Total area: 1,919,440 sq km
Land area: 1,826,440 sq km Comparative area: Slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Total 2,602 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
International Disputes Sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with Portugal and not recognized by the UN(Matter now settled); two islands in dispute with Malaysia
Climate Tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain Mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Natural Resources

Natural gas
Fertile soils




Environment Current issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; noise pollution; traffic congestion, resultant increase in pollution levels.
Natural hazards: Occasional floods, severe droughts, and tsunamis
International agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Marine Life
Conservation, Tropical Timber 94
Population 205,000,000+ (July 1995 est.)
Nationality Noun: Indonesian(s)
Adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic Divisions Javanese 45%
Sudanese 14%
Madurese 7.5%
Coastal Malays 7.5%
Chinese 4%
Others 22%

Muslim 87%
Protestant 6%
Roman Catholic 3%
Hindu 2%
Buddhist 1%
Other 1% (1985)
Languages Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official), English, Dutch, local dialects the most widely spoken of which is Javanese
Literacy Age 15 and over can read and write (1990)

Total population: 82%
Male: 88%
Female: 75%
Labor Force 67 million
By occupation:

Agriculture 55%
Manufacturing 10%
Construction 4%
Transport and communications 3%

(1985 est.)

Government Structure Republic
Names Conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
Conventional short form: Indonesia
Local long form: Republik Indonesia
Local short form: Indonesia
Former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies
Capital Jakarta
Administrative Divisions 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions*(daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat,
Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*
Independence 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)
National Holiday Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Constitution August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959
Legal System
Based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Voting Age 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive Branch  
Chief of state and head of government:

President BJ Habibie(as of May 1998)

Ex-President Gen. (Ret.)SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968); Ex-Vice President Gen. (Ret.) Try SUTRISNO (since 11 March 1993)

Cabinet: Cabinet
Legislative Branch  
Unicameral House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR)

Elections last held on 8 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results -
GOLKAR 68%, PPP 17%, PDI 15%; seats - (500 total, 400 elected, 100 military representatives appointed) GOLKAR 282, PPP 62, PDI 56

Note: The People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly elected members who meet every five years to elect the president and vice president and, theoretically, to determine national policy.
Judicial Branch  
Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)  
Political Parties and Leaders

GOLKAR (quasi-official party based on functional groups), Lt. Gen. (Ret.) HARMOKO, general chairman; Indonesia Democracy Party (PDI - federation
of former Nationalist and Christian Parties), Megawati SUKARNOPUTRI, chairman;

Development Unity Party (PPP, federation of former Islamic parties), Ismail Hasan METAREUM, chairman

