Languages of India

Republic of India, Bharat. National or official languages: Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Panjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, English (Associate Official). 1,000,000,000 (1999 IMA). 7% classified as tribals. Indo-Aryan languages: 491,087,116, 74.24%, Dravidian languages: 157,836,723, 23.86%, Austro-Asiatic languages 7,705,011, 1.16%, Tibeto-Burman languages 4,071,701, .62% (1987 Mahapatra). 15 national languages. 1,683 'mother tongues' (official figure). An estimated 850 languages in daily use (Todd and Hancock 1986). Literacy rate 36% to 52%. Also includes Judeo-Iraqi Arabic, Armenian 560, Burushaski, Western Farsi 18,000, Geman Deng, Lisu 1,000, Northern Pashto 15,000, Portuguese 250,000, Russian 1,036, Thami, Chitwania Tharu, Kathoriya Tharu, Uyghur, Walungge, Arabic, Chinese. Information mainly from G. Marrison 1967; R. Hugoniot 1970; C. Masica 1991; K.S. Singh 1994, 1995; J. Matisoff et al. 1996; R. Breton 1997; R. Burling ms. (1999). Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Sikh, traditional religion, Buddhist. Blind population 9,000,000. Deaf population 1,500,000 to 55,773,718 (1998). Deaf institutions: 149. Data accuracy estimate: B, C. The number of languages listed for India is 398. Of those, 387 are living languages and 11 are extinct. Diversity index 0.93.

Spoken living languages

A'TONG

[AOT] Assam. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Koch.
 

A-PUCIKWAR

[APQ] 36 (1997 CIIL). Andaman Islands, Boratang Island, south coast of Middle Andaman Island, northeast coast of South Andaman Island. Alternate names: PUCIKWAR, PUCHIKWAR. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central.
 

AARIYA

[AAR] Madhya Pradesh. Classification: Unclassified.

ABUJMARIA

[ABJ] 47,000 including 16,000 in Narayanpur District (1981 GR), 31,000 in Gadchiroli District (1961 census). Some officials estimate up to 100,000 Hill Maria (1998). Maharashtra, Gadchiroli District; Madhya Pradesh, Bastar District, Narayanpur and Bijapur tahsils. In Narayanpur, an administrative block of 200 villages is known as 'Abujhmar block.' Alternate names: ABUJHMADIA, ABUJMARIYA, ABUJHMARIA, ABUJMAR MARIA, HILL MARIA. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi.
 

ADI

[ADI] 110,000 in India (1997 BSI). Population total both countries 113,000. Alternate names: ABOR, ARBOR, LHOBA, LUOBA, BOGA'ER LUOBA. Dialects: PADAM (STANDARD ADI), MINYONG, GALONG (GALLONG, GALO, GALLO), BOKAR (BOGA'ER LUOBA), MILANG. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani.
 

AGARIYA

[AGI] 55,757 (1981 census). Madhya Pradesh, Mandla, Bilaspur, Rewa districts, Maikal hills; Bihar; Maharashtra; Orissa. Alternate names: AGHARIA, AGORIA. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari.
 

AHIRANI

[AHR] 779,000 (1997 IMA). Maharashtra; Gujarat. Alternate names: AHIRI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Khandesi.
 

AIMOL

[AIM] 1,862 (1981 census). Assam; Manipur, Chandel, Senapati districts. Dialects: LANGRONG. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

AITON

[AIO] Several thousand speakers and semi-speakers (1990 A. Diller). Assam. Alternate names: AITONIA. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Northwest.
 

ALLAR

[ALL] 350. Kerala, Palghat District. Alternate names: CHATANS. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified.
 

AMWI

[AML] Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian.
 

ANAL

[ANM] 15,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 15,000 or more. Alternate names: NAMFAU. Dialects: LAIZO, MULSOM, MOYON-MONSHANG. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

ANDH

[ANR] 80,000 (1991 IMA). Maharashtra, Nanded, Parbhani, Yeotmal districts; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh. Alternate names: ANDHA, ANDHI. Classification: Unclassified.
 

ANGIKA

[ANP] 725,000 (1997 IMA). Northern Bihar. Alternate names: ANGA, ANGIKAR, CHHIKA-CHHIKI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari.
 

APATANI

[APT] 23,000 (1997 IMA). Assam; Arunachal Pradesh, Subansiri District, 7 villages in and around Hapoli and Zirol; Nagaland. Alternate names: APA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani.
 

ARAKANESE

[MHV] 24,000 in India (1997 IMA). Assam; Tripura; Mizoram; West Bengal. Alternate names: MOGH, MOG, MAGH, MAGHI, MORMA, YAKAN, YAKHAING, RAKHAIN, MARMA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern.
 

ARANADAN

[AAF] 236 (1981 census). Tamil Nadu; Karnataka; Kerala, Calicut and Palghat Districts. Alternate names: ERANADANS. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam.
 

ARE

[AAG] 2,591 (1961 census). Andhra Pradesh; Maharashtra; Karnataka. Alternate names: ADE BHASHA, ARAY, ARREY, ARYA, KALIKA ARYA BHASHA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified.
 

ASSAMESE

[ASM] 15,334,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total all countries 15,334,000 or more. Alternate names: ASAMBE, ASAMI, ASAMIYA. Dialects: JHARWA (PIDGIN), MAYANG, STANDARD ASSAMESE, WESTERN ASSAMESE. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese.
 

ASURI

[ASR] 5,819. Bihar, Gumla and Lohardaga districts of Chotanagpur Plateau; east Madhya Pradesh, Raigarh District, Jashpur area; Maharashtra; Orissa, Sambalpur District; West Bengal. Alternate names: ASHREE, ASURA, ASSUR. Dialects: BRIJIA (BIRJIA, KORANTI), MANJHI. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari.
 

AWADHI

[AWD] 20,000,000 in India (1999 IBS). Population total both countries 20,540,000. Alternate names: ABADI, ABOHI, AMBODHI, AVADHI, BAISWARI, KOJALI, KOSALI. Dialects: GANGAPARI, MIRZAPURI, PARDESI, UTTARI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone.
 

BADAGA

[BFQ] 171,000 to 300,000 (1997). Tamil Nadu, Madras-Nilgiri, Kunda hills. 200 villages. Alternate names: BADAG, BADAGU, BADUGU, BADUGA, VADAGU. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada.
 

BAGHELI

[BFY] 396,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 396,000 or more. Alternate names: BAGELKHANDI, BHUGELKHUD, MANNADI, RIWAI, GANGGAI, MANDAL, KEWOT, KEWAT, KAWATHI, KENAT, KEVAT BOLI, KEVATI, KEWANI, KEWATI, NAGPURI MARATHI. Dialects: MARARI, OJHI (OJABOLI, OJHA, OJHE, OZA, OZHA), POWARI, BANAPARI, GAHORE, TIRHARI, GODWANI (MANDLAHA), SONPARI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone.
 

BAGRI

[BGQ] 1,807,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 2,007,000. Alternate names: BAGARI, BAGRIA, BAGRIS, BAORIAS, BAHGRI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified.
 

BALOCHI, EASTERN

[BGP] 5,000 in India (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Alternate names: BALOCHI, BALUCI, BALOCI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi.
 

BALTI

[BFT] 67,000 in India (1997 IMA). Jammu and Kashmir. Alternate names: SBALT, BALTISTANI, BHOTI OF BALTISTAN. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western.
 

BARELI

[BGD] 695,000 including 394,000 Barela and 301,000 Paura (1997 IMA). Madhya Pradesh, Khargone, Dewas, Khandwa districts; Maharashtra, northern Dhule and Jalgaon districts. Alternate names: BAREL, PAURI, PAWRI, PAWARI. Dialects: RATHWI BARELI, BARLI (BARELI), PALYA BARELI (PALI), RATHWI PAURI, BARELI PAURI, NOIRI PAURI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil.
 

BATERI

[BTV] 800 or about 200 families in India. Jammu and Kashmir, near Srinagar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani.
 

BAURIA

[BGE] 247,872 (1999 IMA). Punjab; Himachal Pradesh; Delhi; Haryana; Chandigarh; Rajasthan; Uttar Pradesh. Alternate names: BADAK, BABRI, BASRIA, BAWARI, BAWARIA, BHORIA, VAGHRI, BAORI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil.
 

BAZIGAR

[BFR] 100 (1951). Gujarat; Himachal Pradesh; Jammu and Kashmir; Madhya Pradesh; Karnataka. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified.
 

BELLARI

[BRW] Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu.
 

BENGALI

[BNG] 70,561,000 in India (1997 IMA). West Bengal and neighboring states. Alternate names: BANGALA, BANGLA, BANGLA-BHASA. Dialects: BARIK, BHATIARI, CHIRMAR, KACHARI-BENGALI, LOHARI-MALPAHARIA, MUSSELMANI, RAJSHAHI, SAMARIA, SARAKI, SIRIPURIA (KISHANGANJIA). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese.
 

BHADRAWAHI

[BHD] 69,000 (1997 IMA). Jammu and Kashmir. Alternate names: BADERWALI, BADROHI, BHADERBHAI JAMU, BHADERWALI PAHARI, BHADRAVA, BHADRI, BAHI. Dialects: BHALESI, PADARI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.
 

BHALAY

[BHX] Maharashtra, Amravati District. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified.
 

BHARIA

[BHA] 196,512 (1981 census). Madhya Pradesh, Bilaspur, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Datia, Durg, Jabalpur, Mandla, Panna, Rewa, Sidhi, Surguja, Tikamgarh districts; Uttar Pradesh; West Bengal. Alternate names: BHAR, BHARAT, BHUMIA, BHUMIYA, PALIHA. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified.
 

BHATOLA

[BTL] Madhya Pradesh. Classification: Unclassified.

BHATRI

[BGW] 178,000 (1997 IMA). Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh, Bastar District, Jagdalpur tahsil; Maharashtra; Orissa, Koraput District, Kotpad tahsil. Alternate names: BHATTRI, BHATTRA, BHATRA, BASTURIA, BHOTTADA, BHOTTARA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya.
 

BHATTIYALI

[BHT] 102,252 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Chamba District, Bhattiyat Tahsil, Sihunta Sub-Tahsil. Alternate names: BHATEALI, BHATIALI PAHARI, BHATIYALI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.
 

BHILALI

[BHI] 500,000 (1998). Madhya Pradesh, Khargone, southern Jhabua and southern Dhar districts; Maharashtra, Chule District: some in Gujarat; Karnataka; Rajasthan. Alternate names: BHILALA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil.
 

BHILI

[BHB] 1,300,000 including 1,000,000 Bhil plus 300,000 Patelia in Madhya Pradesh. 12,688 Kotvali (1994 IMA), 5,624,000 in languages in the Bhil family (1994 IMA). Madhya Pradesh, Jhabua, Char, Ratlam districts; Gujarat, Panchmahals and Dahod districts; Rajasthan; Maharashtra; some in Jammu and Kashmir; Andhra Pradesh; Karnataka; Punhab; Bihar; Tripura; mountainous areas. Alternate names: BHILBARI, BHILBOLI, BHILLA, BHIL, VIL, BHAGORIA, LENGOTIA. Dialects: AHIRI, ANARYA (PAHADI), BAORI, BAREL, BHIM, CHARANI, CHODHRI, DEHAWALI, CHODIA, DUBLI, GAMTI, GIRASIA, HABURA, KONKANI, KOTALI, KOTVALI (KOTWALIA), MAGRA KI BOLI, MAWCHI, NAHARI (BAGLANI) NAIKDI, PANCHALI, PARDHI, PAWRI, RANAWAT, RANI BHIL, RATHVI, SIYALGIR, WAGDI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil.
 

BHILORI

[BQI] 100,000 (1998). Maharashtra, northern Dhule District, around Dhadgaon; Gujarat. Alternate names: BHILODI, PATELIA. Dialects: BHILODI, NOIRI (SATPUDA NOIRI). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil.
 

BHOJPURI

[BHJ] 24,544,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total all countries 26,254,000. Alternate names: BHOJAPURI, BHOZPURI, BAJPURI, BIHARI. Dialects: NORTHERN STANDARD BHOJPURI (GORAKHPURI, SARAWARIA, BASTI), WESTERN STANDARD BHOJPURI (PURBI, BENARSI), SOUTHERN STANDARD BHOJPURI (KHARWARI), THARU, MADHESI, DOMRA, MUSAHARI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari.
 

BHUNJIA

[BHU] 18,601 (1981 census). Madhya Pradesh, Raipur, Hoshangabad districts; Orissa, Sambalpur, Kalshandi districts, Sunabera Pleateu area; Maharashtra. Alternate names: BUNJIA, BHUMJIYA, BHUNJIYA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya.
 

BIETE

[BIU] 19,000 (1997 IMA). Meghalaya, Jaintia Hills District; Mizoram northeast; Assam, Cachar Hills. Alternate names: BETE, BIATE. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

BIJORI

[BIX] 2,391 (1961 census). Bihar, Cowerdaga and Ranchi districts; West Bengal, Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts; Madhya Pradesh; Orissa. Alternate names: BINJHIA, BIRIJIA, BRIJIA, BURJA, BIRJIA. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari.
 

BILASPURI

[KFS] 295,387 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Bilaspur District. Alternate names: BILASPURI PAHARI, PACCHMI, KAHLURI, KEHLURI, KEHLOORI PAHARI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.
 

BIRHOR

[BIY] 10,000 (1998 GR). Bihar, Hazaribagh, Singbhum, and Ranchi districts; Madhya Pradesh, Raigarh District; Orissa, Sundgarh, Kalahandi, Keonijhar, Mayurbhanj, Sambalpur districts; West Bengal; Maharashtra. Alternate names: BIHOR, BIRHAR, BIRHORE, MANKIDI, MANKIDIA. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari.
 

BISHNUPRIYA

[BPY] 75,000 (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 75,000. Alternate names: BISHNUPURIYA, BISNA PURIYA, BISHNUPRIA MANIPURI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese.
 

BODO

[BRX] 600,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 601,000. Alternate names: BORO, BODI, BARA, BORONI, MECHI, MECHE, MECH, MECI, KACHARI. Dialects: CHOTE, MECH. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo.
 

BODO PARJA

[BDV] 50,000 (1995). Orissa, Koraput District. Alternate names: BODO PARAJA, PARJI, PARJA, PAROJA, POROJA, JHODIA PARJA, SODIA PARJA, PARJHI, PARAJHI, HARJA, JHARIA, JHALIYA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya.
 

BONDO

[BFW] 8,000, including 4,500 Upper Bondo and 3,500 Lower Bondo (1991 census). Orissa, Koroput District, Malkangiri subdivision, Khairput block, Bondo Hills. Alternate names: PORAJA KATHA, BHONDA BHASHA, BONDO-PORAJA, REMO, REMOSUM, BONDA, NANQA POROJA. Dialects: UPPER BONDO, LOWER BONDO. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta', Gutob-Remo.
 

BRAJ BHASHA

[BFS] 44,000 (1997 IMA). Uttar Pradesh, Agra region; Rajasthan, Bharatpur, Sawai Madhopur districts; Haryana, Gurgaon District; Bihar; Madhya Pradesh; Delhi. Alternate names: BRAJ, BRAJ BHAKHA, BRIJ BHASHA, ANTARBEDI, ANTARVEDI, BIJBHASHA, BRI, BRIJU, BRUJ. Dialects: BRAJ BHASHA, ANTARBEDI, BHUKSA, SIKARWARI, JADOBAFI, DANGI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified.
 

BROKSKAT

[BKK] 3,000 (1981 census). Jammu and Kashmir, along the Indus River in Ladakh and Kargil districts, northern Kashmir, villages around Garkhon, including Darchiks, Chulichan, Gurgurdo, Batalik, and Dah, and formerly in Hanu. Alternate names: BROKPA, BROKPA OF DAH-HANU, DOKSKAT, KYANGO. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina.
 

BUKSA

[TKB] 43,000 (1999 IMA). Uttar Pradesh, southwestern Nainital District, along a diagonal from Ramnagar to Keneshpur. 130 villages in Kichha and Kashipur tahsils, and small numbers in Bijnor and Garhwal districts. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified.
 

BUNDELI

[BNS] 644,000 (1997 IMA) to 8,000,000 or more (1997). Uttar Pradesh, Jalaun, Jhansi, Hamirpur, Banda districts; Madhya Pradesh, Balaghat, Chhindwara, Hoshangabad, Sagar, Sehore, Panna, Satna, Chhatarpur, Tikamgarh, Shivpuri, Guna, Bhind, Morena, Gwalior, Lalitpur, Narsinghpur, Seoni, Datia districts; Maharashtra, Bhandara, Nagpur districts; Rajasthan; Gujarat; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: BUNDEL KHANDI. Dialects: STANDARD BUNDELI, PAWARI (POWARI), LODHANTI (RATHORA), KHATOLA, BANAPHARI, KUNDRI, NIBHATTA, TIRHARI, BHADAURI (TOWARGARHI), LODHI, KOSTI, KUMBHARI, GAOLI, KIRARI, RAGHOBANSI, NAGPURI HINDI, CHHINDWARA BUNDELI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Bundeli.
 

BYANGSI

[BEE] Population total both countries 1,314 and more. Alternate names: BYANSHI, BYANSI, BYANGKHO LWO. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Almora.
 

CHAKMA

[CCP] 300,000 in India (1987 ABWE). Population total both countries 560,000. Alternate names: TAKAM, CHAKAMA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese.
 

CHAMARI

[CDG] 5,324 (1971 census). Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh; Maharashtra. Alternate names: CHAMAR, CHAMBHAR BOLI, CHAMBHARI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified.
 

CHAMBEALI

[CDH] 129,654 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Chamba District, Chamba Tahsil; Jammu and Kashmir. Alternate names: CHAMAYA, CHAMBIALI, CHAMBIYALI, CHAMIYALI PAHARI, CHAMYA, CAMEALI. Dialects: BANSBALI, BANSYARI, GADI CHAMEALI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.
 

CHANGTHANG

[CNA] Jammu and Kashmir, Tibetan border area, ChangThang region east and southeast of Leh. Alternate names: CHANGTANG, CHANGTANG LADAKHI, CHANGS-SKAT, BYANGSKAT, BYANSKAT, RONG, RUPSHU, STOTPA, UPPER LADAKHI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western, Ladakhi.
 

CHAUDANGSI

[CDN] Population total both countries 1,500 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Alternate names: TSAUDANGSI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Almora.
 

CHAURA

[CHO] Nicobar Islands, Chaura Island. Alternate names: CHOWRA, TUTET. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Chowra-Teressa.
 

CHENCHU

[CDE] 28,754 (1981 census). Andhra Pradesh, highest concentration in Kurnool District, Nallamalla Hills; Karnataka; Orissa. Alternate names: CHENCHUCOOLAM, CHENCHWAR, CHENSWAR, CHONCHARU. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu.
 

CHHATTISGARHI

[HNE] 11,535,000 including 11,456,000 Chhattisgarhi (1997 IMA), 79,000 Laria (1997 IMA). Madhya Pradesh; Bihar; Orissa; and possibly in Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, and Tripura. Surgujia is in the Surguja and Raigarh districts of Madhya Pradesh; Sadri Korwa spoken by Korwa people of Jashpur district; Baigani in Balaghat, Raipur, and Bilaspur districts of Madhya Pradesh, and Sambalpur District of Orissa; Binjhwari in Raipur and Raigarh districts of Madhya Pradesh; Kalanga and Bhulia in Patna District of Bihar; Chhattisgarhi Proper in Raipur, Durg, Bilaspur and other districts of Madhya Pradesh. Alternate names: LARIA, KHALTAHI. Dialects: SURGUJIA, SADRI KORWA, BAIGANI (BAIGA, BEGA, BHUMIA, GOWRO), BINJHWARI, KALANGA, BHULIA, CHHATTISGARHI PROPER, KAVARDI, KHAIRAGARHI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone.
 

CHIN, BAWM

[BGR] Population total all countries 9,000 (1990 UBS). Alternate names: BAWM, BAWNG, BAWN, BOM. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central.
 

CHIN, FALAM

[HBH] 25,367 in India (1994 IMA), including 7,000 Ranglong. Assam; Tripura; Mizoram; West Bengal. Alternate names: HALAM CHIN, HALLAM, FALLAM, TIPURA. Dialects: CHOREI, CHARI CHONG, HALAM, KAIPANG, KALAI (KOLOI), KHELMA, MURSUM (MOLSOM), RUPINI, SHEKASIP, RANGLONG. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

CHIN, HAKA

[CNH] 345,000 Lai speakers in India (1996 UBS). Mizoram, Chhimtuipui and Aizawi District, southernmost tip; Assam; Meghalaya. Alternate names: HAKA, BAUNGSHE. Dialects: LAI (LAI PAWI, LAI HAWLH), KLANGKLANG (THLANTLANG), ZOKHUA, SHONSHE. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central.
 

CHIN, KHUMI

[CKM] Assam. Alternate names: KHUMI, KHAMI, KAMI, KUMI, KHWEYMI, KHUNI, ARENG, AWA. Dialects: KHIMI, MATU (MATUPI), YINDI (YINDU), KHAMI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Khumi.
 

CHIN, MARA

[MRH] 22,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 42,000. Alternate names: LAKHER, ZAO, MARAM, MIRA, MARA. Dialects: TLONGSAI (TLOSAI-SIAHA), HLAWTHAI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern.
 

CHIN, PAITE

[PCK] 45,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 53,900. Alternate names: PAITE, PAITHE, PARTE, HAITHE. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

CHIN, TEDIM

[CTD] 155,000 in India (1990 BAP). Mizoram, Chin Hills, Upper Chindwin, Chin State, Tiddim area. Alternate names: TEDIM, TIDDIM. Dialects: SOKTE, KAMHAU (KAMHOW, KAMHAO). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

CHIN, THADO

[TCZ] 125,100 in India. Population total both countries 200,000 (1993 UBS). Alternate names: THADOU, THADO-UBIPHEI, THADO-PAO, KUKI, KUKI-THADO, THAADOU KUKI. Dialects: BAITE, CHANGSEN, JANGSHEN, KAOKEEP, KHONGZAI, KIPGEN, LANGIUNG, SAIRANG, THANGNGEN, HAWKIP, SHITHLOU, SINGSON (SHINGSOL). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

CHINALI

[CIH] 500 to 1,000 speakers (1996). Himachal Pradesh, throughout Lahul Valley, especially in Pattan Valley, Gushal village. Alternate names: CHINAL, CHANA, DAGI, SHIPI, HARIJAN, CHANNALI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified.
 

CHIRU

[CDF] 3,774 (1981 census). Assam; Manipur; Nagaland. Scattered. Alternate names: CHHORI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

CHODRI

[CDI] 226,534 (1994 IMA). Mainly in Gujarat, Broach and Dangs districts. Some in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan. Alternate names: CHAUDRI, CHODHARI, CHAUDHARI, CHOUDHARY, CHOUDHARA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil.
 

CHURAHI

[CDJ] 110,552 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Chamba district, Chaurah and Saluni tahsils, Bhalai Sub-tahsil. Alternate names: CHURAHI PAHARI, CHAURAHI, CHURAI PAHARI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.
 

DARLONG

[DLN] 6,000 in India (1998 Thanglura Darlong)). Tripura. Alternate names: DALONG. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central.
 

DARMIYA

[DRD] 1,750 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Uttar Pradesh, facing the Nepal border along the Mahakali Valley. Not in Nepal (Bradley 1997). Alternate names: DARIMIYA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Almora.
 

DECCAN

[DCC] 10,709,800 (1990). Central Maharashtra, Deccan Plateau. Alternate names: DESI, DEKINI, DECCANI. Dialects: KALVADI (DHARWAR), BIJAPURI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified.
 

DEGARU

[DGR] Bihar; West Bengal. Alternate names: DHEKARU. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified.

DEORI

[DER] 19,000 (1997 IMA). Assam, North Lakhimpur, Dibrugarh, Sibsagar, Jorhat, Sonitpur districts; Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit District; Nagaland. Alternate names: CHUTIYA, DEURI, DEWRI, DRORI, DARI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo.
 

DHANKI

[DHN] 138,000 (1997 IMA). Gujarat, Dangs District; Maharashtra, Jalgaon District; Karnataka; Rajasthan. Alternate names: DHANKA, DANGI, DANGRI, DANGS BHIL, TADAVI, TADVI BHIL, KAKACHHU-KI BOLI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Khandesi.
 

DHANWAR

[DHA] 104,195 (1981 census). Madhya Pradesh, Bilaspur, Raigarh, Sarguja districts; Maharashtra, Akola, Amraoti, Yavatmal, Nagpur, Wardha, Chandrapur districts. Alternate names: DHANVAR, DANUWAR. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone.
 

DHODIA

[DHO] 139,000 (1997 IMA). Gujarat, Surat and Valsad districts, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Karnataka; Rajasthan. Alternate names: DHORI, DHORE, DHOWARI, DORIA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil.
 

DIGARO

[MHU] 33,000 (1997 IMA). Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit District, Hayuliang, Changlagam, Goiliang circles; Assam. Alternate names: DIGARU, TAAON, TARAON, TAYING, MISHMI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani.
 

DIMASA

[DIS] 106,000 (1997 IMA). Assam, North Cachar district and Cachar Hills, Karbi Anglong, Nowgong districts; Nagaland, Haflong District. Alternate names: DIMASA KACHARI. Dialects: DIMASA, HARIAMBA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo.
 

DOGRI-KANGRI

[DOJ] 2,200,000 including 2,105,000 Dogri (1997 IMA), 95,000 Kangri (1997 IMA). The home area is in the outer hills and strip of plain at their feet in Jammu and Kashmir between the Ravi and Chenab Rivers. Central states from north to south; Chandigarh; Himachal Pradesh, Kangra and Hamirpur districts; West Bengal. Alternate names: DOGRI, DHOGARYALI, DOGARI, DOGRI JAMMU, DOGRI PAHARI, DONGARI, HINDI DOGRI, TOKKARU, DOGRI-KANGRA. Dialects: BHATBALI, EAST DOGRI, KANDIALI, KANGRI (KANGRA), NORTH DOGRI, DOGRI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.
 

DOMARI

[RMT] Bihar, Saran and Champaran districts. Dialects: DOMAKI, WOGRI-BOLI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom.
 

DUBLI

[DUB] 202,000 (1991 IMA). Gujarat, Surat, Valsad, Bharuch, Vadodara districts; Maharashtra, Thana District, