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Hawler is a beautiful, safe City often called Erbil, it has many natural resources anda deeply rooted cultural tradition. Erbil, the capital of the federal Kurdistan Region, is about 350 kilometers north of Baghdad. It lies on a flat, rich and fertile plain between two rivers, the Great Zab and the Small Zab. Erbil is one of the oldest cities in the world. The name Erbil was mentioned in holy writings of the Sumerians (about 2000 BC) as Orblum or Urbilum and in the Babylonian and Assyrian texts as Arba-Elu. The Kurdish name Hawler is derived from ancient time. It may refer for its ancient buildings Castle and Minaret. It has been the center of culture, education and trade in the Region, because it lies on the cross- roads of caravans and links many trade centers with one another. The climate of Erbil is hot in summer, cold and snowy in winter. The land is good for growing wheat, barley and cotton. Erbil province is also rich in animal wealth, particularly cattle

Besides, Erbil before Islam embraced the principalities below:

1.      Hazbanians Principality

2.      Baktakenjans Principality

3.      Mazinjani Principality

4.      Kuridsh Dilkendi Principality

5.      Soran Dilkendi Principality

Erbil Historians' Names

Ibn Khelekan

Ibn Al-Mustawfi

Ibn Al- Younis-Al- Erbili

Ibn Fakhr- Al –Erbili

Ibn Selah Al- Shahrazouri

Prince Husam Al- Din

Hasan Ibn Muhammed Al- Erbili

Ibraheem Heyderi

Abu Bekr Fendi


Ancient Archaeological sites in Erbil

Erbil has about (636) ancient archaeological sites.
The most important are as below:
1- Erbil Castle: It lies in the middle of Erbil on which
the city has been established for centuries.
The castle cuniform historical texts date back to
the remains or Assyrian. Erbil Castle was surrounded
by walls in the Atabegian Period (1102-1210) B.C.
Its area is (60000m), (45m) high and its diameter is (364m).
2- Choly Minaret ( Al- Mudhafferiya Minaret):
It locates to the west of Erbil which was originally
a mosque. Its name is after (Mudhaffer Al- Deen Kokberi).
It's (37) m high and dates back to (1123-1163 A.D.).

Erbil Governorate

Erbil became a governorate on 1st April 1923 according to Act
No. 5307 issued by the Iraqi Ministry of Interior. So,
it became the Governorate of Erbil and was sparated from (Kirkuk).
Location: the city of Erbil is (80) km to the east of the city of Mosul,
(90) km to the south of Kirkuk (196) km of Sulaimanyia and (156) km
of Duhok. It lies on Latitude Circles from the north and (2nd, 42nd)
parallels from the east.
The area of Erbil Governorate is approximately (16,484 km).
Agriculture in Erbil



















Tourist Sites of Erbil:

There are several tourist sites in Erbil people resort to over the year:
1- Salahaddin Resort: It's (1090) m above the sea level.
2- Seri Rush: It's (8) km of Salahaddin Resort.
It's a tourist village lying on a mountain top, with (1700) m
above the sea level and very cool in summer.
3- Town of Shaqlawa:
It's to the south of Salahaddin being (996) m above sea level.
It is renowned for its woods.
4- There are several tourist sites on the (Hamilton) Road, (210)
Connecting Kurdistan with Iran, like:
Hareer, Khalifan, Shellal Geli Ali Beg, Jundiyan, Bekhal,
Rawanduz, Choman and Rayat Haji Umaran.
Most of these areas surrounded by Kurdistan high mountains.



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