Member of APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77,
Diplomatic Representation in U.S. Chief of mission: Ambassador Arifin Mohamad SIREGAR
Chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
Consulate(s) General: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
ECONOMY In deep, deep trouble
Economic Crisis See Above
Overview Indonesia is a mixed economy with some socialist institutions and central planning but with a recent emphasis on deregulation and private enterprise.
Indonesia has extensive natural wealth, yet, with a large and rapidly increasing population, it remains a rather poor country. Real GDP growth in 1985-94 averaged about 6%, quite impressive, but not sufficient to both slash underemployment and absorb the 2.3 million workers annually entering the labor force. Agriculture, including forestry and fishing, is an important sector, accounting for 21% of GDP and over 50% of the labor force. The staple crop is rice. Once the world's largest rice importer, Indonesia is now nearly self-sufficient. Plantation crops - rubber and palm oil - and textiles and plywood
are being encouraged for both export and job generation. Industrial output now accounts for almost 40% of GDP and is based on a supply of diverse natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, timber, metals, and coal. Foreign investment has also boosted manufacturing output and exports in recent years.
Indeed, the economy's growth is highly dependent on the continuing expansion of non-oil exports. Japan remains Indonesia's most important customer and supplier of aid. Rapid growth in the money supply in 1989-90 prompted Jakarta to implement a tight monetary policy in 1991, forcing the private sector to go to foreign banks for investment financing. Real interest rates remained above 10% and off-shore commercial debt grew. The growth in off-shore debt prompted Jakarta to limit foreign borrowing beginning in late 1991. Despite the
continued problems in moving toward a more open financial system and the persistence of a fairly tight credit situation, GDP growth in 1992-94 has matched the government target of 6%-7% annual growth.
National Product GDP - purchasing power parity - $619.4 billion (1994 est.)
National Product Real Growth Rate
6.7% (1994 est.)
National Product Per Capita
$3,090 (1994 est.)
Inflation Rate (consumer Prices) 9.3% (1994 est.)
Unemployment Rate 3% official rate; underemployment 40% (1994 est.)
Budget Revenues: $32.8 billion
Expenditures: $32.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $12.9 billion (FY94/95)
Exports $41.3 billion (f.o.b, 1994 est.)
Commodities: Manufactures 56.7%
Fuels 24.8%
Foodstuffs 11.1%
Raw materials 7.4% (1994 est.)
Partners: Japan 30%
U.S. 14%
Singapore 9%
South Korea 6%
Taiwan 4% (1993)
Imports $31.4 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodities: Capital equipment 44.2%
Intermed and raw materials 37.0%
Consumer goods 11.5%
Fuels 7.2% (1994 est.)
Partners: Japan 22%
U.S. 11%
South Korea 7%
Germany 7%
Singapore 6%
Australia 5%
Taiwan 5% (1993)
External Debt $87 billion (1994)
Industrial Production Growth rate 8.4% (1993 est.); accounts for 40% of GDP
Electricity Capacity: 12,100,000 kW
Production: 44 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 207 kWh (1993)
Industries Petroleum and natural gas
Chemical fertilizers
Agriculture Accounts for 21% of GDP; subsistence food production; small-holder and plantation production for export; main products are rice, cassava, peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, other tropical products, poultry, beef, pork, eggs
Illicit Drugs Illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade, but not a major player; government actively eradicating plantings and prosecuting traffickers; growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin; increasing indigenous methamphetamine abuse. Increasing use of psychotropic ecstacy.
Economic Aid


U.S. commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4 billion;

Western (non-US) countries,

ODA and OOF bilateral commitments(1970-89),$25.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $213 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $175 million

Currency 1 Indonesian rupiah (Rp)
Exchange Rates Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1 - 10,500 (February 1998),2,203.6 (January 1995), 2,160.7 (1994),
2,087.1 (1993), 2,029.9 (1992), 1,950.3 (1991), 1,842.8 (1990)
Fiscal Year 1 April - 31 March
Railroads Total: 6,964 km
Narrow gauge: 6,389 km 1.067-m gauge (101 km electrified; 101 km double track); 497 km 0.750-m gauge; 78 km 0.600-m gauge
Highways Total: 119,500 km
Paved: NA
Unpaved: NA
Undifferentiated: provincial 34,180 km; district 73,508 km; state 11,812 km
Inland Waterways 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km
Pipelines Crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)
Ports Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya,Ujungpandang
Merchant Marine Total: 438 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,942,527
GRT/2,818,296 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 26, cargo 259, chemical tanker 7, container 11, liquefied gas tanker 6, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 85, passenger 6, passenger-cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 7, vehicle carrier 4
Airports Total: 450
With paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
With paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
With paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 35
With paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 42
With paved runways under 914 m: 324
With unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 4
With unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 32
Telephone System 763,000 telephones (1986); domestic service fair, international service good
Local: NA
Intercity: interisland microwave system and HF police net; 1 earth station for a domestic satellite International: 2 INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) earth stations

Radio Broadcast stations:
AM 618, FM 38, shortwave 0
Radios: NA
Note: Radio broadcast coverage good
Television Broadcast stations: 9
Televisions: NA
Branches Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police
Manpower Availability Males age 15-49 55,883,688; males fit for military service 32,952,204; males reach military age (18) annually 2,247,586 (1995 est.)
Defense Expenditures Exchange rate conversion - $2.4 billion, 1.5% of GNP (FY94/95)
World Atlas  


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