Including atrocity sites, death camps, missions, towns, battlefields, spiritual sites, etc.


NOTE: Although prayer for corporate issues may perhaps never be complete until Jesus comes again, this prayer project was completed in 2000.

Compilers: Linda Fulmer, Gene Brooks, Henry Redding
This list is not all massacres and atoricities, but most of it is.  The significance for the historian is the location of Cherokee towns and other sites which we have found. The significance for the Christ-following intercessor is the prayer we did onsite and the repentance prayer that s/he can do as well by locating these places. 

How do you use this guide?  (Read this so you can understand what is going on.)
First go to the Maps located HERE and decide what area map you are interested in.  Then note the dots on the map with numbers.  Those numbers are keyed back to this guide. There are abbreviations like AT, CW, THM, OM, HT, CA, SP, which were our indication of an historical reference. The key for that reference is found HERE.

( X means CPI team prayed there)
Numbers are keyed to the Prayer Maps we used on the trip. Scans of these maps can be found here.

X 1.  Estatoe 
 1751- Refugees came from Lower Towns burned by Creeks
 1757- People angry over 4 Cherokees killed for their skins near Little Saluda
 1759- People scalped 3 settlers on the Upper Broad River
 6/1/1760- Burned by Montgomery's men (Some killed and taken prisoner?)
 8/8/1776- Burned by Williamson's men

X 2.  Ellijay

X 3.  Charix (?) 

X 4.  Toxaway
 1751- Refugees came from Lower Towns burned by Creeks
 1750's home of Chief Raven
 6/1760- Burned by Montgomery's men

5.  Sugar Town  Also known as Kulsetsiyi in SC
 6/1/1760- Burned by Montgomery's men (some killed and taken prisoner?)
 Between 8/4/1776 and 8/8/1776- Destroyed by Captain Tutt's men, under Williamson's command

X 6.  Ustali Ustanaule

X 7.  Jocassy (Jocassee)
 8/8/1776- Burned by Williamson's men

X 8.  Connee, or Soconee, or Aconnee
 Between 8/4/1776 and 8/8/1776- Destroyed by Captain Tutt's men, under Williamson's command
 1751- Destroyed by Creeks

X 9.  Chattuga (Chatooga, Chatugee, Chatoga) - 
 SC Hwy 76 and Chatooga River on SC/GA line

X 10.  Stecoy
 2/8/1760- Warrior of Stecoy, hostage at Fort Prince George, died of smallpox

X 11.  Cheohee, or Cheowee 
 (pronounced Chor-ee)
 8/11/1776- Destroyed by Williamson's men
 1751- Destroyed by Creeks

X 12.  Eustustee, or Ustisti
 8/11/1776- Destroyed by Williamson

X 14.  Tamasee, or Tomassee
 8/10/1776- Near this town, Williamson's men ambushed in a "Ring Fight."  Counter-attack led by Andrew Pickens.  16 Cherokees killed, 17 wounded, or 83 dead or wounded.
 8/12/1776- Williamson's men destroyed town

X 15.  Chicherohe
 on War Woman Creek, Rabun County, GA

X 17.  Oconee
 1776- Destroyed by Williamson's men

X 18.  Keowee 
 2/12/1747- Treaty signed here, ceded land east of Long Canes
 1751- Burned by Creeks
 1753- Home of Old Warrior, Chief, who died.  Leadership passed from Lower Towns to Overhill.
 1759- Home of Tistoe, Headman
 2/1760- At least one white slave or prisoner brought back here from Long Canes Massacre
 6/24/1760- Town Probably Burned by Montgomery's men
 1775 or 1776- Visited by Bartram, who wrote that it had been deserted for a while
 1730- Alexander Cuming described it as one of seven "mother towns"

19.  Woostana (?)

X 20.  Ustanali, Dustanare,  or Estanule

X 21.  Susatee (?)

X 22.  Tunnessy Tanasi
 Under Lake Keowee

X 25.  Tennexaw
 Under Lake Keowee

X 27.  Cane Creek
 In housing development NW Seneca, SC

X 28.  Battle of Essenaca 1776
 Clemson Practice Fields

X 29.  Seneca, or Esseneca
 Clemson Botanical Gardens and Practice Fields
 New town, built after war of 1760, settled by Lower and Middle Town Refugees
 1775- Population 500, houses on both sides of river; town house and Chief's house on western shore
 1775- Council of Safety sent McCall and 30 men to arrest Cameron, which led to a skirmish with four soldiers and several warriors killed
 7/31/1776- Williamson's men were ambushed there by warriors and loyalists.  Cherokees were driven back across the river.
 8/1/1776- Williamson's men crossed the river and burned the town along with six thousand bushels of corn.
 11/18/1785- Treaty of Hopewell signed at Picken's Hopewell plantation, near the town

X 30.  Coneross Lodge

X 31.  Brass Town
 8/11/1776- Destroyed by Williamson's men

X 32.  Noyouwee, or Nayuhi

X 33.  Old Estatoe
 1750- Destroyed by Creeks
 1763- Saluy was Chief of this town and Tugaloo
 Probably burned in 1776 on August 8 by Williamson
 9/1776- Williamson retreated to reorganize troops before marching to Middle Towns
 1761- Destroyed by Grant's men

34.  Ecny (?)

X 35.  Echay
 1750-  Destroyed by Creeks

36.  Toxsaam (?)

X 39.  Tugaloo
 1751- Destroyed by Creeks
 1763- Saluy was Chief of this town and Old Estatoe
 8/8/1776- Destroyed by Williamson's men

40.  Tetome (?)
 1776 Burned by Samuel Jack's men

X 41.  Tawsee (?)  or Tassee
 on Tugaloo River,  Habersham County, GA 
 1776 Burned by Samuel Jack's men

X 42.  Ostatoy (?)
 1776 Burned by Samuel Jack's men

X 43.  Chauga
 1776 Burned by Samuel Jack's men

44.  Unnamed
 1776 Burned by Samuel Jack's men

45.  Caue (?)
 1776 Burned by Samuel Jack's men

46.  Cado (?)
 1776 Burned by Samuel Jack's men

47.  Early (?)
 1776 Burned by Samuel Jack's men

X 48.  New Keowee, or Little Keowee (?) 
 6/1/1760- Burned by Montgomery's men (some killed and taken prisoner?)
 Headwaters of 12 mile Creek

X 49.  Quacoratchee Warachy Tockorachee Takwashuaw
 6/1760- Burned by Montgomery's men
 1776- Burned by Neel and Thomas' Regts. 

X 50.  Fort Prince George & Battle Site (1760)

X 51.  Fort Rutledge
 Close to Clemson's campus – high hill overlooking Lake Hartwell

X 52.  Hopewell Treaty Site 1785
 Just below Old Stone Church

X 53.  Socony

X 55.  Ring Fight Cheohee Valley
 8/10/1776- Near this town, Williamson's men ambushed in a "Ring Fight."  Counter-attack led by Andrew Pickens.  16 Cherokees killed, 17 wounded, or 83 dead or wounded.

X 56.  Oconee Station

X 57.  Cowee
 About the mouth of Cowee Creek of Little Tennessee River, about 10 miles below Franklin, NC
 Burned by Grant between 6/11and 6/25-1761
 Burned by Rutherford, 9/1776
 Burned by Sevier, 1781
  One of the oldest and largest towns with 200 houses
         Town of the "bluebloods", independent and prosperous
         Grant used the town as his headquarters
          Bartram visited in 1776 and was impressed with the orderly and beautiful town, the fields of  strawberries, and horses in a stall owned by Galahan, an Irish trader.  In 1760 the people of the town had protected Galahan when the word came to kill traders because of his honesty with them. 
         Chonosta of Cowee signed the Treaty of Hopewell in 1785 

X 58.  Ellijay 
 On Ellijay Creek of Little Tennessee River near Franklin, NC
  Rutherford's men came through in 1776 and encountered a group of elderly warriors trying to escape at a site called Indian Grave Gap. His men on horseback trampled 10 or 12 of them to death, including the chiefs Mankiller of Niquassi and Tistoe.

X 59.  Kulsetsiyi (Sugar Town) Cullasaja Itseyi
 Confluence of Little Tennessee and Sugartown or Cullasagee Creek near Franklin, Macon County, NC
 Burned by Rutherford, 9/1776
 Burned by Grant between 6/11and 6/25-1761 
 Name means"place of the honey locusts"
        Pickens and Clarke fought a battle there in 1782, and the town never recovered
 See Qualla  (157-161)

X 61.  Jore (Ayoree)
 Macon County Airport
 Town of refuge, or peace town. White flag always flew over the council house, even in war time. 
         Place of reconciliation and arbitration for other towns in conflict
         Headquarters of the priesthood, and chiefs and medicine men not on duty
         Population of 1000 
 On Iotla Creek, an upper branch of Little Tennessee River, NC
 Burned by Grant between 6/11and 6/25-1761
 Town chief, Ousanaletek, died of smallpox at Fort Prince George on 2-12-1760 

X 62.  Kituhwa, Keetoowah, Kitoowa
 On Tuckasegee River and extending from above the junction of the Oconaluftee nearly to the present Bryson City, Swain County, NC
 Burned by Grant between June 25-29, 1761
 Yonaguska was the peace chief
 Visited by Bartram in 1776
 Destroyed by Rutherford or Moore in 1776
 Original settlement in Smoky Mtns 
 Cherokees may have overcome a previous group who lived there
 Place of the perpetual fire
 Called the Holy City because it was believed that Yowah himself had visited to bring the holy fire
 Name may come from  " Kit –Yawa", meaning God-given
 Civil War Cherokee soldiers believed they saw smoke rising from the mound as they were camped  nearby even though  the town had been destroyed and the fire was no longer tended

X 63.  Nucassee (Niquasse) (Nikwasi)
 At the present Franklin, NC
 Burned by Grant, 6-11-1761
 Burned by Williamson, 9-18-1776
 Burned by Rutherford 9/1776
 Town house on the mound used as a hospital
 Sir Alexander Coming visited in 1730. The Cherokees told him that their chiefs or beloved men were given a crown, a possum skin hat dyed red or yellow. He asked them for one and took it back to England to the king. 
 It was believed that the Nunnehi Little People lived under Niquassi mound
 According to legend, God had promised the people that as long as the eternal flame was kept burning there, the Cherokees would not perish. They further believed that the Nunnehi had saved the fire for them. 
 After the capture of  Ft. Loudon in 1760, Bull sent a peace proposal to Usteneka and Oconostota there. They raised  the British flag over the council house and sent a "peace talk" back to Bull . 
 In 1761, 800 warriors gathered there in anticipation of Grant's attack
 Bartram visited in 1776
 In 1819 after a treaty ceding the land, the Cherokees themselves burned the town  as they left

 64.  Stikayi
 On Sticoa Creek, near Clayton, Rabun County, GA

X 65.  Stecoah Old Fields (Stikayi   Stikoa  Stecoe)
 On Tuckasegee River at the old Thomas homestead just above Whittier Swain County, NC
 2/8/1760- Warrior of Stecoy, hostage at Fort Prince George, died of smallpox
 See Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, p. 234
 Burned by Grant between 6/11and 6/25-1761
 Burned by Moore, 1776 
 1781 burned by Sevier
 1804 burned for the 4th time – an accidental fire. There was a question of arson as Coweechee and Tasse were burned the same day. 
 1730's a trading post est. by Bernard Hughes
 People spoke Kittua dialect
 Land was ceded to whites in 1819, and Thomas bought it in 1838
 Rutherford [ or Moore?] found it deserted in 1776, the people having been warned to flee. He burned 25 houses, the townhouse, and crops. The same night there was an earthquake in the area.

