̄νη `file, tool for smoothing surfaces, grater, shredder' (*u̯rīnā; or onomatopoeic word?) and ` shark'; ῥῑνός `skin; leather shield ', (Aeolic) γρῖνος (i.e. Fρῖνος) δέρμα Hes., hom. ταλαύρῑνος ` shield bearing ' (compare M. Leumann, Homer. Wörter 196 ff.);

Maybe alb. (*u̯rī-) uri, urija `hunger'

    with d-extension (originally d-present?) Old English wrītan ` dig in, crack, write, paint ', Old Saxon wrītan `tear, wound, crack, write ', Middle Low German wrīten ` rend, write, draw, sign ', Modern High German reißen, Proto Norse wrait ` wrote, scratched ' (besides Germanic *rītan in Old Swedish rīta ds., compare under rei-, rei-d- ` crack '); Gothic writs `line', Old English writ ` writing ', wrǣtt `ornament, decoration, jewellery, jewel' ;

    after Frisk (Etyma Arm. 28 ff.) here Armenian ergicanem `tear, break, rupture, grind, carve, slit, injure, stir, tease, irritate' from *u̯reid-s-.

References: WP. I 286 f., Trautmann 236, Vasmer 1, 229.

Page(s): 1163-1164


Root / lemma: u̯er-8 (*ḫu̯er-8)

Meaning: to observe, pay attention

Material: Gr. only Fορ-, with spiritus asper ὁρ-: hom. ἐπὶ ὄρονται ` they supervise ', ὅρει ψυλάσσει Hes.,

u̯orós in ἐπίουρος (for ἐπίορος after οὖρος) ` supervisor, custodian, keeper', φρουρός ` guarder, keeper' (*προ-ὁρός), φρουρά̄ ` protection', οὖρος ` guarder, keeper' (abstracted from compounds), Doric τῑμά̄ορος, Attic τῑμωρός ` honorary guard, savior, redeemer' (Fόρος = Germanic wara- see below), ὁράω (ἑώρων, ἑόρᾱκα) `see, observe' (denominative also in φρουρά̄ being *Fορά̄

= Old High German Old Saxon wara, Old English waru `attention') Aeolic ὄρημι, similarly as Latin verēri;

lengthened grade Attic ὤρα, Ionian ὤρη `be careful, worry ' hom. οὐδενός-ωρος, οὐδενὸς ὤραν ἔχων ` useless ', ὀλιγωρέω `neglect' from *ὀλιγωρός `ὀλίγην ὤραν ἔχων ', at most θυρωρός, πυλωρός ` doorkeeper ' (rather because of hom. πυλεωρός an θυρη-, πυλη-ορός, correspondingly τῑμωρός); ὠρεύειν ` beware| avoid| take precautions '; βωροί ὀφθαλμοί Hes. Suid.

    Latin vereor, -ērī, -itus sum ` worship, fear, dread'; to this form compare gr. Aeolic (F)ὄρημι `see, observe';

    Old Irish cō(a)ir ` fitting, right': Welsh cywair ds. (*kom-u̯eri̯os);

    Germanic: u̯orós in Gothic war(s) ` cautions ', Old Icelandic varr ` cautions, careful, shy', Old English wær `aware, attentive, careful, cautions ', Old Saxon war ` careful', Old High German giwar ` attentive, careful ' = (Fόρος); ū̆orā in Gothic warai `cautiousness, artifice, cunning ', Middle High German wer (Old High German *warī) `caution ';

Old English waru, Old Saxon Old High German wara `attention, guarding, care ', wara nëmann, wahrnehmen ` perceive ', Old Icelandic vara f. `merchandise, commodity, currency, form of payment ', Old English waru, Late Middle High German war, Modern High German Ware; Old High German bewarōn `preserve, protect', Old Saxon warōn `observe, protect, look after, watch over, keep', Old English warian `preserve, protect, beware, guard', Old Icelandic vara ` draw the attention, look after; protect, suppose ', refl. ` watch out ';

*u̯ortos (*u̯ordhos) in Gothic daúrawards `doorkeeper ', Old High German wart ` guardian, keeper, guard ', warto, Gothic wardja ds., Old Saxon wardōn ` look after, watch over, keep', Old High German wartēn ` pay attention, peer, perceive, wait, expect ', warta ` observation ', Modern High German Warte `lookout' ;

*u̯orn- in Old High German furiwarna ` preparation' (Old English wearn f. `resistance, refusal, reproach, accusation ', Modern High German warnen etc. through interference from relative *warjan wehren `defend ', and root *u̯er- `close, shut');

    Latvian véru, vērt `see, show, remark, notice ' (mostly reflexive vērties), vērība `attention';

Maybe alb. vërej ` perceive, spot, detect ' > dismantled by folk etymology vë re ` perceive ' Latvian loanword.

    Tocharian A wär-, В wär-sk- `smell'.

References: WP. I 284 f.

Page(s): 1164


Root / lemma: u̯er-9 : u̯eru-s (*ḫu̯er-9)

Meaning: wide, broad

Material: Old Indic urú-, Avestan vouru- (from *varu-, Indo Germanic *u̯eru-), Younger Avestan also uru- `wide', West Ossetic urux, composition form Avestan uru- (from *u̯ru-, as Old Indic gru- besides gurú-, above S. 476); comparative várīyas-, superlative váriṣṭha-, in addition Old Indic urūcī́ f. `the earth', Femin. to uru-vyáñc: urūc- ` far reaching ', compare then Avestan Mountain name Vouruša-, perhaps = Old Indic *urūcya-; Old Indic urvaṭa- m. `year', *uruaṭa- ` wandering further '; PN Urváśī f. from *uru-vāśī- ` intense desire'; in addition ulū́khala- `mortar' from *urū́-khara- `with broad bottom';

    with metathesis gr. εὐ- (as in εὑρίσκω, u̯er-4; compare εὐρυσί- under u̯er-5) in εὐρύς (instead of *Fερύς) ` broad', as well as in εὖρος ` width ' (see above Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 412 Anm. 1); perhaps Tocharian A wärts, В aurtse `wide, broad'

   neuter: u̯eros- in Old Indic váras- n. ` width, area ' (gr. εὖρος instead of *Fέρος);

    doubtful u̯eros- `breast' in Old Indic uras- (from *vuras), Avestan varō ds. and Old Indic várī̆maṇ- m. n. ` width, perimeter, circumference, girth ', várivas- n. ` area, width, comfortableness, position of contentment and security '.

Maybe alb. (*gu̯er) Geg gjanë Tosc gjerë ` wide ' (common alb., Armenian u̯- > gu̯- shift)

References: WP. I 285, Mayrhofer 109 f., Thieme Lg. 31, 439.

Page(s): 1165


Root / lemma: u̯ers- (*ḫu̯er-)

Meaning: to drag on the ground

Material:

Hittite: wars- (I), warsija- (I)  ' abwischen, abstreifen '  (Friedrich 246)

Old Greek: érrō (inf. Elean werrēn, warrēn `verbannt werden ' , imp. lokr. werretō), aor. érrēsa, pf. ẹ̄s-ḗrrēka `(weg)gehen, untergehen, dahinschwinden ' 

Slavic: *vьrxǭ, *verxtī; *vorxъ

Latin: verrō, -ere, verrī/Gramm. versī, versum `schleifen, am Boden schleppen, fegen ' 

 

Latin verrō (older vorrō), verrī, versum ` sweep clean; sweep together; sweep (to the ground); skim| sweep; sweep along ';

    about gr. ἔρρω `go away, fade, die away ' s. Frisk 566;

    Old Icelandic vǫrr `stroke'; barely here Old Saxon Old High German wërran `bewilder, confuse, mix up ';

    Latvian vârsms `heap of corn, grain '; Russian-Church Slavic vьrchu, vrěšti `thrash', vowel gradation vrachъ ` the thrashing ', Russian vóroch `heap (of corn)';

Maybe alb. rrah ` strike, beat ', vresht ` (heap of ) vineyard ' Slavic loanword.

    Hittite u̯aršii̯a-, u̯arš- ` wipe, pluck, reap'.

References: WP. I 267, 292 f., WH. II 761 f., Trautmann 361, Vasmer 1, 230.

Page(s): 1169-1170


Root / lemma: u̯er-(e)nā (*ḫu̯er-(e)n)

Meaning: alder, poplar

Material: Armenian geran (*u̯erenā) `trabs, tignum';

    alb. verrë f. (*u̯ernā) `Populus alba' [Germanic alb. rn- > rr- shift];

    Breton gwern f. (*u̯ernā) ` ship mast; alder ', Old Cornish guern ` mast ', guern-en ` alder ', Welsh gwernen ` ship mast, alder ', Pl. koll. gwern ` alder, swamp, marsh', Middle Irish fern f. ` alder, mast ', gall. Fernodubrum (`alder water '; from Celtic derive Piemontes. verna, prov. verna, verno, French verne, vergne ` alder ').

References: WP. I 292, Меуег-Lübke REW3 p. 9232, Vendryes RC. 46, 137 and above S. 81.

Page(s): 1169


Root / lemma: u̯es-1 (*ḫau̯ḫes-1)

Meaning: to stay, live, spend the night

Material:

Hittite: hwis- / hwes- (I)  ' leben '  (Tischler 264ff); husk- (I)  ' warten '  (Tischler 316 with doubt)

Tokharian: A wṣe, B yṣīye (PT *w ' äsi-)  ' night '  (Adams 521); B wäs-  ' dwell, abide '  (597)

Old Indian: vásati, ptc. uṣita- `to dwell, live, remain, abide ' ; vasatí- f., vāsá- m. `staying, remaining ' 

Avestan: vaŋhaiti `wohnt ' 

Armenian: goy `ist, existiert, ist vorhanden ' , goy (i-St.) `seiend, Sein, Gut, Habe ' 

Old Greek: aéskō, aéskonto, ep. aor. ā́esa nǘkta `zubringen die Nacht ' 

Germanic: *wís-a-/*wiz-á- vb., *wis-t-i- c., *waz-ṓ- vb., *wēz-í- adj.

Celtic: *westi-: OIr feiss `Bleiben, Rasten ' , *wosto-: foss `Bleiben, Ruhe ' ; *woseti: foaid `nächtigt, bringt die Nacht zu ' 

 

Old Indic vásati (participle secondary uṣita-) ` stays, dwells, stays overnight ' (with ā: `sleeps with a woman', with upa: ` fasts ') = Avestan vaŋhaiti ` dwells, stays ', Old Indic causative vāsayati ` accommodates '; vástu-, vasatí- m. f., vāsá- m. `abode, residence, staying overnight ', Old Persian ā-vahanam ` residential place, spot ', Old Indic lengthened grade vā́stu- n. `site, house', new vástu- n. ` thing' (vastuka- m. `a plant', actually `Hofunkraut '); vāsa-veśman n. ` bedroom ';

    Armenian goy ` is, it exists, is available', goy (i-stem) ` being, blessing, property';

Maybe Semitic gōy ` nation' an Armenian loanoword

Proto-Semitic: *gaw(V)y-

Meaning: 'community group sharing a common territory'

Akkadian: gāʔum, gāwum 'Volk' (kan. Fw.) OB Māri [AHw 284], gāʔu 'group, gang (of workmen)' Mari; WSem lw. [CAD g 58]

Phoenician: gw 'community' [Tomb 63]

Hebrew: gōy 'people; nation; pagan peoples; persons; (of animals) swarm (of mosquitoes, birds' [Koehl new 182-3], gēw 'community' [ibid. 182]

Aramaic: ? OFF gw 'esclave féminine' [JH 48]

Judaic Aramaic: gayyūtā 'gentile status' [Ja 236] {<PB HBR gayyūt do.?}; gētā 'flock, herd' [ibid. 243]

Syrian Aramaic: gawā 'universitas, communitas; aedificia communia (monachorum)' [Brock 107]

Mandaic Aramaic: giuiata (pl. of giuta 'body, interior, inside, entrails, etc. - чушь!) 'bodies, hence congregation, company of people' [DM 89]

Arabic: ǯāwāyin- 'campement, tentes des troupes' [BK 1 360] (broken pl.; sing. not attested)

Epigraphic South Arabian: SAB gw-m, gwy 'community group' [SD 51] MIN gw (*gwy) 'groupe formant une communauté' [LM 37] QAT gw (*gwy) 'body, group' [Ricks 36]

Geʕez (Ethiopian): ge 'territory' [LGz 172]; cf. gogawa 'to be numerous, come in a large group' [LGz 185] and tagāwǝha 'to assemble, gather, accumulate' [LGz 207] with unexplained -h.

Amharic: ge 'country, town' [LGur 254]

Argobba: ge 'country, town' [LGur 254]

Harari: gē 'the city of Harar, city, side of' [LHar 66]

East Ethiopic: WOL ge, SEL gē 'country, land, village' [LGur 254]

Notes: Counter to [DRS 107] и [DK 149] (with another choice of examples and diff. interpretation) differs from SEM *gay/wVʔ- 'valley, depression, lowland': HBR gay(ʔ) 'valley' [KB 188], JUD gayyā 'glen, wady' [Ja 233]; ARB ǯaww-, pl. ǯiwāʔ- 'terrain déprimé, encaissé, fond de la vallée; champ, plaine', cf. ǯuwwat- 'creux dans la montagne' [BK 1 348]; ǯiwāʔ- (ǯwy) 'vallée, terrain encaissé', ǯawiyy- 'eau fétide; mauvais, qui ne convient pas à quelqu'un (pays, climat)' [ibid. 360]; ǯiyyat- (under ǯwy [ibid.] и ǯyʔ [ibid. 361]) 'mare d'eau stagnante et fétide qui s'amasse' MIN gwʔ 'carrière' [LM 37]

    gr. ἄεσα ep. Aor. (connected always with νύκτα) ` pass ', in addition present ἀέσκω, ἀέσκοντο; perhaps ἑστία f. `stove, hearth, altar', figurative `house, family etc.', with secondary ι Ionian ἱστίη, Aeolic Boeotian lokr. Doric Arcadian ἱστία through Assimilation that stressed ι of the second syllable, the absence of F perhaps through influence of ἵστημι; derivative from *u̯es-ti- ` staying, dwelling', also `belonging to home '; with unexplained a-vocalism (F)ἄστυ n. `town, city' (ἀστός ` town dweller ', ἀστεῖος ` urban ');

    Messapic vastei (Dative);

    Latin Vesta ` goddess of the hearth and its sacred fire ';

    Middle Irish fō(a)id ` spends the night (also `with a wife, woman'), remains, stays, wakes at night' (*u̯oseti), 3. Sg. preterit fīu (*u̯i-u̯ōs-t), 3. Pl. fēotar (*u̯i-u̯os-ont-r̥), verbal noun fess, feiss f. ` sleep, coitus, abode, residence', vowel gradation foss m. ` staying, rest ', i foss `at home ', fossad `tight, firm, steadfast; dwelling, abode, residence'; Welsh gwas ` homestead ', Middle Welsh gwest, kywest ` resting place ', gwest, cywestach `coitus', gwesti `dwelling', dirwest (*dī-ro-u̯es-t-) and darwest (*to-are-u̯es-t-) ` fast ';

Maybe alb. Geg me fjetë, Tosc fle ` sleep ' = Middle Irish fō(a)id ` sleeps ' [alb. -j-/-l- allophones]

Note:

Proto-Celtic: *westā 'food, feast' [Noun]

Old Irish: feis(s), fess [?ā f] 1. 'spending the night, sleeping', 2. 'feast, food, provisions'

Middle Welsh: gwest [m and f]; gwesti, gweston [p]

Middle Breton: Or-guest [PN] (OBret.)

Cornish: gwest 'lodging'

Proto-Indo-European: *wes- 'graze'

Page in Pokorny: 1171

IE cognates: Hitt. wesi- 'pasture', OHG wist 'food'

Maybe alb. Geg huej, tosc huaj ` foreign '

    Gothic wisan (1. Sg. preterit was) ` exist, abide, remain ', Old Icelandic vesa (later vera), Old English Old Saxon Old High German wesan (English preterit was), Old Frisian wesa ` exist, abide, remain ', Modern High German war, gewesen, Infin. `entity'; Gothic wists f. `entity', Old Icelandic vist, Old English Old High German wist `entity, abode, residence, existence ';

aisl. vǣrr ` peaceful, tranquil ' (or identical with the 2. part of ǫl-vǣrr, see above S. 1165; certainly here belongs herað-vǣrr ` entitled in the region '); Old Saxon werōn, Old High German weren ` endure, persist, continue ' (in addition Old High German wirig ` lasting, durable ', Modern High German lang-wierig) and Old Saxon warōn, Middle Low German waren ` endure '; maybe Gothic wis ` calm at sea ', if actually ` tranquility ');

    Tocharian A wṣeńńe ` lair ', waṣt, В ost `house', waṣamo `friend', Pl. waṣmoń, wsaṣṣäṃ ` dwells ';

Hittite (*ḫu̯eiš-) ḫu̯iš- ` live, remain alive, last, survive ', (*ḫu̯eiša-) ḫu̯iša- `mirror'.

References: WP. I 306 f., WH. II 773, Frisk 25, 173 f., 576 f., VendryJs RC. 35, 89 f., Loth RC. 38, 297, Ifor Williams BBCS. 2, 41 ff., R. A. Fowkes JC. stem 2, 1 f.

Page(s): 1170-1171


Root / lemma: u̯es-2 (*ḫau̯ḫes-2)

Meaning: to feast

Material: Old Indic ánu vāvasē ` has consumed ', vástōḥ ` before ravenousness', Avestan vastra ` mouth, muzzle', vāstrǝm `food', vāstar- ` herdsman, shepherd '; about Latin vēscor ` feed on| eat| enjoy ' see above S. 73; Middle Irish fess, feiss `food, eating' (*u̯es-tā), Old Irish fïach `raven' (*u̯esākos), out of it borrowed Welsh gwyach ` grebe, type of water bird '; Old Irish ban-[ḟ]ess ` wedding ' (`women's party '), Breton banves `festival', Welsh gwest `festival';

Gothic waila wisan `to feast, delight ', frawisan `consume', wizōn `indulge oneself', waila-wizns ` feast ', gawizneigs `being pleased ', Old English wesan `to feast' (only Beowulf 3115, Hs. weaxan); Old High German firwesan, Middle High German verwesen `consume'; Old Icelandic vist, Old English Old High German wist f. `dish, food'; in vowel gradation probably Old High German wastel (French gâteau) ` cake';

    Hittite u̯eši- `pasture', u̯ešii̯a- `graze, feed on growing grass; lead, rule '; u̯eštara- `herdsman, shepherd'.

Maybe alb. ushqim `food', ushqej `feed'.

References: WP. I 307 f., Vendryes RC. 35, 89 f., WH. II 769

See also: probably to u̯esu- `good'.

Page(s): 1171


Root / lemma: u̯es-3 (*ḫu̯es-3)

Meaning: wet

Material: Gr. ἐαρόν λουτῆρα, ἤ πρόχουν Hes., Old Thracian hεαρα; Umbrian vestikatu `libato ' (formation as Latin lectīca);

Maybe alb. vesë ` dew '

    Old High German wasal `rain', Old High German waso `lawn, clod of earth, pit, pothole', Modern High German Wasen `lawn', Old Saxon waso, Middle Low German wase `damp earth, slime, mud; clod of earth, lawn'; Middle Low German wasem m. ` steam, haze, mist'; Old English wōs n. ` dampness, juice, sap'; English ooze ` dampness, slime, mud', as verb `seep, ooze, leak out, spring up, bubble', Middle Low German wōs ` froth, foam, decoction, extract acquired by boiling, juice, sap', Old Danish Norwegian ōs ` plant juice ';

    presumably Avestan vaŋhu-tāt- f. `blood', vaŋhuϑwa- n. `Blutvergießen, bloody fight', vohuna- m. `blood' and Old Indic vásā, vasā́ `bacon, fat, lard ' (also vaśā inscribed, as váśa-m ` liquid fat');

    here with the meaning `male animal' (compare Latin verrēs etc.: u̯er-, u̯er-s- `damp'): Old Indic úṣṭra- m. ` buffalo, camel ', uṣṭár- ` plow bull ', Avestan uštrō m. ` camel ' (also in ZaraÞ-uštrō); Old Indic uṣṭā́ ` plow bull '.

References: WP. I 308, Trautmann 343, Mayrhofer 1, 113 f., Frisk 433.

Page(s): 1171-1172


Root / lemma: u̯es-4 (*ḫu̯es-4)

Meaning: to stick, pierce

Material: Old Indic nivāsita- ` kills ', nirvāsana-m ` the slaying, killing ', parivāsayati ` abscises all around, shears, cuts ' ; Old Irish fennaid ` oppresses, flays ' (*u̯es-nā-ti); (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), alb. usht ` ear of corn ';

Lithuanian usnìs `thistle, hawthorn', Latvian usna, ušna `thistle'; 

    about Church Slavic vъšь `louse' etc., see above S. 692 and Vasmer 1, 232 f.

Maybe alb. vesh, Pl. veshë ` ear, awn '.

Old High German ort `cusp, peak, point, edge ', Modern High German Ort `place' (` awl '), Old English ord `cusp, peak, beginning ', Old Icelandic oddr `cusp, peak', Old Germanic Osd-ulfus = Old Saxon Old English Ord-ulf (different above S. 237); [common Latin Germanic -s- > -r-].

References: WP. I 308 f.

Page(s): 1172


Root / lemma: u̯es-5 (*ḫau̯es-5)

Meaning: to dress, put on

Material:

Hittite: was(s)-, wes(s)- (I), wassija-, wessija- (I)  ' bekleiden, anziehen '  (Friedrich 248)

Tokharian: A, B wäs-  ' be dressed, get dressed '  (Adams 597)

Old Indian: váste `to put on, wear ' ; vásana- n. `cloth, dress ' ; vásman- n. `cover, garment ' ; vastra- n. `cloth, dress, garment ' 

Avestan: vastē `to put on, wear ' , vaŋhaiti `kleidet sich, zieht an ' , vaŋhana- n. `Gewand ' , vastra- n. `Kleidung ' 

Armenian: *wesnu-: z-genum `ziehe mich an ' , z-gest (tu-St.) `Kleidung ' 

Old Greek: hénnümi, ion. hẹ̄́nümi, aor. hés(s)a `kleiden ' , med. `sich kleiden ' ; ésthos n. `Kleidung ' ; esthǟ́s, gen. -ǟ^tos `id. ' ; heanó-s `weiblicche Gewand ' ; ion., att. hẹ̄^ma, dor. wē^ma, lesb. wémma `id. ' ; hīmátio-n `Kleid, Mantel ' 

Germanic: *wís-ja-/wiz-já- vb., *was-t-il-a- n., *wis-tr-ō f., *was-t-i- c., *waz-jōn- f., *waz-já- n., m., *wiz-ṓ f., *was-t-iō f.

Latin: vestis, -is f. `Kleid, Gewand ' 

Albanian: veš `ich kleide an ' , višem `kleide mich an ' 

 

Old Indic vástē ` dresses, wears ', Avestan vaste ds. (compare the unthematic gr. ἕσσαι, -ἕσται), vaŋhaiti ds.; Old Indic vásana-, Avestan vaŋhana- n. ` garment '; Old Indic vásman- n. `cover' (= εἷμα); vastra-, Avestan vastra- n. ` clothing ' (: gr. Fέστρα, Middle High German wester?);

    Armenian z-genum ` wear, cover oneself ' (*u̯es-nu- = ἕννυμι), z-gest ` clothing ' (-tu-stem);

    gr. ἕννῡμι, Ionian εἵνῡμι, Aor. ἕσ(σ)αι ` dress ', Med. ` put on clothes ', athemat. Perf. εἷμαι (*Fέσ-μαι) 3. Sg. ἐπί-εσται (Herod.); ἔσθος n. ` clothing ' (-dhes-stem), ἐσθής, -ῆτος ds. (*Fεσ[το-]τᾱτ-ς with θ from ἔσθος); ἑανός ` feminine garment ' (Old Indic vásana-m); Ionian Attic εἷμα, Doric Fῆμα, Lesbian Fέμμα `dress' (: Old Indic vás-man-); Hes. γῆμα ἱμάτιον, εὐ-, κακο, δυσ-είμων ` well, badly dressed ', with initial grade of Itazismus  ἱ̄μάτιον `dress, mantle'; Doric Fέστρα (γέστρα στολή Hes.), ἐφεστρίς f. ` warm winter garment, cloak, soldier's coat ';

    alb. vesh `I dress ', vishem `I get dressed ';

    Latin vestis ` garment| clothing| blanket; clothes; robe ', vestiō, -īre ` clothe ' (compare γεστία ἔνδυσις Hes.);

    Gothic wasjan, Old High German werian, Old Icelandic veria ` dress ', Old English werian `ds., wear clothes, carry clothes '; Gothic wasti f. `dress'; Middle High German wester (see above) ` christening dress ' (but Old High German early wastibarn, previously by Notker westerwât); Old Icelandic vesl n. `dress' (*wesala-), ver ` coating, layer ' (*waza-);

    Hittite u̯aš-, u̯eš-, Luvian u̯aš(š)- ` dress, lure, tempt '; Tocharian В wastsi, wästsi `dress' (neologism); A wsāl ds.;

References: WP. I 309, WH. II 775 f., Frisk 521 f.

Page(s): 1172-1173


Root / lemma: u̯es-no- (*ḫau̯es-no-)

Meaning: price

Material:

e- and o-vocalism:

Old Indic vasná- m. ` purchase price', n. `earnings', vasnayati ` bargains '; Armenian gin ` purchase price'; gr. hom. ὦνος ` purchase price', Lesbian ὄννᾱ (*u̯osnā), Ionian Attic ὠνή ` purchase', ὠνέομαι ` buy ', gort. ὠνῆν ` sell '; Latin vēnus (only in Akk. vēnum, Dative vēno, later vēnui) `sale' (vendō, -dere ` sell ' is *vēnom + dō, vēneō `be sold ' = *vēnom + eō); Marrucinian eituam venalinam `pecuniam venaliciam ' (?) must be a loanword from Latin, because sn Marrucinian would not produce n; Old Russian věno `dowry'; Hittite uššaniya- ` sell ' (compare above u̯aš- `buy').

References: WP. I 311 f., WH. II 753 f., Vasmer 1, 182 f.

See also: u̯es-8

Page(s): 1173


Root / lemma: u̯es-7 (*ḫau̯es-7)

Meaning: to turn, wind

Material: Old Indic vēdá- m. ` hassock, clump of grass ' (*u̯ozdos); uṣṇíhā f. ` nape ', uṣṇī́ṣa- m. `head fascia' (*us-nī̆- ` gyration '); Swedish, Norwegian vase ` foliage bundle ', vasa ` entangle, maunder, drivel ', Old Icelandic vasask `be entangled ', Middle Low German Middle English wase `bundle'.

References: WP. I 309 f., Mayrhofer 1, 114.

Page(s): 1173


Root / lemma: u̯es-8 (*ḫau̯es-)

Meaning: to buy, sell

Material: Hittite u̯aš-, u̯ašii̯a- `buy, acquire', ušsanii̯a- ` sell ', u̯eššia- ` purchase price'; perhaps Latin vīlis (*u̯es-li-) ` cheap| common| mean| worthless '.

References: WP. I 312, WH. II 753 f., Szemerényi Arch. Lingunder 6, 36

See also: u̯es-no-

Page(s): 1173


Root / lemma: u̯es-9 (*ḫau̯es-)

Meaning: ` gleam, shine '

See also: see above S. 86 f. (au̯es-).

Page(s): 1173


Root / lemma: u̯esperos (u̯ekeros) (*ḫau̯ekkʷero)

Meaning: evening

Material: Gr. ἕσπερος m. `evening, vespertine ', ἑσπέρα f. `evening', ἑσπέριος, ἑσπερινός ` vespertine '; Latin vesper, -eris and -eri ` evening; evening star; west ', vespera ` evening, eventide ' (out of it Old Irish fescor, Middle Welsh gosper, gosber); probably to Modern High German West (above S. 73);

against it Baltic- Slavic *u̯ekera- m. `evening': Lithuanian vãkaras `evening' (Pl. vakaraĩ ` west ', vakarų̃ vė́jas ` west wind '), Latvian vakars `evening', Old Church Slavic veèerъ ds., wherefore Adv. Old Church Slavic vьèera ` yesterday ' etc., basic meaning perhaps ` darkness', to Lithuanian úkanas `cloudy', ùnkna `shadow', Latin umbra (*unksrā) ` shade; ghost; shadow';

Maybe zero grade alb. Geg (*umbra-) mbramë ` yesterday night', mbramje ` evening, darkness' Latin loanword.

    Welsh ucher `evening' from Indo Germanic *u̯oik̂sero- (Pokorny ZcP. 15, 377); Armenian gišer `night' from *u̯oik̂ero-, after Petersson Heteroklisie 231 ff. to root u̯eik̂- `humid, wet' (?) in Old Indic vēśantá- m. `pond, pool' (compare FlN Lithuanian Viešintà, Viešmuõ etc.), Old Icelandic veig ` intoxicating drink ', Latvian vieksts ` vortices '.

References: WP. I 311, WH. II 770 f., 814 f., Trautmann 348, Vasmer 1, 196, Frisk 575; the variation u̯esperos : u̯ekeros perhaps after Specht Indo Germanic Dekl. 119 to describe taboo; compare also Havers Sprachtabu 125, 178.

 

Page(s): 1173-1174


Root / lemma: u̯es-r̥ (*ḫ2au̯ḫ1es-)

Meaning: spring, prime of the year

Note:

Root / lemma: u̯es-r̥ (*ḫ2au̯ḫ1es-): spring, derived from Root / lemma: au̯es- (*ḫ2au̯ḫ1es-): to shine; gold, dawn, aurora etc.

Grammatical information: Gen. u̯es-n-es

Note: (Latin-Germanic u̯ēr after *i̯ēr `year')

Material:

In a-grade:

Old Indic vasan-tá- m. (*u̯es-en-to-) ` spring ', vasantā `in spring ' (extended from *vasan-); vasar-hán ` striking early ', vāsará- ` matutinal ';

    Avestan vaŋri Locative `in spring ' (*vasri for older *vasar, compare New Persian bahār with quality of the spring from *vāhar, compare Old Persian ϑūra-vāhara-);

Alb. behar ` spring ' loanword from Turkish bahar ` spring '.

    Armenian garun (*u̯esr-), Gen. garnan ` spring ';

In e-grade:

    gr. ἔαρ, ἔαρος, also ἦρος, ἦρι with new Nom. ἦρ; γέαρ Hes. (*Fεσαρ) ` spring ', ἐαρινός ` belonging to the spring ';

    Latin vēr, vēris n. ` spring ', vernus (*u̯erinos) ` of spring| vernal ';

Maybe alb. vera `summer' a Latin loanword, [Latin primavera springtime (f. use as fem. sing. of L prima vera pl. primum ver first or earliest spring)], alb. [pranë = `near' + vera = `summer'] > alb. pranvera `spring, early summer'.

    Old Irish errach (from *ferrach) ` spring ' (*u̯esr-āko-); Old Welsh guiannuin `in the spring ' (*u̯es-n̥t-eino-), but Middle Welsh gwaeanhwyn, Modern Welsh gwanwyn places ahead *gwaeant from *u̯es-n̥to-; Old Cornish guaintoin ` spring ';

    Lithuanian vãsara and vasarà, Latvian vasara `summer' (*u̯esera-?);

    Old Church Slavic vesna ` spring '; *u̯eserinios ` of spring ' in Lithuanian vasarìnis `summery', Latvian vasarińi m. Pl. ` summer grain ', compare Russian-Church Slavic vesnьnyj, Russian vesénnij `of spring-';

In a-grade:

   about (*ḫau̯uesa) Hittite ḫamešḫ(a)-, ḫamešḫant- ` spring ' [common Lithuanian Hittite Albanian -u̯- > -m- shift see Lithuanian mẽdžias `tree' Root / lemma: u̯idhu- : tree : see Hittite ḫamešḫ(a)- Root / lemma: u̯es-r̥ : spring];

 

s. A. Goetze Lg. 27, 471, 51, 467 ff., F. Sommer M. stem z. Spr. 4, 7, G. R. Solta, S.-Ber. österr. Akad., Bd. 232, 1., 16 f.; {common Hittite suffix (-ḫ2an-) -ḫant-}

References: WP. I 301, WH. II 755, Trautmann 356, Vasmer 1, 192, Frisk 432 f., 605 f.

See also: probably to au̯es- `gleam, shine', above S. 86 f.

Page(s): 1174


Root / lemma: u̯et- (*ḫu̯et-)

Meaning: year

Material:

Hittite: witt- c.  ' Jahr '  (Friedrich 255)

Old Indian: vatsá-, vatsará- m. `year ' , par-ut `last year ' 

Armenian: heru `im vergangenen Jahre ' 

Old Greek: étos n., dial. wétos `Jahr ' , ion., att. pérüsi(n), dor. pérüti(n) `im vorigen Jahre ' 

Slavic: *vetъxъ(jь), *vьtъxъ

Baltic: *wet-uš-a- adj.

Germanic: *fir-d=

Latin: vetus, gen. -eris `alt ' , vetustus `id. ' , vetulus `der Alte ' 

Celtic: OIr on hurid `ab anno priore ' , Ir in-uraidh `im vergangenen Jahre ' 

Albanian: vjet Jahr

 

Old Indic vatsá, vatsará- m. `year', vatsá- m. ` yearling, calf, cattle', vatsaká- m. ` little calf ', sa-vātárāu N. Du. f. ` having the same calf '; sogd. wtšnyy (leg. wat(u)šanē) `old';

    gr. Fέτος, ἔτος n. `year', διετής ` biennial, two-year-old ', ἐτήσιος ` annually, yearly', Attic εἶς νέωτα, delph. ἐννέωτα ` for the next year ' (haplology from *νεFώ-Fετα, s. also ἐπηετανός Frisk 534, οἰετέας J. B. Hofmann Gr. etym. WB. 227, σῆτες above S. 609); gr. ἔτελον, ἔταλον ` yearling of domestic animals ' (: Latin vitulus, see below);

    alb. vit, Pl. vjet `year', parvjet ` two years ago ', vjetë f. `calf', vitsh, viç `calf' (from *u̯eteso-, compare Latin veterīnus); Messapic atavetes = αυτόετες `of the same year'; (common alb. Slavic j infix)

Comment:

Alb. (*viet) vit, Pl. vjet `year' : Hittite witt- `year'; alb. vjetër `old' : Latin vetus, -eris `old'.

Latin vetus, -eris ` ancients (pl.)| men of old| forefathers ' (similar gr. ἔτος; Genet. Latin veteris excludes close connection with Old Lithuanian vetušas), vetustus ` ancient| old established; long-established ' (probably from *u̯etosto-s `aged', formation as onustus : onus), vetulus ` elderly| aging ', Oscan Vezkeí `*Vetusco', god's name; Latin veterīnus ` beast of burden '; vitulus `calf' = Umbrian vitluf `vitulōs ' (Italian i instead of e presumably not through borrowing from a close determined Indo Germanic language of Italy); Oscan Viteliú ` Italy ', from which through Italian-gr. mediation Latin Italia, actually ` the land of Italī' (`young bull ', after the bull god Mārs);

    Middle Irish feis, Cornish guis, Old Breton guis `sow' (*u̯et-si-);

    Gothic wiÞrus `one year old lamb', Old Icelandic veðr, Old High German widar `aries, ram' (compare above Old Indic sa-vātárāu);

    Old Church Slavic vetъchъ `old', Old Lithuanian vetušas `old';

    a Locative or possibly Akk. Sg. of zero grade stem ut- lies in Old Indic par-út `in earlier years', Armenian heru, gr. πέρυσι, Doric πέρυτι, Old Icelandic fjorð, Middle High German vert ds., Old Irish ónn-urid `ab anno priore' (vowel earrangement?);

Maybe alb. herët `early' Armenian heru `in earlier years' (common alb. Armenian ph h shfit)

    Hittite witt- `year', Hieroglyphic-Hittite usa-, Luvian ušša ds.

References: WP. I 251, WH. I 723, II 776 ff., 807, Trautmann 365, Vasmer 1, 194, O. Szemerényi ZDMG. 101, 204 f., Word 8, 50, Frisk 534, 579 f., 583 f., Kronasser compare sound- under Formenlehre 126 A. 20.

Page(s): 1175


Root / lemma: u̯ē̆-1 (*ḫu̯ē̆-)

Meaning: we

Grammatical information: u̯ei- (Plural)

Material: Nom. 1. Dual Old Indic vā́m (= vā-am, Indo Germanic *-om), Avestan vā, Gothic wit, Old Icelandic vit, Old English wit, Old Church Slavic vě, Lithuanian vè-du (*u̯e-du̯ō) ` we both';

    Nom. 1. Pl. Old Indic vay-ám, Avestan vaēm (Indo Germanic *-om), Gothic weis, Old High German wir, Old Icelandic vēr, Old English wē̆ etc., Hittite u̯ēs (*u̯ei̯-es), Tocharian В wes, A was ` we '.

References: WP. I 220, Trautmann 344, Vasmer 1, 175 f., Liebert, Indo Germanic Personalpron. 102 ff.

Page(s): 1114


Root / lemma: u̯ē-3, u̯ǝ- (*ḫu̯ē-)

Meaning: ` blow, wave, whiffle '

See also: see above S. 82 ff. (au̯e-); in the same place u̯ē-lo-, u̯e-s-, u̯et- ds.

Page(s): 1114


Root / lemma: u̯ēp- : u̯ǝp- (*ḫu̯ekʷ-)

Meaning: to blow; to soar

Material: Falls the Old Indic causative vāpayati `makes blow' not as a secondary formation vāti ` blows ' (above S. 82), but is derived from a stem *u̯ēp-, it can be a vowel gradation form to Latin vapor (old vapōs) `vapor, heat' (incorrect about vapor above S. 596), wherefore still vappa, vapiō ` wine afflicted by a film of mould'.

Maybe alb. vapa `summer heat'

References: WP. I 379 f., WH. II 732 f.

Page(s): 1149-1150


Root / lemma: u̯ē̆s-6 (*ḫu̯ē̆s-)

Meaning: ` you '

See also: see above S. 514 (i̯u-). 

Page(s): 1173


Root / lemma: u̯ē̆su- (*su̯ē̆su-)

Meaning: good

Note:

Root / lemma: u̯ē̆su- : good derived from an expressive Root / lemma: su-, sū- : well, good

Material: Old Indic vásu- `good' (in addition vasvī `night'), vásu n. `blessing, possession, property, richness ' (the Subst. after pronunciation and vowel gradation of the original), Avestan vaŋhu-, vohu ds., Old Indic vasīyān `better', vasiṣṭha- `best', Avestan vahyā̊, vahištō ds.; Old Illyrian Ves-cleves, compare Old Indic vásu-śravas-;

Germanic in proper name, e.g. Wisu-rīh, Wisu -mār, also Wisi-Gothae; gall. in proper name as Bello- vesus, Sigo-vesus, Vesu-avus, Old Irish *feb (covered only in the case oblique, e.g. Dative Sg. feib) ` excellence ' from *u̯esu̯-ā, febas ` excellence ', *febtu, Gen. febtad gl. ` nature; substance| resources| wealth '; vowel gradation Old Irish fō `good, goodness; good, benefit, asset ' (*u̯osu-); besides *u̯ēsu- in Irish fiu ` dignified, honorable ', Welsh gwiw ds., Breton gwiou `cheerful', gall. Uīsu-rīx; about u̯ēsu- in asian. Sprachen s. Bossert Mitteil. Inst. Orientf. 2, 78 ff.;

    besides eus- (with metathesis as in gr. εὖρος from Fερος) in:

    Gothic (*hu̯isiza) iusiza `better', (*hu̯isila) iusila ` recovery, relief ' (after Wissmann, D. ält. Postverb. d. Germanic 72 ff. post-verbal to (*hu̯isilon) *iusilon, as inilo `apology, excuse, alleged reason ' to (*hu̯inilon) *inilon); Old Church Slavic unje `better' (comparative to an *uno- from *eus-no-); [common alb. Slavic -sn- > -n- shift]

    Illyrian PN Veselia `luck| good fortune; happiness'; Latvian vęsęls `fit, healthy, unhurt, unbroken, unmarred, unscathed, undamaged '; Old Church Slavic veselъ, Czech veselý etc. `cheerful';

    Tocharian A wṣe, В yaṣi `night' as *u̯esū ` the good '.

References: WP. I 311, Vasmer 1, 191 f., Frisk 594 f.

See also: probably to u̯es-2.

Page(s): 1174-1175


Root / lemma: u̯ǝg- : u̯āg- (*ḫu̯egh-)

Meaning: to be bent

Material: Latin vagor, -āri ` wander| roam ', vagus ` roving| wandering '; Old Irish fān m. `slope, cavity; slantwise' (*u̯āg-no-); Old Welsh guoin, Welsh gwaun `lowland, depression, meadow', Cornish goen, goon, gon, Breton geun, yeun `marshland' (*u̯āgnā).

References: WP. I 218, WH. I 268, II 726, Loth RC 36, 181;

See also: compare u̯ā-, u̯ek-, u̯ǝk-, u̯eng(h)-, u̯enk-.

Page(s): 1120


Root / lemma: u̯ǝk- (: *u̯āk-) (*ḫu̯ek-)

Meaning: to be bent

Material: Latin vacillō, -āre `wobble, sway, waver, stagger| totter; be in a weak condition '; abrit. VN Ούακο-μάγοι ` the inhabitants of the crooked fields ', Welsh gwaeth (*u̯ǝk-to-) comparative ` worse ' (superlative gwaethaf ` the worst '), Cornish gweth, Middle Breton goaz.

References: WP. I 218, WH. I 268, II 723 ff.;

See also: s. also u̯ā-, u̯ǝg- etc.

Page(s): 1135


Root / lemma: u̯idhu- (*ḫu̯eiĝhu-)

Meaning: tree

Note:

Root / lemma: u̯idhu- (*ḫu̯eiĝhu-): `tree' derived from alb.-Illyrian vith, Gen. vidh `elm tree' of Root / lemma: u̯inĝ- and u̯eiĝ- (u̯iĝ-?) : `elm'; common alb. -ĝ- > -d-.

Material: Old Irish fid, Gen. fedo `tree, wood, forest', Welsh gwŷdd (Sg. gwydden), Old Cornish guiden, br. gwez (Sg. gwezenn) ds., also in Welsh syb-wydd `pine' (`resinous tree ') = Cornish sib-uit; gall. VN Uidu-casses; Old Icelandic viðr, Gen. viðar m. `wood, forest, tree', Old English widu, wudu m. ds., Old High German witu, wito `wood';

    perhaps as ` barrier, distinguishing border wood between settlements ' to *u̯eidh- ` distinguish, share, divide' and then formally = Old Indic vidhú- `is isolated, solitary ', Lithuanian vidùs ` center, the interior'; compare above S. 707 Lithuanian mẽdžias `tree' [common Lithuanian Hittite Albanian -u̯- > -m- shift see Hittite ḫamešḫ(a))- Root / lemma: u̯es-r̥ : spring: see alb. (*u̯elmna) mjellma, Gen mjellme ` swan ' Root / lemma: albho-

: `white'];

   connection with Irish fīad `wild', fīadach ` hunt', Welsh gŵydd `wild', Old Cornish guit-fil `wild| savage; uncivilized; untamed; fierce', Breton gouez `wild' similar to Latin silvāticus `wild' : silva `wood| forest', Lithuanian medìnis `wild', medžiõklė ` hunt' : mẽdis `tree'.

*u̯ei-t- in Old High German weida, Old English wāð, Old Icelandic veiðr ` hunt, fishing' (:*u̯ei-3) placed to cover root form *u̯ei-d(h)- .

References: WP. I 314, 228 ff.

Page(s): 1177


Root / lemma: u̯inĝ- and u̯eiĝ- (u̯iĝ-?)

Meaning: elm

Material: With nasalization Balto Slavic group:

Serbian vêz (Gen. vèza), Russian vjazъ, poln. wiąz `Ulmus campestris' (proto Slavic *vęzъ); Lithuanian vìnkšna, Latvian vîksna ds. (also Old Prussian wimino `elm', read wincsno) from *u̯inĝ-snā (Suff. as in Lithuanian glúosna ` willow ');

   nasalized Old English wīc, wīce, English witch, Low German wīke `elm';

    likewise u̯inĝ- as u̯iĝ- can be in alb. vith, Gen. vidh `elm' and in Kurdish viz `a kind of elm'; the relationship of the nasalized against unnasalized form is still to be cleared. (common alb. Celtic -k > -th, -g > -dh > Slavic Iranian z-)

References: WP. I 314, Specht Indo Germanic Dekl. 59 f., Trautmann 360, Vasmer 1, 244, Petersson Heteroklisie 56 f.

Page(s): 1177


Root / lemma: u̯i̯eth-, u̯ith-

Meaning: to shake

Material: Old Indic vyáthatē ` sways, reels, staggers, fails, goes crookedly, approaches the dragnet, shrugs, jerks, retreats ', vithurá- ` fluctuating, deficient'; Gothic wiÞōn `shake'; relationship to *u̯ei-1 `turn' is likely.

Maybe alb. vithe ` buttocks, hips '.

References: WP. I 318, Kuiper Nasalpräs. 53, Wackernagel-Debrunner II 2, 487.

Page(s): 1178


Root / lemma: u̯ī̆ks- (*ḫau̯ī̆ks-)

Meaning: ` mistletoe and other glue delivering trees '

Note: (u̯ī̆sk-?)

See also: s. S. 1134 (u̯eis-).

Page(s): 1177


Root / lemma: u̯ī-k̂m̥t-ī (*ḫau̯ī-k̂m̥t-ī)

Meaning: twenty

Note: actually Dual `two decades ' (to Indo Germanic u̯ī̆- `two' and dk̂m̥t-, above S. 192)

Material:

Old Indic viṁśatí-, Avestan vīsaiti, osset. insäi, Armenian k`san, gr. εἴκοσι, Doric Fίκατι, hom. ἐείκοσι for ἐ(F)ί̄κοσι, alb. zet [common Celtic abbreviation]

Latin vīginti (see above S. 192), Old Irish fiche, Gen. fichet (*u̯ik̂ṃt-s, -os), Old Welsh uceint (instead of *gwycaint abstracted from the compound *dou-viceint, Welsh deugaint `40'), Cornish ugans; Tocharian A wiki, В ikǝ.

References: WP. I 313, Wackernagel-Debrunner 3, 366 f., WH. II 788 f., Frisk 453 f.

Page(s): 1177


Root / lemma: u̯ī̆-1 (*ḫau̯ī̆-)

Meaning: separate from; both, two

Note: (see u̯ī-k̂m̥t-ī)

Material:

Old Indic ví- `apart', Avestan vī̆- ` asunder; aside, apart, separated from; contrary to, as opposed to; through and through, completely ' (also viš-: viš-pat- ` leave, depart, pass over'); Old Indic viṣu- ` nach verschiedenen Seiten ' viṣuṇa- ` various, heterogenous ', viṣu-rūpa- `verschiedengestaltig ' , viṣuva- n. ` equinox ', viṣuvant- ` in der Mitte befindlich, nach beiden Seiten gleich ', viṣv-añc- ` nach beiden (allen) Seiten gewandt, auseinandergehend ', Old Indic viṣva-dryan̄k ` going in all directions ', Avestan višpaϑa Adv. ` all around, everywhere '

 

(*u̯isu- and *u̯isu̯o-; besides *u̯iso- in:) Lithuanian vìsas, Latvian viss, Old Prussian wissa- `all, everything '; Old Church Slavic vьsь ` all, completely, whole'; with the same meaning `all' from ` departed in all directions, extensively ' and Indo Germanic k̂-suffix: Old Indic víśva- ` each, every, all', Avestan vī̆spa-, Old Persian vispa- `ds.'; Sg. also `whole' (*u̯ik̂u̯o-; out of it also Old Persian visa- with regular southwest - development from -śv-);

    to stem *u̯isu-, u̯isu̯o- presumably also gr. FίσFος, ἴσος ` alike ' (for that on the other hand derivation is considered from *u̯idsu̯os to *u̯eid- ` behold, see ');

    Latin vitium `fault, error, disability, damage, fault| vice| crime| sin; defect ' as *u̯i-ti-om `* deviation '; vituperō, -āre ` find fault with| blame| reproach| disparage| scold| censure ' (vitium + parāre); in addition Latin vitilīgō f. ` skin rash, skin disease causing smooth white patches on body '.

    comparative *u̯itero-: Old Indic vítara- ` leading further ', vitarám `wider, further', Avestan vītarǝm ` sideways, sidelong ', vītara- `the further, later ', ōiϑra (i.e. viϑra) Adv. ` particularly, specially, peculiarly, separately, extra, notably, apart, separated', Gothic wiÞra Adv., preposition m. Akk. ` against, contrary to, towards, before ', Old Icelandic viðr Adv., preposition m. Dative Akk. ` against, contrary to, with, by' (also við after Paaren as norðr : norð), Old English wið Adv. and preposition m. Gen. Dative Akk. ` against, towards, contrary to, along, with',

wiðer- in compounds, Old High German widar Adv. ` against, back, again ', preposition m. Dative Akk. ` against, towards, contrary to '; Latin perhaps vītricus ` stepfather ', originally `the second ', or ` the more distant father ' (however, Old High German entrig, which at the only place where it happens (11. Jh.), translated ` beyond the Tiber ', will belong rather to enont `beyond'); Old Church Slavic vъtorъ ` second/further/next/other/latter ' (from *vьtorъ).

Maybe:

Lycian: Mil. uwedr(i)-

Meaning: `all'

Attestations: uwedri d 54; uwedriz d 14; 55,5; uwedris c 35; uwadra d 34 (borrowing from Lycian)

Commentary: = Lyc. huwedr(i)-.

Lycian: huwedr(i)-

Meaning: `all'

Attestations: NPlC huwedri 57,9; 59,3; 83,16; 88,5.6; 93,3; 95,3*; 118,3; 150,8; N306,4; N309c,11*

   APlC huwedris N325,9*

Commentary: For derivation from *huwadar = CLuv. šuwatar `fullness' see Starke, StBoT 31.467ff, but pl. uwadra in Mil. borr. precludes stem *huwedrije-. Rather 2ary deriv. via "i-motion".

References: WP. I 312 f., WH. II 80, 808, Vasmer 1, 192 f., 237, Trautmann 362 f.

Page(s): 1175-1176


Root / lemma: u̯ī̆-2, u̯oi- (*ḫau̯ī̆-sk)

Meaning: expr. root

Material:

Gr. (*u̯ī̆-ska) ἰά̄, Ionian ἰή f. `shout, call, scream' (Fιά:), (*FἰαFῖ) ἰαῖ, ἰ̄ή ` exclamation of joy or pain ', hom. (F)ἰόμωροι epithet of the Argiver (` βοην ἀγαθοί '); (*FἰήFιος) ἰήιος epithet of Apollo (which one called: ἰη παιών), hence perhaps (*FἰάFονες) ᾽ΙάFονες, ῎Iωνες ` Ionian ' as ` admirer of Apollo '; (*FἰήFιος) ἰήιος or ἰά̄- caller (? Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 80);

 

Old English wī (besides weg, wei, wā) ` woe, oh'; on grounds of *u̯ī-to- ` rejoicing ' here Lithuanian vyturỹs ` lark ' and probably Latin vītulor ` jubilate, cheer, begin singing a victory song or hymn of praise, song of praise, be cheerful'; Old Russian viskati ` neigh ', visnǫti ` mutter| murmur ', Russian dial. višèatь, poln. wiskać, wiszczeć ` whistle loudly '; Russian vizg ` whining', vizžátь ` whimper '.

Maybe in -l- suffix in alb. fishkëllej ` whistle '.

References: WP. I 312, 527, WH. II 807, Holthausen Ae. etym. Wb. 392, Vasmer 1, 199.

Page(s): 1176


Root / lemma: u̯ī̆ro-s (*ḫau̯eir-)

Meaning: man; warrior

Material: With ī: Old Indic vīrá-, Avestan vīra- `man, husband, hero ', Umbrian Akk. Pl. n. u(e)iro ` mancipia ', Volscan Abl. Sg. couehriu `*coviriō, contiōne ', Lithuanian výras, Latvian wîrs, Old Prussian wijrs `man, husband '; skyth. οἰόρ ` ἄνδρα ' (Herod. 4, 110), more properly οἰρο- = vīro-; Old Indic virapśá- from *vīra-pśv-a- (: Avestan pasu vīra) `people and cattle', compare Umbrian ueiro pequo ds.

    With ĭ: Latin vir ` man; husband; hero; person of courage| honor| and nobility ', in the old language also the unique word for ` husband ', wherefore virāgō ` manlike virgin, heroine ', virtus ` strength/power; courage/bravery; worth/manliness/virtue/character/excellence ', Old Irish fer `man', Welsh etc. gwr, Pl. gwyr (to which the Sg. gwr is formed analogically).

In a- gradation:

Maybe alb. (*varga) Geg varza, Tosc vajzë ` (*manlike virgin), girl ' [in alb. blood feuds a girl could be dressed like a man and demand blood revenge]

Gothic waír, Old Icelandic verr, Old High German Old Saxon Old English wer `man', Tocharian A wir ` young '; Modern High German Werwolf; probably to Latin vīs ` power ' etc., *u̯ei- ` auf etwas losgehen ', s. d.

References: WP. I 314 f., WH. II 796 f., Trautmann 360, W. Schulze Kl. Schr. 398, Untermann, IF. 62, 127.

Page(s): 1177-1178


Root / lemma: u̯lek-, u̯l̥k-

Meaning: to shine; fiery

Note:

It derived from Root / lemma: se- : `reflexive pronoun' + lek `shape, apparition'.

Material:

perhaps to gr. ἄFλαξ ἀβλάξ ` bright, brilliant, radiant ' (whether (*Fλαμπρῶς) λαμπρῶς Hes. `bright, brilliant, radiant '); incredible ἠλέκτωρ `gleaming, sun', ἤλεκτρον ` mixture of gold and silver, amber ';

Old Indic ulkā́, ulkuṣī `meteor',

Tocharian AB (*vlek) lek `shape, apparition'.

References: WP. I 321, J. B. Hofmann Etymol. gr. Wb. 106, Frisk 629, Mayrhofer 1, 112.

Page(s): 1178


Root / lemma: u̯l̥kʷ-os

Meaning: wolf

Note:

Root / lemma: u̯l̥kʷ-os : `wolf' derived from an extention of Root / lemma: u̯lek-, u̯l̥k- : `to shine; fiery' [similarity of sparking beastly eyes in the dark]

Material:

Old Indic vŕ̥ka- m. `wolf', vr̥kīḥ ` she-wolf ', vr̥káti- `ein Wölfischer ', vr̥kāyú- `mad, wicked, evil, bloodthirsty '; Avestan vǝhrka- `wolf (renamed Fem. vǝhrka); gr. λύκος (renamed Fem. λύκαινα); Latin lupus (Sabinian loanword); Gothic wulfs, Old Icelandic ulfr, Old English Old Saxon wulf, Old High German wolf `wolf', fem. Old High German wulpa, Middle High German wülpe, Old Icelandic ylgr (from *wulgis, Indo Germanic *u̯lkʷī); Lithuanian vil̃kas, Latvian vìlks, Old Prussian wilkis, Old Church Slavic vlьkъ ds.; fem. Lithuanian vìlkė, Slavic vъlèi-ca in Serbian vùèica, Russian volèíca;

Note:

alb. definite nouns predates indefinite ones: m. alb. Geg [indefinite] ulk < [definite] ulku `wolf' derived form ulkos = Ligurian MN Ulkos = m. gr. λύκος `wolf' [common alb. -o- > -u- shift], later f. alb. (*ulcoina) ulkonjë < ulkonja `she-wolf ' = Fem. gr λύκαινα `she-wolf ' = abrit. PN Ulcagnus = Swedish varghona, varginna, vargböna, varghona, varginna, vargböna ` she-wolf '.

The name Ligurian derived from Greek reading of earlier ylgurian, ilgurian = Old Icelandic ylgr [common Celtic Illyrian -k > -g shift : common Old Icelandic illyrian -r- suffix] hence Ligurian meant `wolf people' similar to Dacian `wolf people' a race whose ancestor was a she-wolf = a belief held also by Romans]

    with double zero grade (?): alb. (*u̯ulk) ulk `wolf' [common alb. Old Indic u̯- > u shift], Ligurian MN Ulkos, Illyrian PN Ulcudius, Ulcirus mons, PN Ουλκίνιον, Pannonian Ulcisia castra; abrit. PN Ulcagnus, Proto Irish (Ogam) Gen. Ulccagni = Old Irish PN Olcán, also also Old Irish olc, Gen. uilc `mad, wicked, evil', as Subst. m. ` transgressor, wrongdoer ', n. `evil, harm, evil, wickedness ' (see307, 310); compare also päon. MN Λυππειος, Λυκκειος could point to old Labiovelar; Szemerényi (KZ. 71, 199 ff.) places Illyrian ulk- from *u̯ulk-, Indo Germanic *u̯l̥kʷ- ; then Celtic ulko- must be looked  as Illyrian loanword; conspicuous is Latin PN Vlp(ius) Lupio (CIR 130);

   it would be possible also, that Latin lupus `wolf' and Germanic *wulfaz with Indo Germanic p to Old Indic lopāśa- m. `jackal, fox', Avestan raopi-, Middle Persian ropas etc. belongs, or at least is influenced from such a root (see above S. 690, where also Gall. PN Λούερνιος, abrit. Gen. Lovernii, Welsh llywarn, Old Cornish louuern, Modern Breton louarn `fox', Indo Germanic *louperno-s is affixed).

References: WP. I 316 f., WH. II 836 f., Trautmann 359, Vasmer 1, 218, 223 f.; various distorted taboo; Labiovelar rejected W. Wissmann in D. Wb. 14, 2, 1242.

Page(s): 1178-1179


Root / lemma: u̯l̥p-, lup-

Meaning: a kind of carnivore (fox, wolf)

Note:

Root / lemma: u̯l̥p-, lup- (*ḫau̯lkʷ-): `a kind of carnivore (fox, wolf)' derived from Root / lemma: u̯l̥kʷ-os (*ḫau̯lkʷ-): `wolf' [common Latin kʷ- > p-].

Note: older ē-stem

Material:

Hittite: {ulippana- - sorce?}

Other Iranian: MPers gurpak, NPers. gurba  ' Hauskatze ' 

Baltic: *wilp-iè-ia- m.

Germanic: *wúlf-a- m.; *wulb-iṓ f.

Latin: volpēs, vulpēs, gen. -is `Fuchs ' 

 

Avestan urupi-s m. (*lupi-s) `dog', raopi-s `fox, jackal', Middle Persian rōpās, New Persian rōbāh `fox' = Old Indic lopāśá- m. `jackal, fox';

Maybe alb. lopë 'cow, (huge consuming animal; cow eaten by wolves)', llup 'devour', llapë 'tongue' : Lith. lapenti `to swallow food'.

    Armenian aluēs Gen. -esu `fox';

Maybe zero grade in poln. (*lues) lis `fox'.

    gr. (*Fἀλωπός) ἀλώπηξ f., short form ἀλωπός; (common gr. F- = u̯-)

    Latin volpēs `fox', possibly also lupus `wolf';

    Lithuanian lãpė (*u̯lopē), Latvian lapsa (syncopated from lapesa? Indo Germanic *u̯lopek̂ā?); compare Lithuanian vilpišỹs ` wild cat ', it would be placed near Middle Persian gurpak New Persian gurba ` house cat, domestic cat ', from Iranian *u̯r̥pa-, Indo Germanic *u̯l̥pos; it concerns certainly various taboo adjustments.

References: WP. I 316 f., WH. I 836 f., II 830, Frisk 83, Trautmann 149, Specht Indo Germanic Dekl. 36, Lidén KZ. 56, 212 ff.

Page(s): 1179


Root / lemma: u̯obhsā

Meaning: wasp

Material: Avestan vawžaka- `scorpion', but Iranian *vawža- `wasp' in Middle Persian vaβz `wasp', Baluchi gwabz `bee, wasp';

Maybe Danish gedehams : Swedish geting : French guêpe : Furlan ghespe : Breton gwespedenn : Welsh gwenynen feirch : Napulitano vèspera : Reggiano vrespa : Venetian brespa; vrespa; vespa : Albanian apocope (*gres-pa) Geg greth, grenza, Tosc grerëza `wasp'.

    Latin vespa f. `wasp' (from *vopsā);

    Old Cornish guhi-en gl. `wasp', Middle Welsh gw(y)chi, abr. guohi gl. fucos (*u̯ops-), from which borrowed Old Irish foich gl. `wasp' (also ` caterpillar, cankerworm '), nir. fotlach and puith `wasp', out of it spoch ` fierce attack' (O'Rahilly Sc. G. stem 3, 63);

    Old English wæfs, wæps, wæsp `wasp', Old High German wefsa, wafsa, waspa, Bavarian webes, thür. weps-chen and wewetz-chen, those in Germanic indicate *wabi-s and *wabi-t;

    Lithuanian vapsvà `wasp', Old Prussian wobse ds.;

    Church Slavic osa, Ukrainian osá (from *vopsā, Balto-Slavic *u̯apsā).

References: WP. I 257 f., WH. II 770, Trautmann 342, Vasmer 2, 280, Specht Indo Germanic Dekl. 45 f., Szemerényi Arch. Lingunder 4, 52.

See also: distinct to u̯ebh- `to weave'.

Page(s): 1179


Root / lemma: u̯ogʷhni-s, u̯ogʷhnes- (*ḫau̯ogʷh-n-es-)

Meaning: ploughshare

Material: Gr. ὀφνίς ὕννις, ἄροτρον Hes. (in addition probably also ὄφατα δεσμοὶ ἀρότρων. ᾽Ακαρνᾶνες Hes.) = Old Prussian wagnis ` plowshare '; Old High German waganso, Modern High German Bavarian der Wagensun, Old Icelandic vangsni ` plowshare '; but Latin vōmis, -eris (Nom. afterwards also vōmer) ` plowshare ' from u̯ogʷh-smis; unclear is gr. ὕννη, ὕννις f. ` plowshare ' (compare Brugmann II2 1, 288); [common alb. Slavic greek --sn- > -nn- shift]

    Old High German weggi, wecki m. `wedge' (and ` wedge-shaped long loaf '), Old English wecg, Old Icelandic veggr `wedge' = Lithuanian vãgis `wedge = spigot, hammer, nail', Latvian vadzis `wedge', Old Prussian wagnis ` plowshare (part of plough)'.

References: WP. I 315 f., WH. II 835, Trautmann 337; after Wackernagel KZ. 61, 206 ff. as ` pointed, piercing object ' to Old Persian ud-avajam `I gouge, cut with a chisel ' (root u̯egʷh-).

Page(s): 1179-1180


Root / lemma: u̯okso-

Meaning: wax

Material:

Old High German Old Saxon wahs, Old English weax, Old Icelandic vax n. ` wax '; Lithuanian vãškas, Latvian vasks ds.; Russian-Church Slavic (etc.) voskъ ds.; to *u̯eg- `to weave', as Old High German waba `honeycomb' to *u̯ebh- `to weave', s. Törnquist, Studia Neophilol. 17, 99 f.

References: WP. I 315, Trautmann 343, Vasmer 1, 231.

Page(s): 1180


Root / lemma: u̯ortoko-

Meaning: quail

Material: Old Indic vartaka- m., vártikā f. ` quail '; gr. ὄρτυξ, -υγος, by Grammatical aalso -υκος and with -ῡ-, by Hes. γόρτυξ, i.e. Fόρτυξ ` quail ', this ending is transfigured after ἴβυξ, βαῖβυξ, -υκος, κόκκῡξ, -ῡγος (and π;τέρυξ, -υγος?); Ionian ᾽;Ορτυγίη ` Delos, Greek island in the Aegean Sea ' (`Quail's island' ').

References: WP. I 316.

Page(s): 1180


Root / lemma: u̯ōro-, -ā (*ḫau̯er-)

Meaning: deceit; madness

Material: Gr. ὡρᾱκιᾶν ` become senseless, unconscious, grow pale, turn pale ' belongs to a stem ὠρᾱκ-;

independent therefrom Old Saxon wōrig `weakened, tired, faint, languid', Old English wērig, English weary ` tired ', Old High German wuorag ` intoxicated, drunk '; the k-derivative lacks in Old Icelandic órar f. Pl. `Betäubtsein ', ø̄rr (*u̯ōrio-) ` insane, furious ' and Old English wōrian ` wander, waver, decompose '; about gr. ὦρος, ἄωρος `sleep' see above S. 72.

References: WP. I 316;

See also: perhaps to u̯er-3 above S. 1152 (Frisk, Eranos 43, 229 f.).

Page(s): 1180


Root / lemma: u̯rā̆ĝh-1 : u̯rǝĝh- (*ḫau̯erĝh-)

Meaning: thorn, spike

Material: Attic ῥᾱχός (ῥᾶχος), Ionian ῥηχός f. ` thorny rod, briar, thorn hedge' (ὀρήχου αἱμασίας Hes. with ο- as verbalized from F, see also under u̯er-gh- `turn'); ῥάχις `backbone, spine, mountain ridge', ῥαχίζω `(rupture of the backbone, spine, hence allg.:) smash, cut up ';

    Middle Irish fracc (with gg) `needle'?; Lithuanian rãžas `dry rod, stubble, bristle, broom stump, fork spike, fork prong, fork tooth ', ražỹs ` tine ', tri-rãžis ` three-pronged '.

References: WP. I 318.

Page(s): 1180


Root / lemma: u̯rāĝh-2 : u̯rǝĝh- (*ḫau̯̯erĝh-)

Meaning: to hit, push

Material: Attic ῥάττω (ᾱ: ἔρραξα, ἐρράχθην), Ionian ῥήσσω `hit, stamp '; intransitive ` drop violently, dringe heran ', Attic κατα(ρ)ρά̄κτης ` steep ', also m. ` water fall, portcullis, heavy metal grating at the entrance to a fortress, a water bird '; Attic ῥᾱχία, Ionian ῥηχίη ` breaker, large wave, sea wave, flood; flooded place';

    but Old Church Slavic u-raziti ` beat| strike; pierce ', Russian raz `meal', Czech ráz `blow, knock' etc. belong probably rather to *u̯rēĝ-.

References: WP. I 318 f., Vasmer 2, 484.

Page(s): 1181


Root / lemma: u̯reg- (and u̯erg-?) (*ḫau̯erg-)

Meaning: to push, drag, drive

Material: Old Indic perhaps vrájati ` walks, goes ', pra-vrājáyati ` allows to walk, exiles ', parāvr̥j- ` outcast, ostracized person '; Persson Beitr. 501 seeks against it in *u̯er-g- `turn' (see 1154) next to cognate *u̯re-g-, basic meaning ` move revolvably ';

    Latin urgeō (besides early, but originally urgueō), -ēre ` spur on| urge; press hard in attack/pursuit| beset| follow hard on heels of ' (*u̯r̥gei̯ō or *urgei̯ō);

    Gothic wrikan ` pursue ', Old Icelandic reka `drive, push, hunt, chase, pursue, throw, reject ', Old English wrecan `urge, press, drive, push, avenge ' (`march, step forward, stride, strut', see above), Old Frisian wreka `drive, push, avenge ', Old Saxon wrecan ` avenge, punish, curse', Old High German rehhan ds., wreh ` exile ', Gothic wraks ` pursuer ', wrakjan ` pursue ',

Old English wracu ` revenge, vengeance, punishment, woefulness ', wræc n. ` banishment, misery ', wrecc(e)an ` encourage, cheer, set in motion, wake up, arouse, revive', wrecca ` an exile, wretch, stranger ', Old Saxon wrekkio, Old High German (w)reck(e)o ` fugitive from a country hero ', Modern High German (absorbed newly from Middle High German) Recke `knight, hero; warrior';

Old English wræc ` banishment, misery ', Norwegian rak ` gadding object, debris, remains or seaweed ' (hence Middle Low German Wrak ` wreck, remains, sunken ship, debris washed ashore '), with e also Icelandic rek ` object driving on the water ';

Maybe compound of alb. leshterik [leshtë- ` wool, thread '+ (w)riek] `debris or seaweed ' = Icelandic rek ` object driving on the water ' = Norwegian rak ` seaweed ' [alb. -rik is accentuated but it is unusual for alb. to stress the last syllable], alb. rrek, rrekem ` strive, wrestle, strain, bother, harass ', rrok ` grasp ', (*rahh) rrah ` strike, beat 'all Germanic loanwords.

lengthened grade Gothic wrēkei ` pursuit ', Old Frisian wrēke, Old Saxon wrāka ` punishment, revenge, vengeance ', Old High German rāhha ` revenge, vengeance ', Old Icelandic rāc ` pursuit ', rǣkr ` reprehensible ', rǣkja (: Old Indic vrājáyati) ` reject, drive away ' = Old Frisian wrēka, Old English wrǣcan `drive, urge, press, push';

    Balto Slavic *u̯erg- in compatible meaning: Lithuanian vérgas, Latvian vērgs `slave'; vowel gradation Lithuanian var̃gas `need, woefulness ', var̃gti `need to suffer, bear, endure', Old Prussian wargan Akk. Sg. m. ` evil, wickedness, affliction, danger', Lithuanian vargùs ` heavy, arduous, woeful, wretched, miserable ', Latvian vārgs ` woeful, wretched, miserable, ailing ', Old Prussian wargs `evil, bad'; Old Church Slavic vragъ `fiend', poln. wrog ` wickedness, evil, harm; the malevolence, devil; disaster ';

Maybe alb. vrug `blight, disease ' a Slavic loanword [common alb. -o- > -u- shift].

    yet Balto Slavic words also are compatible with Germanic warga- (see S. 1154 under *u̯er-ĝh-, *u̯er- `turn').

References: WP. I 319 f., WH. II 839 f., Trautmann 342, Vasmer 1, 228.

Page(s): 1181


Root / lemma: u̯reik-, u̯ereik- (*ḫau̯erk-)

Meaning: ` heath, heather, any of a number of low evergreen shrubs bearing clusters of purple flowers '

See also: see above S. 1155 under u̯erĝh-.

Page(s): 1182


Root / lemma: u̯rek- (*ḫau̯erk-)

Meaning: ` talk, shout '

References: WP. I 318, II 343, 362, Trautmann 243, Vasmer 2, 508 f.

See also: s. ober under u̯er-6.

Page(s): 1182


Root / lemma: u̯ren- (*ḫau̯er-en-)

Meaning: to sprinkle

Material: Gr. ῥαίνω (*u̯r̥ni̯ō) ` splash, spray (with water or dust) ', ῥανίς, -ίδος f. `drip'; with -dh- extension ῥαθάμιγξ f. `drip, drop, dust granule ' (*u̯rn̥-dh-), ῥαθαίνω ` sprinkle; winnow, scatter '; secondary -δ- in ἐρράδαται, ἐρράδατο, ῥάσσατε Perf. Pass. and Aor. to ῥαίνω; ῥαίνω could also belong to Old Church Slavic izroniti (above S. 329);

    about Old Saxon Old High German wrennio, (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Old Saxon wrēnio, Old High German reineo, rein(n)o `stallion' (to Old English wrǣne, Old Saxon wrēnisc `horny, lustful', Norwegian vrīna `cry, neigh ') see above S. 81 and under u̯er-3 respectively u̯rei-;

    after Szemerényi (KZ. 73, 74) here Hittite hurnai- `sprinkle' (*u̯r̥n-), further perhaps to Indo Germanic au̯er- above S. 80 f.

References: WP. I 277, 320, Specht Indo Germanic Dekl. 156.

Page(s): 1182


Root / lemma: (u̯reth- :) u̯roth- or u̯rath- (*ḫau̯erth-)

Meaning: to support

Material: Old English wraðu f. ` prop ', wreðian `prop, support', Old Saxon wreðian `prop, support', giwreðian ` build a prop ' become connected according to Trautmann KZ. 42, 331 with Avestan urvaϑa- ` friendly; friend';

References: WP. I 320.

Page(s): 1183


Root / lemma: u̯rēĝ-, u̯rōĝ-, u̯rǝĝ- (*ḫau̯erĝ-)

Meaning: to break

Material:

Armenian ergic-uc̣anem ` break ';

gr. ῥήγνῡμι (and ῥήσσω) `break' (Aor. Pass. ἐρράγην, Perf. ἔρρωγα, herakl. ἐρρηγεῖα), ῥῆξις, Lesbian Fρῆξις f. ` the breaking through, rupture ', zero grade Ionian ῥαγή `crack, gap', ῥάγδην Adv. `violently ', ῥαγδαῖος Adj. ds.; ῥώξ, -γός f. `crack, gap, cleft ', ῥωγή, ῥωγμή, ῥωγμός, ῥωχμός (*ῥωκσμός) ds., ῥωγαλέος ` shredded, tattered, ragged ', ῥηγμί̄ν, -ῖνος m. ` wave break, surf ';

   Balto-Slavic *rēži̯ō `cut, bite': Lithuanian rė́žiu, rė́žti `cut, clip, crack, rend, notch, groove ' (also rė́žau, rė́žyti; in addition rė̃žis m. ` incision, cleft, field stripes '); in addition Lithuanian ráižau, ráižyti ` crack numerously, cut, clip', Latvian raîze f. `sharp pain, distress ';

Maybe alb. rrëzoj `ruin, destroy' a Slavic loanword.

    Old Church Slavic rěžǫ, rězati ` κόπτω ', Old Russian rěžu, rězati `cut, clip, slaughter '; in addition Slavic *rьznǫti in poln. rznąć `cut, clip, carve, slaughter ';

   Balto-Slavic *rēža- m. `cut' in Lithuanian rėžàs, atrėžaĩ m. Pl. ` schnitzel ', Russian rěz `cut, incisure ';

    vowel gradation Balto-Slavic *rōža- m. `cut, line' in Lithuanian rúožas `line, stripe, cut', Latvian ruôza `stripe, meadow, row, lowland, depression, gorge, ravine, gulch';

Maybe alb. rruaza `necklace of beads ' Slavic loanword.

    proto Slavic. *razъ `cut, stroke, blow' in Czech ráz ` knock, stroke, blow, time ', Russian raz ` time ', and Old Church Slavic obraz `εἰκών, μορφή ', Russian óbraz ` picture '; Russian razítь `hit' etc., Old Church Slavic u-raziti `pierce';

    compare alb. rrah `hit, grind, crush ' (from *rradh), rras ` impel together, step ', Aor. rashe, rashë [alb. -s/-t allophones]

References: WP. I 319, Vasmer 2, 484, 485, 505, Trautmann 245 f.;

See also: compare above u̯rāĝh-2.

Page(s): 1181-1182


Root / lemma: u̯rughi̯o- (*ḫau̯rughi̯o-)

Meaning: rye

Material: Thracian βρίζα (*u̯rughi̯ā) `Emmerkorn, rye';

    Old Icelandic rugr m. `rye', Old Swedish rogher, Old English ryge m. (*rugi-), besides afr. rogga, Old Saxon roggo, Old High German rocko (with gemination); in addition the Germanic VN Latin Rugii, Old Icelandic Rygir (Roga-land), Old English Pl. Ryge, Rugas, perhaps also Rügen; Old English rygen `of rye', Middle High German ruggin, rückin;

    Lithuanian rugỹs, Latvian rudzis `rye corn', Pl. Lithuanian rugiaĩ, Latvian rudzi `rye'; Lithuanian rugienà ` rye field ', rugìnis `of rye';

    Old Russian rъžь, Serbian râž, Russian rožь f. `rye'; Serbian rȁžan, Czech režný (from Slavic *rъžьnъ) besides Russian-Church Slavic rъžanъ, Russian ržanój `of rye'; Bulgarian brica `a kind of summer grain ' derives from Thracian.

References: WP. II 374 f., Trautmann 246, Vasmer 2, 529, Jacobsohn Arier 133 ff., where also about Uralic equivalent (probably Indo Germanic loanword).

Page(s): 1183


Root / lemma: u̯eren-

Meaning: ram, sheep, lamb

Material:

Hittite: esri- `Wollvlies ' 

Old Greek: ē^̣ros n. `Wollvlies ' , éu̯-ẹ̄ro-, att. éu̯-ero- `schönwollig ' 

 

Old Indic *uran- (from *vuran-), Akk. *uraṇam, Nom. urā, from which uraṇa- m. `lamb, aries, ram', urā f. `sheep', in addition urabhra- m. `aries, ram' for *ura-bha- (as vr̥ṣabha- to vr̥ṣan-); compare New Persian barra (*varnak) `lamb'; Pahlavi varak `aries, ram'; Iranian vārǝn-jar-, vārǝ-ɣna- ` Lämmerschläger ' (Humbach DLZ. 78, 299 f.);

    Armenian gaṙn, Gen. gaṙin `lamb';

    gr. hom. (F)αρήν, Gen. ἀρνός `lamb', Cretan Fαρήν; also in tsakon. vanna, from Laconian Fαρνίον `lamb', in addition -Fρην in hom. πολύρρην ` rich in sheep ', out of it late ῥήν), with vowel gradation ἀρνειός `aries, ram', whether not rather from *ἀρσνειός (*αρσν-ηFός) to ἄρσην ` virile ' (above S. 336);

    derivative *u̯rēnōn- in Latin (as Germanic loanword) rēno ` fur as clothing , fur';

    unclear as derivative Latin vervēx, -ēcis (-īx, -īcis) ` wether (castrated male sheep); stupid/sluggish person '; unclear is also the relationship to *eru̯o(s)- `wool' gr. words εἶρος n. `Wollfließ ', derived εἴριον, Attic ἔριον `wool', Attic εὔερος, εὐερής `schönwollig ', Aeolic ἔπ-ερος `aries, ram', Ionian εἰρί̄νεος, Attic ἐρί̄νεος `of wool'; anlaut F cannot be proved.

References: WP. I 269 f., WH. II 429, Specht Indo Germanic Dekl. 33 f., Frisk 137 f., 468 f.

Page(s): 1170


Root / lemma: ū̆d-

Meaning: upwards; away

Note: besides ū̆d-s (compare Latin ab : abs )

Material: 1. Old Indic úd-, út- ` upwards, out, beyond' preverb; Avestan us-, uz- (*uds-) ds., Old Persian us- ds. (ud- in ud-apatatā `he leaned on, drop off, leave quietly; fall down, tumble, drop ' is probably *uz-);

    gr. ὑ- in ὕ-βρις (see below gʷer- ` heavy, hard '), ὕστριξ `porcupine', ὕσπληξ `Startseil ', Cypriot ὔ-χηρος `Aufgeld ' (Attic `τα ἐπίχειρα') and in this dialect generally has changed from ἐπί: attribute with Locative e.g. ὐ-τύχα `ἐπὶ τύxῃ '; eine (reminding a Gothic iupa besides *upo) full grade probably in Cypriot εὐτρόσσεσθαι ἐπιστρέφεσθαι. Πάφιοι and εὔχους χώνη (`funnel ') Σαλαμίνιοι Hes.; (because of ὕστος, ὑστέρα see below udero- `belly');

    Latin ūs-que ` all the way| right on; all the time| continuously| at every point| always ';

    Old Irish preverb uss-, oss- could also go back to *ud-s-; see below upo;

    Gothic ūt Adv. `out, forth ', Old High German ūz, Modern High German aus, Old Saxon Old English ūt ds., West Germanic also preposition in ` Dative ' Abl. (in addition Gothic ūta, Old Icelandic ūti, Old English ūte, Old High German ūze `external, outside ';

Gothic ūtana, Old High German ūzana etc., Modern High German außen `external'; Old Icelandic ūtar, Old English ūter, Old Saxon ūtar, Old High German ūzar `besides', partly as preposition in ` Dative ' and Akk.; Old High German ūzero, ūzaro, Old English ūter-ra `the outside ');

substantially in *uds before sounding plosives is based Germanic *uz- `from, to - forth, from - before, from - away' in Gothic us (uz-; vorr: ur-) prefix and preposition `of, from' (`Dative' = Abl.), also Old Icelandic ór preposition, as prefix ór-, or-, ør-, Old English or-, Old Saxon ur-, or- prefix, Old High German ur, ar, ir preposition `of, from' (shrinking back before ūz), ur-, ir-, ar-, er- prefix, Modern High German úr-, er- (e.g. Urlaub, erlauben `vacation'); Middle Low German (ūt)būten `exchange, take ' from *bi-ūtian, compare Old Icelandic ỹta ` administer, offer ';

    Lithuanian už- `on-, up-, to-' prefix (the meaning to be divided partially from už preposition ` after, for', s. *ĝhō S. 451 f.; Trautmann, Bsl. Wb. 336 holds firmly a unity, also for the consecutive forms), Latvian uz, ūz prefix and preposition `on, up ' (in addition also Old Prussian unsei ` upward, up ');

   Old Church Slavic: vъz- (vъs-) prefix, vъz(ъ) preposition in the meaning ` hinauf an etwas ' (Akk.);

    2. comparative Old Indic úttara- ` higher, upper, later, rear ' = gr. ὕστερος ` later '; Sup. Old Indic uttamá- ` highest, uppermost, best ', Avestan ustǝma- ` endmost, outermost, last', gr. ὕστατος ` latter, latest ' (fur *ὕσταμος); about Old Indic ucca- `high' (*ud-kʷe), uccā́, Avestan usèa Adv. `above; upwards ' s. Wackernagel-Debrunner II, 2, 545 f.

References: WP. I 189 f., WH. II 344, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 2, 517 f., Vasmer 1, 214. 238 f., 242, Mayrhofer 1, 99, 101 f.

Page(s): 1103-1104


Root / lemma: alā

Meaning: interjection

Material: Old Indic alalā(bhavant-) ` be alert, be energetic, be active' (Middle Indic arē, rē ` you there!, hey you!' rather to arí `foreigner, stranger', Thieme Der stranger in Rigveda 1 ff., see above S. 24).

    Gr. ἀλαλά, ἀλαλαί `hallo, hurra!', ἀλαλητός, ἀλαλητύς ` war cry, battle cry', ἀλαλάζω ` exclaim the cry of a battle ' (similarly ἐλελεῦ ` war cry, pain cry ', ἐλελίζω ` exclaim the war cry'); Lithuanian aluoti ` shout hallo ' (borrowing from German not provable) besides alióti ` stir into action by shouting ';

Old Church Slavic ole, Bulgarian olele interjection; e.g. Fick I4 356 (Modern High German hallo, holla are against it from developed call words of the imperative Old High German halón, holón `get, fetch').

Maybe alb. ore, more  = Old Church Slavic ole interjection [common alb. Hittite u̯- > m- shift] see Hittite ḫamešḫ(a)- Root / lemma: u̯es-r̥ : spring

On similar al- seems to be based Lithuanian nu-aldė́ti ` resonate; sound ', uldúoti ` coo ' (Bezzenberger BB. 21, 315).

References: WP. I 89.

See also: S. the similar onomatopoeic words lā-.

Page(s): 29


Root / lemma: ḫ2al-6, ḫ2alōu- : ḫ2alǝu-

Meaning: color adjective ` white, brilliant '

See also: s. ḫ2albho- and color adjective 1el-.

Page(s): 29


Root / lemma: ḫ2am(m)a, ḫ2amī̆

Meaning: mother

Material:

Maybe Sumerian:

ama:     mother [AMA archaic frequency: 241; concatenates 2 sign variants].

áma, am:          wild ox or cow (aurochs).

ama(4,5), áme: women's quarters; living room.

eme:     tongue; speech; plow's share.

Proto-Semitic: *ʔu/imm-

Afroasiatic etymology:

Meaning: 'mother'

Akkadian: umm- 'Mutter' OB [AHw 1416]

Eblaitic: /ʔummum/ [Fronz EL 151] AMOR /ʔi/ummum [Gelb CAAA 14]

Amorite: /ʔi/ummum/ [Gelb CAAA 14]

Ugaritic: um 'madre', pl. umhthm [DLU 34]

Phoenician: [Tomb. 23]

Hebrew: ʔēm 'mother (also father's wife; grandmother; ancestress)' [KB 61], pl. suff. ʔimmōhēnū, ʔimmōhām

Judaic Aramaic: ʔīmmā 'mother' [Ja 50]

Syrian Aramaic: ʔem(m)-, pl. ʔemhāt-, ʔemh- 'mater; abbatissa'; ʔemhāy- 'maternus' (adj.) [Brock 23]

Arabic: ʔumm- 'mère', pl. ʔummāt-, ʔummahāt- ("нек-рые считают, что первая форма применяется к животным, вторая - к людям") [BK 1 50]; (dual) ʔummān- 'les père et mère' [BK 1 50]

Epigraphic South Arabian: SAB ʔmm 'mother' [SD 5] ʔm-t 'bondwoman, female vassal' [ibid.]

Geʕez (Ethiopian): ʔǝmm 'mother' [LGz 22]

Tigre: ʔǝm, pl. ʔǝmmat 'mother' [LH 353]

Harari: umma 'grandmother' [LHar 25]

Gurage: MAS GOG ǝmm, ENN END äm, SOD ǝmmit, GYE ämiyät 'female, mother' [LGur 42]; (all) ǝmmiyä 'big, large'

Mehri: ḥām, indef. (rare) ʔɛ̄m, hāmē, pl. ḥāmēt 'mother' [JM 5]

Jibbali: ʔum 'big'

Soqotri: ʔaʔam 'big'

 

Alb. amë `aunt', `mother', out of it ` bottom of a river ', ` sludge of liquids'; Old Icelandic amma `grandmother', Old High German amma `mother, wet nurse ', Modern High German Amme; gr. ἀμμάς, ἀμμία `mother' Hes., Oscan Ammaí, Ammae, i.e. Matri (god's name)'. About Old Indic amba `mother' s. Kretschmer KZ. 57, 251 ff.

From amī-, amĭ- (see Brugmann II2, I 496) are formed Latin amīcus `friend' and amita ` paternal aunt| father's sister ' (compare Lithuanian anýta ` mother-in-law ' : Latin anus ` old woman'). About Vulgar Latin amma `owl ' s. Sofer Gl. 17, 17 f.

Maybe zero grade Alb. miku : Venetian amigo ; mèco : Rumanian amic `friend' from Latin amīcus `friend'.

    A Verbal derivation is perhaps Latin amāre ` love| like; fall in love with; be fond of; have a tendency to ' (compare Middle High German ammen `wait, hold on, care' to amme). After Kretschmer (Gl. 13, 114) rather Etruscan.

    According to Zimmermann KZ. 44, 368 f., 47, 174 here belongs also Latin amoenus ` beautiful| attractive| pleasant| agreeable| enjoyable| charming| lovely '. From a Latin *amoi (compare Summoi CIL. II 1750) could be shaped amoinos = amoenus ` lovely ', as Mamoena (*mamoi) besides Mamana, further truncated by gr. Γοργόνη; (to Γoργώ) besides Γόργοιτος (to Γοργώι);

    Tocharian В ammakki (Vok.) `mother' from *amma + akki (Old Indic akkā).

References: WP. I 53, WH. I 39, 41, Tagliavini Mél. Pedersen 163.

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Root / lemma: ḫ2anǝtā (1enǝtā)

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