X 66.  Stikayi
 On Stekoa Creek of Little Tennessee River, a few miles below the junction of Nantahala, Graham County, NC

68.  Tekanitli
 In upper Georgia

X 69.  Tessuntee
 On Little Tennessee River, south of Franklin, NC
 at Tesuntee Creek?
 Appears on a 1760 map
 Qualla calls the Battle of Etchoe fought with Montgomery in 1760 the Battle of Tessuntee Old Fields and says that it occurred in a narrows between Etchoe and Tessuntee Old Fields
 The "narrows" was a pass between Cowee Mtns and Neowee Branch of L Tenn River 
 Located on the path to the Lower towns in SC – the last or most remote small town on the river
 Contained 60 houses

X 70.  Tikaleyasuni (Burningtown)
 On Burningtown Creek, an upper branch of Little Tennessee River, western North Carolina
 Burned by Williamson's men, 9/1776
 Burned by Grant between 6/11and 6/25-1761
 First whites settled there in 1818

X 71.  Watauga
 On Watauga Creek, a branch of Little Tennessee River, a few miles below Franklin, NC
 Burned by Grant between 6/11and 6/25-1761
 Burned by Rutherford, 9-9-1776
 Visited by Bartram in 1776 who described the beautifully planted fields, each bound by a narrow strip of grass. He was entertained by the chief who learned that he was a friend of  Stuart. 

X 72.  Yunsawi
 On West Buffalo Creek of Cheowa River, Graham County, NC
 Burned by Williamson between 9/20 and 9/24/1776

73.  Little Echota
 Little Echota on Sautee Creek, a head stream of the Chattahoochee west of Clarksville, GA
 Burned by Williamson's men, 1776

X 74.  Echota 
 Cherokee United Methodist Church
 The old Macedonian Mission on Soco Creek, of the North Carolina Reservation
 Burned by Grant between 6/11and 6/25-1761
 Burned by Moore, 10/1776
 In the 1840's a mission was est. by the Methodist Episcopal Church , which later had native pastors [ Yonaguska had resisted the entrance of the gospel to his people because of the behavior of the whites. He died in 1839.] 
 Around 1880 the Quakers started a day school under a 10 year plan after contracting  with the government for Cherokee education

X 75.  Nununyi "Potato Place"     Kalanunyi?
 Near Cherokee High School on Qualla Boundary
 Destroyed by North Carolina militia under Col. William Moore, 10/1776
 Burned by Grant between 6/11and 6/25-1761
 Visited by Bartram 6 months before it was burned in 1776
 As early as 1787 white settlers were there. Some of the land grants were to Rev. War soldiers in Rutherford's  outfit. They occupied the site of the "corner tree, or "boundary tree",  just above Potato Town. 

X 76.  Tsiskwaki "Birthplace"    Oconoluftee
 Site of sewage plant in Cherokee, NC
 Also known as Oconoluftee in Birdtown
 Destroyed by North Carolina militia under Col. William Moore, 1776
 Burned by Grant between 6/11and 6/25-1761
 One of the two oldest towns on the river

77.  Hickory Nut Gorge
 Eastern Gate
 Home of Little People

X 78.  Soco Gap "ambush place"
 See Footsteps

 80.  Tikwalitsi
 Where Deep Creek joins Tuckaseegee River at Bryson City, NC
 Battle between Shawnee and Cherokee,  Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 193-5
 Originally called Cottawa

X 81.  Wayah Gap Battle Site
 Williamson and his troops through there to meet Rutherford
 Site of 1776 battle

X 82.  Fort Butler (Murphy, NC)

X 83.  Fort Hembree (Hayesville, NC)
 Used for the removal of NC Cherokees

X 84.  Gillespie Gap (Etchoe Pass)
 1761 - burned by Francis Marion; 1780 - burned by John Sevier 
 1761 Marion was sent to "dislodge" the Cherokee warriors. In the battle he lost 21 of 30 men. 
 1780 Sevier's troops went through on the way to the Battle of King's Mountain

X 85.  Cheowa (Near Robbinsville, NC) "otter place" Cheowee
 Burned by Williamson 9/20 and 9/24/1776
 [Same as Tsiyahi ?  ] 
 Roots of the Snowbird community
 Snowbird Cherokees were required to remove, but they kept their property by buying it from NC
 Site of Fort Montgomery, removal and Civil War fort
 An 1868 council here wrote a constitution and supported Bushyhead as chief . They were political rivals to the Qualla Cherokees.
 Site of Cheoah school, where there was a controversy over the Quaker administrator

X 86.  Valley Town  "long place"
 Burned by Rutherford, 9/1776

87.  Fort Montgomery (Robbinsville)

X 88.  Fort Delaney at Valley Town (Andrews)

X 89.  Tatham Gap Road
 Trail of Tears beginning road Montgomery to Delaney
 Walk it.  Robbinsville to Andrews

90.  Joanna Bald  "lizard place"

X 91.  Nundayeli (Nantahala) Briertown (Kanu'gulayi)- "brierplace"
 Burned by Williamson 9/20 and 9/24/1776

X 92.  Nantahala Gorge "midday sun"
 Home of Uw'tsun 'ta, the great bouncing serpent at widest spot on River 
 Spearfinger hunted here
 See Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp., 239

X 93.  Tuckaseegee Town 
 Established prior to 1730
 Burned by John Sevier, 1781
 Burned by Grant between 6/11and 6/25-1761
 May have been 3rd town of the Cherokees
 1735 trading post est. by John Bunning, English
 In 1751 the Keowee warriors asked other towns to kill traders. Hughes, the trader of Stecoah, was spared and protected here. 
 Sevier staged a surprise attack just after dawn when some were still sleeping. After burning and killing, he took some slaves. It took 200 horses to carry the loot. 

X 94.  Tomassee
 (Swanton) Junction of Burningtown Creek and Little Tennessee River
 Burned 6-10-1761

95.  Nottely (Natuhli)
 at Ranger, NC 
 Burned by Rutherford, 9/1776

96.  Tallulah
 in Talulah Creek of Cheowa River 
 Burned by Williamson 9/20 and 9/24/1776

X 97.  Tamahli (Tomotley) on Valley River about Tomotla, NC
 Burned by Williamson, 9/1776
 Burned by Rutherford, 9/1776
 Home of Attacullaculla
 Prior to 1839, most converts to Christianity lived in this area
 "Chescoonwho, Bird in close of Tomotlug" signed the Treaty of Hopewell in 1785

X 98.  Little Tellico
 on Little Tennessee River Swanton lists 2 towns, one on Tellico Cr of  L Tenn River, 10 miles below Franklin: the other 5 miles above Murphy on the Valley R
 Cherokee People lists as Valley Town
  On 1755 map w of Niquassi
 1776 burned by Williamson
 John of Little Tellico signed Treaty of Hopewell in 1785

X 99.  Tanassee
 on 107 above Wester 
 Burned by Grant between 6/11and 6/25-1761

100.  Battle of Round (Tryon, Warrior) Mountain, NC 1776

101.  Flat Rock, NC, Ceremonial Site

X 102.  Hidden Town 
 (See Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. "Cullasaja Gorge," 264); Burned by Rutherford, 1776

X 103.  Sand Town Cartoogeechaye
 Burned by Williamson, 9/1776
 (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp., 259) Redemptive location

X 104.  Shooting Creek 
 (See Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee) spiritistic portal located between Cartoogeechaye and Hayesville

X 105.  Hiawassee / Peachtree Mound
 DeSoto's Guasili 
 Continuous habitation for over 12,000 years.
 Burned by Rutherford, 9/1776

X 106.  Leech Place, Murphy, NC on Hiawassee river

X 107.  Tusquitee Mountains portal?

X 108.  Battle of Etchoe Pass    Site not located exactly– need help.
 1760 Colonel Montgomery's invasion of Cherokee country stopped
 Near 441 South of Franklin on same trail as DeSoto marched.
 South Gate to Middle Towns stronghold
 See 69

109.  Gregory Bald 
 Home of Great Rabbit, chief of rabbits - council house of rabbits and bears here.
 Cherokee "Rabbit Place"-- home of Great Rabbit who was said to have a council house beneath the mountain; bears also had a council house here (one of four) where they did a sacred dance before hibernation.  Animal lodges were invisible to humans.
 Important New Age site (SP pg 119-121)

110.  Clingman's Dome
 Great Smoky Mountains National Park
 A bear's council house
 Home of White Bear, chief of bears (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 189-190)
 Place of Kuwa'hi (Mulberry Place) legend (Legends, 21)
 Sacred site to Cherokees– Elders meetings; dirt for ceremonial mounds (SP pg 61,111)
 Great Biological diversity– rare plants and insects
 Important New Age site– "vortexes," sacred sites, and power spots; ley lines (SP pg 204, 151-157)
 Dwelling of "Mountain Deva"?  (SP pg 125-126)
 Place of healing?

111.  Jonathan Creek  Canuga?
 New Age area.
 Burned by Grant between 6/11and 6/25-1761
 Near Etchoe
 Probably burned by Grant because refugees went from here to Cartoogachaye Creek 

112.  Balsam Gap
 Col. Griffith Rutherford with 2400 men came through this gap from Davidson's Old Fort, NC, to attack Middle and Valley settlements, 1776

113.  Tanassee Bald  ("the white places") and Devil's Courthouse- Shining Rock
 Home of Tsul' kalu'- slant-eyed giant, lord of game (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 217-218)

X 114.  Judaculla Rock (Judacallah Rock) "where he stepped"
 See Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp., 242-243; Footprints of Slant-Eyed Giant Tsul'kalu'
 Origins are probably pre-Cherokee

X 115.  Dustayalunyi- Spikebucktown?
 About mouth of Shooting Creek near Hayesville
 Burned by Rutherford, 9/1776

116.  Guhlaniyi
 Cherokee and Natchez- junction of Brasstown Creek and Hiawassee River
 Burned by Rutherford, 9/1776

117.  Kanastunyi
 Head waters of French Broad near Brevard

X 118.  Kansaki
 Short distance above Webster, NC, on Tuckaseegee River
 Burned by Grant between 6/11and 6/25-1761

X 119.  Setsi
 3 miles below Valleytown on South side of Valley River
 (See Legends, A1)
 Burned by Rutherford, 9/1776

120.  Taskigi
 On Tuskeegee Creek of Little Tennessee River near Robbinsville, NC

X 121.  Tlanusiyi
 On Tusquittee Creek near Hayesville, NC
 Burned by Rutherford, 9/1776

X 122.  Tusquittah
 On Tusquittee Creek near Hayesville, NC
 Burned by Rutherford, 9/1776

X 123.  Etchoe-
 Burned by Montgomery, 1760
 Burned by Grant, 6-10-1761
 Burned by Williamson, 1776
 Burned by Rutherford, 1776
 After it was burned by Grant, the people moved north to Cartoogeechaye Creek and built Connisca
 Rutherford was almost defeated by Cherokees in Etchoe Pass
 Williamson was there after Rutherford but was not attacked at the Pass. Sumter was with him. 
 Bartram visited in 1776 and said there were many good houses, well-inhabited

X 124.  Second Battle of Etchoe Pass
 On 23/441 south of Franklin
 Grant attacked, 1761
 Near Tryphosa Community

125.  Nacoochee (GA)
 Burned by Williamson's men

X 126.  Coweechee
 Burned by Grant between 6/11and 6/25-1761
 In 1776"Black Hole" fight with Williamson
 Located across the Cowee Mtns from Stecoah
 Burned in 1804 – arson or accident? 

127.  Agwediyi
 Place of Lizard Monster (Legends, #2) on Tuckaseegee between Dick's Creek and upper end of Cowee Tunnel
 Same as Adwehi Top? Cedar Cliff Mtn on north side of Tuckaseegee River 
 Adwehi- place of fasting for medicine men, to seek Great Spirit

X 128.  Nugatsani
 Ridge south of Oconoluftee River in Cherokee where is a dwelling place of Nuhnehi

129.  Whiteside Mountain

130.  Pilot Mountain
  Thunders, Selu, and Kanati lived here

131.  Neyowee
 site unknown on Little Tennessee River
 Burned by Grant between 6/11and 6/25-1761
 Shown on 1755 map near Little Tellico

X 132.  Ussanah
 at Cowee Creek and Caler Fork near Cowee (Qualla,  99)
 Burned by Grant between 6/11and 6/25-1761
 Town of servant people to Cowee across the river
 People had a bad reputation and crimes were always blamed on them

134.  Battle of Black Hole 
 (Indian Grave Gap) (See www.usgennet.com article)
 Williamson (1200 troops) ambushed at summit of gap by 1000 Cherokees
 nearly routed, then Edward Hampton flanked Cherokee
 SC loss: 13 killed, 18 wounded.  Four Cherokee bodies found.
 See 126

X 135.  Ustanali 
 in Nantahala Gorge located near where Nantahala power plant is at present.
 Means "shoals" 
 Isolated town deep in gorge

136.  Amohee
 Jesse Bushyhead was pastor of a Baptist congregation there in the 1820's

X 137.  Aqouhee Acquone
 Possible site of Ft. Scott
 possibly same as #136

138.  Big Cove
 Site of a day school in the 1880's 

X 139.  Bird Town
 Site of a Quaker day school in the 1880's
 Whites claimed property around it and cut timber in the 1890's
 Just outside of the town boundary, whites operated a distillery in 1898 to sell alcohol to Cherokees
 Swain Co was created to divide Cherokee votes

142.  Citico
 Near Nunuyi and Kituhwa, 150 - 175 families
 Destroyed by Moore in 1776
 Artifacts from the mound there are in a museum in Va

143.  Connisca
 Built by refugees from Etchoe when it was burned by Grant

144.  Cowtuga
 Established as a hunting outpost
 Received many refugees from Grant's expedition in 1761

X 145.  Cullownee Cullowhee
 Crossroads town of traders and travelers
 Mound was located unusually far from water
 Perhaps a race of Native pygmies here?  Skeletons excavated on Western Carolina University seem to say
 Underground tunnel system
 Copper vein found nearby
 Burned by Sevier in 1781; 60 killed - mostly elderly, and 40 youth enslaved

X 146.  Ela
 Word means earth
 Destroyed by Moore in 1776

147.  Ganasauga
 Second oldest Cherokee town
  Legend of Ulunsuti, or "daylight stone", that adorned the head of a giant serpent. It is said that the Ulunsuti is on the altar when the Order of Kituhwa, a secret society, meets for business
 Vein of white clay nearby- used for making pottery
 Burned by Sevier in 1781. He killed all but the young who were enslaved.

148.  Gatugi Yonah
 Entire population camped away from the town in summer months

X 149.  Junaluska Creek
 Junaluska's farm at time of removal. His wife and 3 children died on the Trail of Tears. He remarried and came back, but the government would not allow him to have his land back.

150.  Lufta
 Destroyed by Moore in 1776
 Possibly same as #152

X 151.  Murphy
 1830's Thomas was very concerned about the Cherokees along Valley River, especially Murphy, because the "unsavory" influence of the whites threatened the morals and land of the people
 Around 1835 intermarriage with whites  more prevalent here than at Qualla
 Site of Ft. Butler, removal fort, and Thomas'store
 In 1863, Confederate Cherokees paraded through the streets with the bloody uniform of Goldman Bryson, a white bushwacker they had killed. This was revenge because they believed Bryson had killed John Timson, a Cherokee leader and the first convert of the Baptist Mission, in 1856. Bryson had been tried but acquitted.

152.  Oconalufty
 Originally called Egwanulti
 Burned by Moore in 1776

153.  Paintertown
 Site of the rumored "Laurel Lode" where whites came to look for gold

X 154.  Qualla 
 Spread over large area
 Not burned by Rutherford in 1776

155.  Tasse
 Burned the same day as Coweechee and Stecoah in 1804- possible arson

156.  Tuchareechee
 Destroyed by Rutherford in 1776

157.  Waseechee
 Destroyed by Rutherford in 1776

X 158.  Yellow Hill
 Chief Welch established a tribal council of full-bloods as rival to the one at Cheowa around 1870
 In 1845, the roads around Yellow Hill in Qualla were the best- maintained in the state 
 Site of a training school established by Quakers in the 1880's

X 500.  Fort Southwest Point 
 Fork of (Kingston) Tennessee and Holston
 Maps– HT, OM, CA
 Built 1792
 Broken treaty site See Treaty of 1805
 Ceremonial site
 See THM, 19 Capital for a Day
 1794 settlers escaped here when Native Americans attacked Calvin's Station
 1792 McClelland and men sent out from here to bury dead from an attack.  Handley had been captured, tortured for 3 days, adopted into Wolf Clan and then released.  Lived near Tellico B. H. where Cherokees would visit him.

X 501.  Fort Loudon
 THM, 152
 Little Tennessee, near Toquo and Tennessee Town 
 Maps– OM, HT, CA
 Built in 1756, 500 miles from Charleston, for trade and to be a British "presence" against the French
 Annals of Tennessee– pg 56-59– account of surrender

X 502.  Tellico Blockhouse
 Across Little Tennessee from site of Fort Loudon
 THM, 152
 Maps– OM, HT, CA
 site of 1794 Treaty after destruction of Running Water and Nickajack– 40 chiefs signed
 1803– Rev. Blackburn established school here
 Built near Ruins of Loudon to keep white settlers from crossing river; built by U.S. government (invasion)
 1796– Christmas day– river frozen over; BBQ on the ice (AT)
 Site of 1798 treaty also (AT)

X 503.  Cavett's Station 
 SW of Knoxville
 13 members of Cavett family killed in 1793
 Maps– OM, HT, CA
 halfway between Campbell's Station and Knoxville (HC)
 1777 Frederick Calvitt scalped nearby (GW)
 9/1793– Watts attacked with 1000 warriors– killed Alexander Calvitt.  Whites surrendered on promise of protection but murdered on Doublehead's orders.  Station Destroyed (HC) (ET).  (Watts may have tried to protect women and children) (R)
 Annals of Tennessee– pg 581

X 504.  White's Fort
 Downtown Knoxville
 Treaty of Holston 1786

X 505.  Treaty of Dumplin Creek
 THM, 136
 Henry's Station– Between French Broad and Dumplin Creek (mouth of creek?)
 Maps– OM, HT, CA
 Built 1733 after Hubbard deliberately killed a Cherokee (AT)
 site of Treaty of Dumplin Creek 1785 with State of Franklin (OM)

506.  Gillespy's Fort Massacre
 On Little River
 Maps– HT
 1788– 200-300 Cherokees and Creeks came and captured prisoners, possibly 28 women and children; men were away (AT)
 17 of 28 prisoners killed
 John Watts
 Left a letter demanding that whites leave land– See Annals of Tennessee pg 519

507.  Battle of Boyd's Creek
 December 16, 1780
 500 white families moved in after Revolution.  Old Tassel appeared to Virginia and North Carolina Governors who did nothing.  (GW)
 Frontiersmen in Horseshoe shape defeated Cherokees– 1780 (FB)

508.  Marble Springs
 John Sevier Home

X 509.  Fort Watauga, Fort Caswell
 attacked in 1776– 150 settlers; 12-year old Moore boy captured from here and burned to death in Tuskegee #93 (AT)
 on the Watauga River near Elizabethton
 Ann Robertson (sister of James) formed Bucket Brigade to pour scalding water on attacking Cherokees
 Description– Annals pg 140-141
 Maps– HT, OM, CA
 1776 received settlers from Gillespie's Station (warned by Ward) (GW); drove back Old Abram and his men.  Mrs. Bean was captured her and condemned to death.  Nancy Ward intervened.  40 men manned it.
 Group of cabins in rectangular shape connected by stockade walls; court house and jail nearby (OM)

X 510.  Treaty of Sycamore Shoals
 March 1775; Watauga River
 1775 Treaty– Purchase of Transylvania; Dragging Ganoe's "curse" on land (T)
 1780– Sevier gathered 1000 men, along with women, children and cattle to go to King's Mountain.  Rev. Samuel Doak sent them out with a sermon– "The sword of the Lord and of Gideon."  (T)

X 511.  David Craig's Fort
 Opposite Tellico, North of Little Tennessee
 Sevier launcher raids in 1788 (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp., 164-5)
 280 men, women, and children living there in "small huts for protection"-- 1792 (AT)

X 512.  Houston's Fort (Station)
 Southwest of Maryville, 16 miles south of Knoxville
 Maps– OM, HT
 1786 Hugh Barry killed there after "Citico Massacre" (AT)
 1786 Sevier gathered militia there for attack– 160 men (AT)
 1788 Fort attacked 
 THM, 143

X 513. Kirk Family Massacre 

X 514.  Great Indian War Trail Path
 See # 535
 Ley line
 THM, 4

515.  McMahan Indian Mound
 THM, 137

X 516.  Long Island of Holston, Fort Patrick Henry, Fort Robinson, Treaty of 1761
 Maps– OM, HT, CA
 Location: Gravel lot between Holston River and Tennessee Eastman Warehouse 245 off Hwy 93 in Kingsport, TN, going toward Fordtown.  (Cross bridge over Holston, go underneath.)  200 yards below the upper end of Long Island of Holston. 
 Fort Patrick Henry built 1776– some of Christian's men went into winter quarters there after expedition (AT)
 Fort Robinson built 1752 by Virginians under Col. Adam Stephen; formed settlement briefly; retreated east of Kenhawa;  (stockade walls 3 sides, Rover on 4th; 200 yds below upper end of Island.) (OM)
 1777 Avery Treaty (Long Island of Holston Treaty) site–(ET); occasion of Old Tassel's speech in which he discussed differences in cultures.  (OM) Treaty reserved the Island for the use of Nathaniel Gist, Sequoyah's father.  (GW) Gist was a tory in 1777 but switched sides.  (GW) 
 Finally Ceded this island sacred to the Natives for millenia in 1806 Treaty

X 517.  Tallahassee Tallassee
 Overhill Town; Tahlasi– Little Tennessee in Blount County (SW)
 Upstream from Calderwood Dam
 Uppermost of Cherokee Towns
 THM, 142
 Tipton and 150 men destroyed town
 1788 Sevier's men burned it after Kirk family killed; many Cherokees killed.  (T) Flooded by Tellico Dam (invasion)
 Near here John Kirk assassinated Old Abram, Old Tassel, et. al., in retaliation or #513 (AT, 419-421)

X 518.  Chilhowee
 Overhill Town
 Tellico River, Monroe County (SW)
 1780 Campbell found it deserted, burned it  (AT).   9 from Chilhowee and Settico killed by men from Augusta County, VA.  Lewis went & captured 2 white murderers who were jailed.  100 backsettlers broke them out of jail.  2 towns held grudge.  (JS)
 1788– Betrayal, assassination of Old Tassel and others.  (AT)

X 519.  Great Tellico (Talequah)
 THM, 170
 Overhill Town (see also Fort Loudon)
 Great Tellico– Tellico Plains– Monroe County (SW)
 1776 Found deserted by Christian who destroyed it.  (AT)
 1780 Fugitives from other towns there
 1780 30-40 houses on poles, covered with bark.  Watts and Noonday met Sevier's men with terms of peace– did not destroy it.  (AT) (V)
 Site of Ambush of men from Loudon (See Fort Loudon)
 1730 visit of Cuming; Great Ceremony; emperor Moytoy pledged allegiance to king.  (AT)

X 520.  Fort Loudon Massacre
 August 10, 1760
 THM, 170

X 521.  Tuskegee
 THM, 152
 Overhill Town– Monroe County (SW)
 Where Moore boy was killed (R)
 Originally Occupied by Tuskeegees (SW)
 Sequoyah's Birthplace

X 522.  Tanasi (Tenasee, Tennessee)
 THM, 153
 Tennessee– Overhill Town
 1780 burned by Sevier's men
 Attakullakulla Grew up here (invasion)
 English trader reported a stockade here for protection– 1670s   300 yards square with houses enclosed– some 2 or 3 rooms (invasion)

523.  Trading Ground
 THM, 95

524.  Fort John Craig (Maryville)
 THM, 145
 Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp., 162-3

X 525.  Forks of the River Ceremonial Site
 Lebanon in the Fork

526.  War Ford
 THM, 125

527.  Swaggerty Fort
 THM, 125

528.  Grave of James Robertson
 THM, 127

529.  Yoakum's Station 
 THM, 127

530.  Murder of George Mann
 THM, 130

531.  Island Road

532.  Battle of Island Flats 
 THM, 2, 118
 1776– site of Revolutionary War battle with Cherokees–defeated, many killed.  (OM)
 Dragging Canoe wounded in thigh. 

533.  Eaton's Fort (Station)
 THM, 2
 Holston River, east of Patrick Henry– 5 miles east of Kingsport
 Maps– OM
 Built by Amos Eaton near Reedy Creek
 Militia assembled here for Battle of Island Flats (OM)
 1776– Carter Valley men retreated here, warned by Nancy Ward (GW)

534.  Rice's Mill Battle 
 April 1777
 THM, 3

535.  Dodson's Ford 
 On Great Indian trading path
 See # 514
 THM, 123

536.  Newell's Station
 Southeast of Knoxville
 Maps– HT
 Built after 1785 Treaty of Dumplin Creek when settlers came in (AT)
 THM, 140

537.  Robertson's Fort
 From here in 1779 col Evan Shelby embarked down river Holston to attack Chickamauga Towns
 THM, 5

538.  Clouds Creek
 Indian Boundary
 THM, 6

539.  Bean Station
 THM, 7
 Man named English killed here
 James Kirkpatrick killed between Station and Holston (AT)

540.  Campbell's
 15 miles SW of Knoxville
 Maps– OM, HT, CA
 1792– not manned (AT)
 Before that, one of strongest manned posts on the "Border" (HC)
 Established by Col. David C. King and Family– fought at King's Mountain (AT)
 Road from there to Nashville opened 1788 (AT)

541.  Carter's Womack's
 Head of Watauga

542.  Calvin's
 on Little River
 Maps– HT
 1794– attack on Station– escaped to Southwest Point Station (AT)

544.  Gamble's
 on Little River
 Maps– HT
 1792– manned by 8 (AT)
 1793– Cherokees stole 3 of Davidson's horses; 80 men assembled to go attack Cherokee Towns; Blount restrained them (AT)

545.  Gist's, or Underwood's
 1783– friendly whites held peace talks there and protected 8 Cherokees attending from Hubbard and his men (AT)

546.  Henry's (Samuel Henry)
 on Little River
 Maps– HT
 1792– manned by 6 (AT)
 1793– attacked– Telford was taken prisoner and "butchered" (AT)

X 547.  Hunters
 SW of Maryville
 Gillespie protected Cherokee prisoner here; Sevier released him
 Maps– OM, HT
 Sevier gathered militia here after Kirk Massacre– 1788; several hundred men went from here to burn Hiwassee, Tallassee, other towns; many Cherokees killed (AT)

X 548.  Ish's
 Little Tennessee–across from Coyatee
 Maps– HT, CA
 1792– manned by 8 (AT)
 across river from Knoxville
 settlers into the area after 1785 Treaty of Dumplin Creek
 1793 headquarters of Sevier for gathering militia– time of attack on Cavitt's Station

549.  Raccoon Valley
 near Knoxville– 18 miles away
  1792– manned by 2 (AT)
 1793– Thomas Gillam and son James killed and scalped here

550.  Sherrill's
 Lick Creek
 Maps– CA
 1788– attack on Fort; Sevier's men drove off Cherokees (AT)

551.  Well's
 between Clinch and Holston; Hind's Valley
 Maps– HT
 1792– manned by 6 (AT)
 1792– 2 white boys killed here (AT)

552.  Wolf Hills
 Watauga area of Virginia, near Abingdon
 Maps– HT
 1776– Creswell killed by attacking Cherokees; Rev. Charles Cummings and his servant drove them off (AT)

553.  Big Island Town, Great Island Town
 (two different towns) 
 553 A  Overhill town– Little Tennessee
 553 B  French Broad, opposite Adair's Station
 Maps– HT
 Sevier gathered militia here before 1782 expedition (AT)
 also called Sevier's Island (FB)
 1780– Sevier gathered 700 men here to attack Overhills
 Called "Big Island Town" by Woodward and Swanton
 1776– Christian found it deserted; camped there with his men' HQ (AT)
 Maps– CA
 1777– Dragging Canoe's town; many homeless moved to Chicamauga towns (GW)

X 554.  Chota (Chote), "Echota," "Great Echota"
 Overhill "Peace" Town
 spared by Christian 1776 (AT), Attakullkulla– 2nd in command, Oconostota– Great Warrior 
 1780– not destroyed by Sevier's men.  Returned for 2 day Peace (AT) Council with hanging Maw; prisoner exchange
 1782– Sevier had council there with "friendly" Cherokees after destroying towns of "hostile" Cherokees (AT)
 Raven, warrior Chief from here (AT)
 Nancy Ward was Beloved Woman, war Woman (CW)-- her birthplace 1740 (or 1732?)  (OM)
 Hostage at FPG, Tony of Chota, died of smallpox 1760 (R)
 great townhouse here
 Flooded by Tellico Dam (invasion)
 1799– 5 houses
 1813– only one Cherokee lived here (invasion)

555.  Chatuga
 Overhill Town– farthest south
 Tellico River– Monroe County– SW

556.  Chewase
 on branch of Tennessee (SW)

X 557.  Coyatee, Coytee, Hanging Maw's town (OM)
 Overhill town– farthest North–present "Coytee" (SW)
 warriors refused to sell corn to Nolichucky whites after finding rifles in their canoes.  Nancy Ward made peace, and they exchanged clothing for corn.  (AT)
 site of 1786 Treaty ceding land between French Broad and Little Tennessee; 200 Franklinites stood over the chiefs who signed, with rifles (OM) (GW) Annals, pg 344– Old Tassel's speech 

558.  Conisca
 on a branch of Tennessee River (SW)
 1792– Peace talks with Blount; ceremony with 2000 warriors (OM)

559.  Ellijay
 Ellejoy Creek near Maryville, Blount County

560.  Greasy Cove
 Sevier gathered militia here before 1782 expedition (AT)
 1778– first white settlers (AT)

X 561.  Gusti
 Tennessee River at Kingston, Roane County (SW)
 See Legends,  41.

X 562.  Hiwassee, Great Hiwassee
 Hiwassee River, Polk County (SW)
 Oconostota's Town– 1794 COM
 1759– Cherokees from Hiawassee were meeting with French on Coosa River.  (R)
 1760– forced two whites to go to war with them.  (R) 
 1780's– only a few houses remaining (CW)
 1780– Burned by Sevier's men (F)
 1788– Sevier burned it (F)
 Birthplace of The Ridge (F)

563.  Halfway Town
 halfway between Settico and Chilhowee

564.  Kawanunyi
 about present Ducktown, Polk County (SW)

565.  Kansaki
 Canasauga Creek in Polk County (SW)

566.  Kanasta
 on French Broad (FB)

567.  Kanuga
 on Big Pigeon River (FB)

568.  Painted Rock Town
 near site where French Broad crosses North Carolina/Tennessee Border
 Maps– HT, FB

X 569.  Nancy Ward's grave, Monument
 Benton, TN

570.  Natchey
 Town just south of Overhills
 Maps– CA

571.  Neowee
 1776– Christian found it destroyed; destroyed it.  (AT)

572.  Ocoee
 Ocoee River; present Benton, Polk county (SW)

X 573.  Settico, Sitiku, Citico
 (Monroe County) Overhill town; see Chilhowee; Mortar's Town
 1781– Nancy Ward helped 5 white traders escape (destined for execution) (GW)
 1780– probably burned by Campbell, who found it deserted (AT)
 1784– Noonday murdered here by James Hubbard.  (GW)
 1788– Cherokees ambushed whites who came to pick apples; killed 16, mutilated bodies; Evans and Ish led army through town, killed 2.  (AT)

574.  Tamotley
 Overhill town
 1776– Christian's men camped in deserted town (AT)

575.  Tsiyahi
 Cade's Cove, Cover Creek, Blount County (SW)

576.  Toquo
 Mouth of Toco Creek, Monroe County (SW)
 Will Elder's town– 1774
 1780– burned by Sevier's men (F)

577.  Tuckaleeone
 East of Chilhowee near NC Border (T's continued after W's)
 Maps– HT

578.  Waldern's Ridge
 (Rhea County–"Walden" north of Dayton near "Cumberland Escarpment"?)
 "Toll Gate" on Trail of Tears– in Cumberland Mountains on way to MeMinnville.  Rev.  Jones' group was forced to pay $40 for wagons to pass through.  Gatekeeper agreed that other groups could pay half.

579.  Wococee
 Between Little Tennessee and Hiwassee Rivers
 Maps– HT

X 580.  Roan Mountain
 Most varied plants on earth (?)-- attracts botanists from all over world
 Strong winds, no trees on summit
 site of Battles (?)
 Place of Cherokee and Catawba Ceremonies
 Important New Age site– strong connection to moon; hundreds come to celebrate the full moon at summer solstice annually
 Home of "Mountain Deva" (?)

X 581.  Watauga, Watauga Old Fields
 see also Watauga Fort, Fort Caswell)
 present Elizabethton
 site of Ancient Cherokee town, deserted at First European contact
 former Tipton Plantation

582.  Tsistetsiyi
 South Moose Creek off Hiwassee– Bradley County

583.  Tsistuyi
 Hiwassee at Chestua Creek– Polk County (SW)
 once occupied by Yuchis (SW)

584.  Ustanali
 Eastaunaula Creek–McMinn County (SW)

X 585.  Massacre of Old Tassel and Old Abraham
 John Kirk's Massacre of Old Tassel, Old Abram, et. al.
 Near Tallassee (#517)

586. Wood's Fort
 Between Nolichucky and French Broad

587. Tlanuwo-i & Utlutuyi
 Two Spiritistic locations; Spirit hawks nest & Spearfinger's haunt
 At Citico at base of Chilhowee Mountain.  See Legends

588.  Waginsi
 site of serpent's home; See Legends

X 589.  Old Fort Marr Prison (Concentration) Camp
 Only one of the death camps still standing from that time.
Benton, TN; See Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.,  116-117.

590.  Tumbling & Indian Creeks
 Hiding Place for Cherokees during 1838 Removal
 See Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.; Tumbling Creek Campground - land granted to one Cherokee who eluded Federal troops.

591.  Zion Hill Baptist Church
 Turtletown, TN
 home church for many Cherokees who eluded Capture
 See Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp., 124-125.
 Established by Cherokees who evaded removal.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 124)
Cherokee Country, Compiled Map 1937
Cherokees, Woodward– Towns in the Federal Period 1785-1838
Map From Cherokee Tragedy
James Mooney's Map of 1900

X 600.  Cayoca, Blythe's Ferry
 Chicamauga Lake, site mostly under water (FG  97)
 At Hiwassee Island or Jolly's Island, mouth of Hiwassee River 
 former Yuchi and Creek town established by Cherokees 1770's 
 John Jolly born here 
 Houston lived here
 Two ferries, one operated by Blythe; married to daughter of Richard fields, Cherokee

X 601.  Conasauga
 TN, east of Red Clay (#565?)  (Same as Kannsaki?)
 Woodward Map of 1785
 Methodist Mission here in 1825
 Cherokees taken to Fort Hetzel in 1838

X 602.  Chatanuga Town
 Where Chattanooga Creek empties into Tennessee River
 Established 1776 by followers of Dragging Canoe
 Joseph Martin found it deserted in 1788; Ambushed by Chicamaugans; he buried his dead there and burned it (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  83)

X 603.  Jesse Bushyhead Home Site
 Cleveland, Tennessee
 Cherokee pastor translated worship into Cherokee language; attended Candy's Creek Mission
 (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  110)

604.  Blood Mountain
 NE of Dahlonega
 One of legendary homes of the Nunnehi, or Little People. 
 Two theories exist about the origin of the name– that it was either the site of a Creek-Cherokee battle or a 1776 battle between Cherokees and Williamson's SC forces (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  306)

605.  Brown's Valley
 Near Guntersville
 Chicamaugan Town (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  362)

X 606.  Chicamauga
 SW on Chicamauga Creek near Chattanooga
 1937 Cherokee Country Map
 One mile long
 Dragging Canoe and Big Fool Chiefs
 In 1779 Shelby surprised 500 Cherokees there who fled.  He burned the town.  So did Sevier's men in 1780.  (AT)

607.  Coldwater
 Near Muscle Shoals, Alabama
 1937 Cherokee Country Map
 Burned by Robertson 1787

X 608.  Coosawattee, Cusawatee– SW
 Cherokee Country Map of 1837
 Lower Coosawattee River; Gordon County, GA
 Established as lower town in 1774  (AT)
 Burned by Sevier's men 1780 (AT)
 Doublehead displayed Overall and Burnett's scalps to incite scalp dance and war (GW)
 Also called Coosawattee Old Fields as it was established on site of ancient Coosa town.
 600 inhabitants at time of removal 
 on Federal Road 
 Baptist and Methodist Missions here inn 1823
 Site is underwater after Carter's Dam was built (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  323)
 Warriors participated in 1794 raid on Cavett's Station (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  330)

X 609.  Crow Town
 (SW) Left bank of Tennessee River near mouth of Raccoon Creek
 Cherokee County, Ala-Stevenson
 Established as one of "Five Lower Towns" in 1774
 Probably burned by Sevier's men in 1780 (AT)
 1937 Cherokee Country Map
 Was originally a town of the early Crow Creek culture group
 now underwater (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  349)

X 610.  Chieftain's Museum
 Rome, GA  home of Ridge where Removal Treaty was negotiated
 "Ridge" story
 Place to understand perspective of Treaty Party?  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  328)

X 611.  Fort Mountain
 Chatsworth, GA
 Ancient 850 ft rock wall
 Built by ancient people (Europeans?) who preceded Cherokees
 Cherokee name–Cohutta Mountain (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  319)

X 612.  Grand Canyon of the Tennessee
 East of Chattanooga
 4 Indian trade paths crossed here
 Great Indian War trail
 Chicamauga path
 Cisca and San Augustine path (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  66) 

X 613.  Hiwassee Agency 
 Birchwood, TN
 See Fort Cass and Rattlesnake Springs
 (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  98)
 Main Cherokee Agency of the Cherokees 1816-1821
 1817 Treaty with major land cession signed here
 Treaty engineered by Jackson and Joseph McMinn 
 Government of Tennessee

614.  Ikatikunahita
 (SW) on Long Swamp Creek at boundary of Forsyth and Cherokee County, GA

615.  Itseyi
 (SW) Upper Brasstown Creek of Hiwassee, Towns County, GA
 Name means "New Green Place," but called Brasstown by Whites (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  304)
 Brasstown Bald highest peak in GA

X 616.  Hightower
 Rome City Cemetery
 at Confluence of Coosa
 Etowah and Oostanaula Rivers
 Corruption of the word Etowah
 Location in downtown Rome
 After destruction in 1793, probably relocated upstream near Cartersville (also called Etowah)
 Site of 1793 battle between Sevier's men and Chicamaugans
 Sevier's last battle, and he burned the town
 Kingfisher, who had commanded the Chicamaugans, died in the battle (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  331)

617.  Gunter's Landing
 Guntersville, Alabama
 One half mile NW was the site of an early Mississippian village, protected by a swamp, the river, and another stream
 A log stockade surrounded the village and mound
 The site was flooded by Guntersville Dam
 John Gunter and his Cherokee wife, Catherine, built a trading post and ferry on the old trading path in 1785
 Important stop for fuel and supplies for steamboats in 1838 removal (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  358)

X 618.  Long Island
 Tennessee River
 (SW) Long Island of River on Tennessee-Georgia border
 Established as lower town 1774 (AT)
 Refugees fled there from Sevier's raids in 1780 (AT)

X 619.  Little Owl's Town 
 Chicamauga Town
 Burned by Shelby in 1779
 Probably burned by Sevier's men in 1780 (AT)

X 620.  Lookout Mountain Town
 Located on Lookout Creek in TN near Tiftonia (one town or two?)  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  31)
 Established as Lower Town 1774 (AT)
 Burned by Sevier's men 1780 (AT)
 Doublehead displayed scalps of Overall and Burnett to incite scalp dance and war (GW)
 1937 Cherokee Country Map–GA
 Cherokee Tragedy map–GA
 Also called Stecoe (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  87)

621.  Melton's Bluff
 Chicamauga Town (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  362)
 John Melton married a Cherokee and established a cotton plantation
 Cherokees here signed Cotton Gin Treaty of 1806 which ceded land.  Some migrated west to avoid persecution.  Melton's son later sold plantation and slaves to Andrew Jackson (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  367)

X 622.  Monee Town
 Fox Creek in Lawrence County, AL
 Chicamauga Town (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  362)

623.  Muscle Shoals
 Doublehead controlled this area for many years (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  362)

 First called Mussel Shoals, named for freshwater mussels in the River
 In this area, the river dropped 134 ft in 37 miles, making it almost impossible to navigate.  In the 1830's, a railroad by-pass was built.  People and goods were taken off steamboats at one end of shoals and taken by train to the other end, Tuscumbia Landing   (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  369).

 Around 1788 a TN land company tried to settle and develop this area, known to be rich in minerals.  The Georgia legislature was involved.  The President declared White settlers outside the protection of US and at the mercy of the Cherokees under Hopewell Treaty.  Dragging Canoe drove the settlers back to Franklin.  Sevier had always wanted this land.  (GW).

 1794– Whites going down river were attacked by John Bowles (Chief of Running Water) and his men.  All men killed, but women an children sent down river in a boat.  Cherokee leaders convened a Council, told the US government that they had no part in the massacre and that Bowles believed that the murdered whites had defrauded them in a land deal.  He and his party moved to AR.  Their established town there was outside of the land ceded to the Cherokees in AR in 1817.  In 1819 Bowles and 60 families moved to TX where they were forced out in 1839.  Bowles, age 80, was killed in the Battle of Neches.  (HC; R)
 Land north of the Tennessee River from Hiwassee as far as MS
 Sold in Treaty of 1806 by Doublehead (JE 72)
 After Doublehead's death, MS land was bought by bribes to 3 Chiefs – 1807 (JE 49)
 Meigs agent in both

X 624.  New Echota
 (SW) Junction of Oostanaula and Conosauga Rivers, Gordon County, GA
 1825 Capitol of Cherokee Nation
 Cherokee Phoenix newsletter in Cherokee alphabet was published beginning in 1828
 Rev. Worcestor arrested here by GA Guard 1835
 Treaty signed here (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  324)
 US agents and protestant missionaries influenced early Cherokee law (CW  149)
 Site of capitol chosen by ridge (JE)
 1830 Missionaries representing Moravians, Congregationalists, Baptists, and Presbyterians met here to sign a joint statement of support for Cherokees.  Methodists had already signed a similar document.  (GGR  43)

X 625.  Nickajack
 (SW) S. Bank of Tennessee River, Marion County, TN
 See Taskigi
 Established as Lower Town 1774 
 Near Great Crossing of the Tennessee River where Creeks crossed into TN (HC)
 Burned by Sevier's men 1780 (AT)
 After continued raids on White settlements, Maj. James Ore destroyed it on 9-13-1794.  He was told to spare women and children.  (AT) (GW))
 Kiachatalee of Nickajack killed by Robertson's men 1792.  (HC)

X 626.  Notley  (or Notally)
 1837 Cherokee Country Map
 Townspeople told Baptist Mission Board they would supply food if they could have a school (unknown if school established) (CW)

X 627.  Oostanaula
 on Coosa River (AT)
 Mooney's Map of 1900
 Burned by Sevier 1793 (OM)
 Cherokee Country Map of 1937– Headwater of a creek of Coosa River, see Ustanaly
 Cherokee Tragedy Map– 1825 Methodist Mission here

X 628.  Oothcaloga
 (SW) on Oothcaloga Creek of Oostanaulaa River
 Woodward Map of 1785– Oochgeelogy

X 629.  Rossville
 Ross family home (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  71)

X 630.  Running Water
 (SW) SW Bank of Tennessee River
 4 miles above Nickajack
 Established as Lower Town in 1774 (AT)
 Burned by Sevier's men in 1780 (AT)
 After continued raids on white settlements, Maj. James Ore destroyed it on 9-13-1794.  He was told to spare women and children.  (GW) (AT)
 Base for raids by Dragging Canoe and Watts  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  89) 
 Shawnee warrior of Running Water killed by Robertson's men in 1792.  (HC)
 Town protected by steep banks of river
 site now under Nickajack Lake (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  89)

X 631.  Ostenaco's Village
 Near Vannville on Wolftever Creek (Judd's or Ooltewah Creek)
 Established 1776 when Chicamaugans left the Overhills
 Burned by Shelby 1779 (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  96)
 Joseph Vann moved here in 1834 when forced out of GA 
 Town of Vannville established
 Under Chickamauga Lake now (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  96)

X 632.  Red Clay
 Cleveland, TN (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  112)
 Seat of Cherokee Government 1832-1838 when council meetings at New Echota were outlawed by GA state laws

X 633.  Fort Cass
 49 Square mile death camp. Main one. Lewis Ross's House– Charleston, TN.  John's brother who was entrusted with arrangements for removal.  Being wealthy, he took his family west by steamboat.  Most Cherokees went on foot or by wagon.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  103)
 Henegar House
 Internment Camp (1 of 3) (See also Hiwassee Agency and Rattlesnake Springs)
 HQ of Gen. Winfield Scott during removal
 Several thousand (2,000-18,000) Cherokees were held in nearby stockades
 Charleston became the main embarkation point.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 103)

 X Rattlesnake Springs:
 S. of Charleston, TN
 Fort Cass located nearby
 Cherokees (8,000-13,000) in camps along 12 mile wide strip
 Site of 1838 council after Cherokees saw that removal was inevitable (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 106)
 Camp at landing on river – ½ mile from town, 3/4 mile from Agency
 28 enclosures with weatherproof roofs – 16 ft square of "rough open log work" (IR)
 Traders in boats brought cakes, pies, fruit and whisky to sell to Cherokee
 The camp attracted all types of wrong influences and "worthless white men"

X 634.  John Ross Home
 Flint Springs, TN
 1832 Home when councils held at Red Clay.  He and John Payne arrested here in 1835 to prevent his trip to DC–by GA Guard.  Held for 12 days and released, he went to DC.  New Echota Treaty signed in his absence.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  112)

X 635.  Ross Landing
 Present Chattanooga
 Near "Hawk's Hole" Bluff
 Ross built ferry and warehouse on Tennessee River (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  74)

X 636.  Fort Hinar
 Six's Town:  Mooney's Map of 1900
 1937 Cherokee Country Map-- Near Taliwa
 Possible site of Fort Hinar
 Also called Sixes Fort
 Cherokee County, GA
 Earliest built – Sept. 1830
 Housed GA guard 
 1830 – report states that the soldiers destroyed mining equipment and burned buildings to establish the fort (GA Magazine)
 Probably originally built to station federal troops sent to guard the gold mines and protect Cherokees.
 2 possible sites – Sixes Old Town under Lake Allatoona or at Sutalee on Hwy 20 between Canton and Cartersville

 Sutali: (SW) on Etowah River, SW Cherokee County, GA
 Possible site of Fort Hinar; Location is on Hwy 20 between Cartersville and Canton

X 637.  Sallyquoah
 Present Fairmount, GA– Gordon County
 Warriors participated in 1793 raid on Cavett's Station (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  330)
 1825 Methodist Mission here
 1782 Treaty signed here– ceded land between Savannah and Chattahoochee to state of GA (  322)

638.  Standing Peach Tree
 (SW) On Chattahoochee River
 Mouth of Peachtree Creek
 NW of Atlanta
 Site of Creek village on both sides of river
 called Pakanahuili
 In 1812 the river was the Creek-Cherokee boundary with Cherokee NW of the river.
 Fort Gilmer, renamed Fort Peachtree, was built here. 
 Now Atlanta Water Works property (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  337)

639.  Taliwa
 Boundary dispute (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  312)
 1937 Cherokee Country Map
 Site of 1755 Battle with Creeks
 Nancy Ward's husband Kingfisher was killed.  At age 17, she rallied warriors to victory– became War Woman. 
 Bryan Ward (future husband) was there.  (See Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp.  311)

640.  Talking Rock
 (SW) Talking Rock Creek of Coosawattee River, GA

641.  Taskigi (Tuskeegee?)
 (SW) N. Bank of Tennessee River just below Chattanooga
 originally occupied by Tuskegee tribe (SW)
 1937 Cherokee Country Map– Tuskeegee
 Founded in 1776 by Bloody Fellow– included Brown's Valley and Williams Island (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 79)
 1788 Vann treacherously captured and killed Brown family
 Joseph, a child, held captive for a year at Nickajack– later showed whites only trail over mountains (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 92)

642.  Turkey Town
 CW  88, 144
 see Fort Lovell
 (SW) W bank of Coosa River opposite center
 Cherokee County, AL
 Cherokee Country map of 1937
 Birth place of John Ross
 Warriors participated in 1794 raid on Cavett's Station (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. p 331)
 1813- Jackson sent detachment to defend the town from Red Stick Creeks (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. p 253)
 One of the largest towns in the 1800's
 20-30 miles long on both sides of the river
 Pathkiller was chief and owned a plantation here, probably with slaves (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. p 355)
 1816 Treaty signed here, ceding both Cherokee and Chickasaw land (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. p 92)
 About 1827 Chief told convert, John Huss, not to return to Turkeytown or he would put his eyes out–Huss defied him(JE 28)
 1813 – Ridge and his men camped here before attack on Red Sticks at the village of Tallassiehatchee.  They found it burned by a white company, with the bodies of men, women, and children decomposing.  His men scalped some of the bodies.  (JE 110)
 About 1828, John Ridge bought the ferry here from the estate of Pathkiller.  John was a lawyer and executor.  (JE 222)

X 643.  Turniptown
 (SW) Turniptown Creek above Ellijay
 Gilmer County, GA
 Doublehead displayed scalps of Overall and Burnett to incite scalp dance and war (GW)
 1937 Cherokee Country Map- called Turnip Mountain
 1838 Cherokees taken to Fort Hetzel
 White Path – full blood chief, opposed the "progressive Christian section" (CM 38)

644.  Track Rock Gap
 Blairsville, GA
 Ancient Petroglyphs (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. p 302) 

X 645.  Spring Place Mission
 James Vann helped establish a Moravian Mission and school here.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 318)
 Confiscated (later received compensation) by state of GA and forced to close 1833.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 326)
 1801– Moravians from Salem, NC asked Vann for land for Mission, opened in 1802.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 38)
 Moravians allowed converted men to keep more than one wife, unlike ABFM and Baptists.  (CW 175)
 John Ross was held here for 12 days by GA guard to keep him from interfering with New Echota Treaty. (CM 17)
 1838 – Cherokees from Fort Hetzel brought here
 Chiefs came here to inquire about earthquakes (JE 91) (1811)
 Ridge one of Chiefs who asked Moravians – their opinion was that it was warning of Whites to leave land.  Moravians said – sent by God to forewarn

6X 46.  Vann House
 Spring Place in GA
 James Vann was wealthy.  He owned 50 slaves, a tavern, distillery, several ferries, and a plantation. (RW p 208)
 James was shot in nearby tavern in 1809.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. p 316)
 Doublehead and Vann married to sisters.  Doublehead beat his pregnant wife, and killed her.  Some of Vann's men killed Doublehead o Mrs. Vann's behalf.  (CW p 50)
 James Vann's will left most of estate to son Joseph and none to other wife and children.  Council intervened to make provision for others, which started a family feud.  Disposal was against matrilineal system.  (CW)

X 647.  Williams Island
 See Taskigi
 Important archaeological site – Palisaded Village and burial mound
 John Brown built ferry across Tennessee River in 1800.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. p 79)

X 648.  Willstown
 (SW) on Wilks Creek, below Fort Payne, Dekalb County, AL
 Doublehead displayed scalps of Overall and Burnett to incite scalp dance and war.  (GW)
 1937 Cherokee Country Map
 Sequoyah and John Ross's family both lived here briefly
 See Fort Payne – site of removal fort (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. p 349)
 Named for Chief Red Head Will
 1825 Methodist Mission in Will's Valley, AL

X 649.  Ustanali
 Near New Echota
 See Oostanaula
 Forks of Conasauga and Coosawattee Rivers at present day Resaca
 In 1793 Sevier and his men (after attack on Cavett's Station) camped here and took several prisoners to get information on the identity of the raiders.  They told him that warriors from Ustanali,_________, Turkeytown, and Coosawattee had participated.  Sevier rested a few days, burned Ustanali, and pursued the raiders to Hightower.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. p 330)

X 650.  Nauhatchie Pike
 Last Battle of American Revolution
 1788 Battle between Chicamaugans led by Dragging Canoe and Joseph Martin's men (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. p 84)

X 651.  John Walker Jr. House
 Cleveland, TN
 Walker was great-grandson of Nancy Ward
 Two wives – one was Nancy, sister of Jesse Bushyhead, who lived with him.  His other wife was Emily, granddaughter of US Agent Miegs.
 He supported removal and was ambushed and shot in 1834.  James Foreman, a Cherokee, was charged with the murder but escaped.  Stand Watie later killed Foreman.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. p 109)

X 652.  Brainerd Mission
 Near Chattanooga – Chicamauga Creek
 1830 Worchester Asserted that majority of Cherokees were Christian.  However, Church membership at that time was 1,000  out of 15,000.  (CW p 171)
 Founded in 1817 by American Board of Foreign Missions (ABFM). Like New England settlement (CM 28)
  Site purchased by Miegs – US Agent
 First Agricultural school in US
 A part of effort to assimilate Cherokees into culture.
 1822 – 30-40 buildings on property and 10 "satellite" missions in the area
 Closed 8-19-1838 (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. p 70)
 Lewis, brother of John Ross, was a student of Blackburn's at Chicamauga.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. p 47)
 MeMinn, US agent, used manipulative tactics to persuade Cherokees to remove.  He threatened to sell Brainerd to silence missionaries who supported the Cherokees.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. p 101)
 ABFM was interdenominational, mostly Presbyterian and Congregationalists (CW p 160)
 Best grist mills and saw mills
 1835 – White lottery winners brought their logs, and missionaries charged them for the work.  Cherokees resented this cooperation.  (JE 298) 

X 653.  Candy's Creek Mission
 Red Clay, TN (Cleveland)
 ABFM Brainerd Mission
 Mission school opened in 1825 by William and Electra Holland, from Mass.  Began their work at Brainerd Mission.  First school was at their home with 6 students.  Later a schoolhouse, post office, church and boarding school wee built.  84 students attended before it closed in 1837.  Susan Bushyhead, a student, taught a Cherokee language course.  Jesse Bushyhead and Stephen Foreman wee students and later ministers.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 109)

 Except for Methodists, most Mission agencies preferred boarding schools.  (CW 161)

 ABFM Missionaries noted ancestry on church rolls, recruited children of elite Cherokees, and reinforced their belief that Cherokee children were equal in intelligence to whites.  They also sought to teach children white cultural gender roles – boys as farmers, girls trained in "domestic arts" (CW)
 Kingsbury of ABFM wrote Worcester in 1816 that Cherokee "children should be removed as much as possible from the society of the Natives" in boarding schools "to impart to them that knowledge which is calculated to make them useful citizens."  Missionaries, in effect, became surrogate parents and created a Christian family that replaced the matrilineal kinship after benefactors (Cherokee rename for different reasons), taking away another part of identity and family ties.  (CW)

654.  Creek Path Mission
 Guntersville, AL, ABFM Brainerd Mission
 1820 – John Brown sent a letter to Brainerd on behalf of Headmen in his area requesting a school.  (His own children attended Brainerd.)  They promised to send 25 children.  Brainerd sent Daniel Butrick and John Arch (Atsi), a Cherokee student.  With community help, a 17X22 ft building was constructed in two days and worship services were held.  Sunday school was held for white and Cherokee children and a separate class for 15 black children.  The school emphasized scripture study.  By fall some area families voluntarily moved west, at it was abandoned in 1837.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 359)
 Butrick criticized some missionaries for ministering only to the elite.  (CW 164)
 Catherine Brown was educated at Brainerd and opened the girl's school at Creek Path.  (CW 170)
 1727 -- Cherokee boys made excellent speeches on Joseph and his brothers  (CM 49) 

X 655.  Coosawattee Mission
 Carters Lake, GA
 1823 – Baptists opened Mission here.  Bushyhead and Jones often preached here.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 323)
 Baptists incorporated some aspects of Cherokee culture into worship
 Evan Jones allowed traditional medical practices and even activities of conjurors when they did not directly conflict with Baptist theology.  (CW 180,240)
 Jones was outspoken in his opposition of slavery.  Other missionaries opposed it but were reluctant to preach against it.  Bushyhead owned some slaves.  African Americans also walked trail of tears.

X 656.  Hightower Mission
 ABFM Brainerd Mission
 Near Carterville, GA, at Hightower, Etowah Mounds
 1823 – A mission established at Etowah mounds but called Pumpkinville for the river that empties into the Etowah nearby.  It was later called Hightower Mission until it closed in 1831.
 1817 – 8 Cherokee chiefs escorted Rev. Elias Cornelius of ABFM to the mounds for a visit.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 332)
 1831 – Catherine Fuller remained, after other missionaries were arrested, to look after property and teach school. (CM 142)

X 657.  Etowah Mission
 See Hightower
 Mission established at Etowah mounds in 1823

X 658.  Haweis Mission
 Started out of ABFM Brainerd Mission
 Named for an English donor of 50 pounds for the cause of Indian Missions.
 Elizur Butler, missionary, arrested in 1813 by GA guard for failing to take oath of allegiance (CM 130).  He and 11 others including Worcester and Wheeler, who helped him with printing, were prosecuted and sentenced to 4 years hard labor in penitentiary.  Butler was required to walk chained to the neck of a horse.  The 11 were marched 35 miles through water and mire in one day, and later required to March on Sunday.  At night the 11 were chained to beds and forced to listen to profanity and obscenities of Sgt. Brooks of the GA guard.  (CM 138)
 Worcester and Butler separated themselves to preach to more prisoners, each speaking to 60-70 at a time.  (CM 149)
 Butler released in 1833 after 16 months and returned to Haweis.  He remained a year until he was forced out.  He took his family to safety of Brainerd across GA border.  (CM 175)

X 659.  New Echota Mission
 From ABFM Brainerd Mission
 1827 – Worcesters moved here after 2 years at Brainerd.  They went to work with Cherokee Printing Press.  Elias Boudinot had married Harriet Gold, from a white Connecticut family.  They came two days later to work with The Press.
 ABFM sometimes sent missionaries who had difficulty living in community to the Worcesters to be taught "a way of peace."  (CM)
 1834 – Property was seized by a lottery claimant; missionaries moved to Brainerd.  (CM 175)
 Worcester did carpentry in prison and tried to study medical journals to help Cherokees.  (CM 156)
 Worcester released after 16 months in 1833and returned to his station.
 The monthly concert of prayer for foreign missions was held the first Monday night of December of 1831.  Churches "throughout the land" were asked to pray for the deliverance of the missionaries and victory for their cause. (CM 148)
 Worcester employed Elias Boudinot as a Bible Translator.  Although giving him credit for good motives, he completely disagreed with Boudinot's decision to sign New Echota.  Treaty and was alarmed at the opposition against him.  (CM 219)

X 660.  Oothcaloga Mission
 At Belwood, GA, 4 miles south of New Echota
 Founded in 1821 by John Gambold of Spring Place Mission after repeated requests by Cherokees to establish a Moravian Mission.  A later pastor, Henry Gottlieb Clauder , helped convert The Ridge to Christianity. 
 Confiscated by state of GA (later were paid compensation) and forced to close 1833.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 326)

X 661.  Will's Town Mission
 Fort Payne, AL
 ABFM Brainerd Mission
 1823 – Established by Ard Hoyt and the Chamberlains from Brainerd. 
 A 10 acre site was chosen on the main road and close to George Lowrey, a Cherokee leader.  Hoyt's son married Lowrey's daughter.  Sequoyah and David Brown lived with Lowrey and worked on New Testament translation here.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 351)
 William Chamberlain s supported intermarriage of whites and Cherokees.  (CW 147)

662.  Fort Barry Springs
 Broomtown, AL
 Site chosen for the large spring and location close to Cherokee towns.  It was a hastily constructed circular log structure large enough to hold 400-500 families.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 352)

X 663.  Fort Buffington
 Buffington, East of Canton, GA (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 313)–State Market
 Cherokee County, GA
 7000 troops under Scott Rounded up Cherokees in 1838 and took them too 13 Removal Forts in GA (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 312)
 1838 – Report of Captain Hitchcock shows that a state agent delivered 60 muskets and bayonets, ammunition, and 3 kegs of 

X 664.  Fort Campbell
 Dawson County (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 313), Forsyth County, GA
 One of 13 Removal forts in GA, on Federal Road

X 665.  Fort Armstrong
 See Fort Lovell
 Weiss Lake, AL on Williamson Island
 Originally called Fort Armstrong and built during Creek War at Turkeytown. 
 Used as removal fort (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 353)

X 666.  Fort Blaine
 See Fort Newnan
 Pickens County, GA
 Also called Talking Rock or Blaine (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 313)
 One of 13 Removal forts in GA
 Built in 1838 by federal troops
 Named for Gen. Daniel Newnan
 Enclosure of upright logs with rifle towers, log buildings along Federal Rd.
 Several hundred Cherokees held here before being taken to TN
 Site is at Antioch Church Rd and GA Hwy 136 in Blaine.
 The Masonic Lodge and a house are there today.  Antioch Baptist Church , organized on the site in 1848, used one of the fort's buildings.

X 667.  Fort Carters
 Fort Gilmer: 
 Murray County, GA
 On Federal Rd. (Built 1805 through Cherokee Nation) near Cherokee Town of Coosawattee (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 320)
 One of 13 removal forts in GA
 1831 – Missionaries were required to take oath of allegiance to GA.  Many removed their families from GA for safety.  When they returned to preach at Mission Stations, they were arrested and taken to Fort Gilmer.  Worcester was here.  (CM 136)

X 668.  Cedartown Death Camp
 Cedartown, GA; Polk County, GA
 One of 13 removal Forts in GA (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 313)

X 669.  Chastain's Fort
 Towns County, GA
 20 miles NE of East Ellijay in Fannin County (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 313)
 One of 13 Removal forts in GA

X 670.  Citico 
 Hamilton County, TN – Downtown Chattanooga
 Large Internment camp (1 of 3) at foot of Missionary Ridge

671.  Fort Cumming
 Walker County, GA
 Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 313
 Also called Fort Lafayette (state marker)
 Built in 1836 with a stockade and rifle towers in the corners.  It was commanded by Capt. Samuel Farriss and manned by local volunteers.  It is believed to be named for Rev. David Cumming, a Methodist missionary who worked among the Cherokees and went to OK with them.  (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 326)
 One of 13 Removal forts in GA (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 313)
 Port holes were formed by flared notches in the logs.  They were 8-10inches across to allow changing direction for rifle fire.  (GA magazine)

672.  Frogtown Fort
 See Fort Scudders
 See Fort Eaton

673.  Fort Dahlonega
 Fort Embry: At Dahlonega (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 313). 
 May have also been called Fort Lumpkin (Smith map-poster) 
 Lumpkin County, GA
 One of 13 Removal Forts in GA
 Fort Lumpkin

674.  Fort Hetzel
 East Ellijay (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 313)
 Gilmer County, GA (state marker)
 One of 13 removal forts in GA
 James Ellis, a soldier in Col. Lindsay's Regiment of GA volunteers,     Stated that the soldiers at this fort were ordered to bring in Cherokees in 1838 from these towns: Tickanettly, Cartecay, Talona, Town Creek, Turniptown, Mountain Town, conasauga, and Ellijay.  Then they were   to be taken to Spring Place in Murray County.  (Pages from Gilmer County History by Stanley)

X 675.  Fort Hoskins
 Murray County, GA
 At Spring Place (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 313)
 One of 13 removal forts in GA

676.  Fort Means
 Near Kingston in Bartow County (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 313)
 One of 13 removal forts in GA

X 677.  Fort New Echota
 Gordon County, GA
 Also called Fort Wool
 On inspection trip, Gen. Scott was shocked to hear GA guard members say they would not be happy until all Cheeerokees were dead.  In response, he issued strict orders to protect Cherokees.  Orders were mostly disregarded (Int.
 State Marker

X 678.  Fort Payne
  Smith map-poster
  1 of 3 large Internment Camps
 Built on site of Will's Town
 Named for first commander, Capt. John G. Payne
 One of five removal forts in AL
 Only internment camp in Al
 All of the other 10 internment camps were in TN (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 350)

X 679.  Fort Rome
 Floyd County at Rome (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 313)

X 680.  Fort Red Clay
 Red Clay, TN

681.  Auraria
 Lumpkin County 
 (All References -- Georgia Gold Rush)
 1832 – organized as Nuckollsville – in 6 months 150 houses, 20 stores, 15 law offices, 5 taverns
 John C. Calhoun of SC owned local mine
 Renamed Auraria – Latin for gold
 Because of a land title problem, the State chose another site for the County Courthouse -- A Cane Creek site that became Dahlonega.  On July 4, 1833, the two towns held rival celebrations.  Aurarians pronounced a "toast" to the new county seat – "Conceived in sin, brought forth in iniquity, cradled in corruption and located upon destruction."
 No church in 1833.  Antioch Baptist established but they had to disband for a while because worship services were disturbed by drunken miners.
 Today almost a ghost town.
 Pigeon Roost Mine – located just north, Barlow Mining Operations
 One of 3 proposed sited for first discovery of GA gold

682.  Coker Creek
 Same as # 636
 Monroe County, TN
 Gold rush by 1826, preceding GA 
 Garrison of soldiers to protect Cherokees was ineffective (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 126)

683.  Calhoun Mine
 Lumpkin County
 Originally called O'Barr Mine
 Bought by John C. Calhoun
 One of the most famous mines
 Previous owner, Gibson, found a lump of gold ore weighing 9lbs

X 684.  Dahlonega
 (All references – Georgia Gold Rush)
 Lumpkin County
 Established in 1833
 Two nearby sites are reputed to have first gold discovery in GA – on Ward's Creek and on Bear Creek
 Gold discoveries were reported in newspapers in 1829. 
 The gold rush was under way by 1830 when 4,000 miners were panning on nearby Yahoola Creek.
 Two most sought after gold lots in 1832 lottery were east of Dahlonnega on Yahoola Creek – numbers 1031 and 1052
 Named "Dalanigei" in Cherokee means "Yellow Money"
 Town founded in 1833; within a few months 1,000 people lived here with 5,000 in surrounding area.
 Two brothers from Ireland, with previous mining experience, leased two lots.  Within a few years they earned $15,000
 James Boisclair, a "free person of color," had   to buy his lot through a white guardian.  He mined it successfully for 10 years and then built the largest store in town.  Although a part-time preacher, he was expelled from the Baptist church for selling liquor on Sunday.  Besides a saloon, he owned an ice house where Dahlonega Baptist Church now stands.
 One man in Dahlonega wrote that there were as many women there as men and "equally as vile and wicked."  Houses of gambling, dancing, billiards, drinking, and prostitution abounded.
 At the height of the gold rush, as many as 15,000 miners were within a 15 mile radius.
 No church for several years after town founded.  The first church was Baptist.
 US built a mint here, completed in 1838.

685.  Gainesville
 (All references – Georgia Gold Rush) 
 Hall County
 Boom town, trade center, edge of Cherokee Nation, "Gateway to the gold region."
 Elrod Mine, 8 miles north, was a very rich mine
 Corn Tassel, a Cherokee who allegedly committed murder in the Cherokee Nation, was illegally tried here, convicted of murder and hanged here.  Chief Justice Marshall tried to intervene, but the State ignored his citation.
 William Underwood, a supportive attorney, visited an influential Baptist pastor here, known to be honest and just.  Underwood asked, "Parson, is not our state doing a grievous wrong, for which God will hold us and our children to fearful accounts?"  The pastor responded, "I reckon it is as you say.  But then, Judge, we want the land!"

686.  Turtletown
 (SW) Upper GA near TN corner
 1937 – Cherokee Country Map
 1835 census – 48 Cherokee families in Turtletown, Ducktown, and Fightingtown; some hid in Ocoee Gorge during removal (Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokee, pp. 124)

687. Cherokee War Treaty 1761; Cherokee Treaty of 1685 
Ashley Hall Plantation.  1761 treaty ended the Cherokee War and established the new borders which are now the Abbeville, part of Laurens, and Greenville/Spartanburg County lines.  The 1685 treaty involved a promise by the Charleston government to stop selling Cherokees as slaves into the West Indies sugar plantations in return for full trade with the British as opposed to the French.

688. The Congarees Fort
Here in 1759 the Cherokee sachems who had come to protest the gang rape of Cherokee virgins in Keowee by Fort Prince George's commander and two lieutenants were arrested on their way back home and escorted to Fort Prince George and incarcerated.  Ignited the Cherokee Warr 1760-61.

689. Massacre of whites
Three Cherokees spent the night in a settlers' home about 1755?.  The next morning they hacked to death the whole family, but one girl lived to get to the Congarees to tell about it.  Created great terror.

690. Saluda Old Town Treaty 1755
Saluda Old Town has been inhabited as one of the largest cities of South Carolina for 12,000 years. In 1755 Governor Glen and the Cherokees signed a treaty of mutual defense. Glen went home to Charleston and told everyone that the Cherokees had given them all their land!

691. Ninety-Six
Trading post and fortification where two battles occurred involving the Cherokees. One was during the Cherokee War when the commander killed two Cherokees and then let his dogs eat their bodies in view of the Cherokees.  The other was at the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the first battle of that war in SC.

692. Fort

693. Fort Prince
Early settler's fort which experienced a Cherokee raid.

694. Lindley's Old Fort
On the 1761 border with the Cherokee.  Site of battle with the Cherokee at the beginning of the Revolution

695. Long Cane Massacre Site
Settlers fleeing the Cherokee War are overtaken and scalped. One of them John C. Calhoun's grandmother.

696. Long Cane Battle site
Where the Long Cane settlers were first attacked.

697. Fort Moore

698. Treaty of DeWitt's Corner 1777
Treaty after the defeat of the Cherokee in the fall of 1776 at the beginning of the Revolution.  Now Due West on the Cherokee Path. Treaty took place on creek west of town.

699. Battle of Round Mountain, Tryon, NC
Revolutionary War battle won by American Howard because they had an informant Cherokee. I-26 goes though Howard's Gap today.

700.  Treaty of Hopewell, 1785
Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks met at Andrew Picken's plantation "Hopewell" and signed the first treaty with the United States affirming all previous boundaries.  Nancy Ward, the Beloved Woman, was there.

Updated April 13, 2003.
Copyright © 1999 - 2003 Gene Brooks.
Page created February 16, 2002.


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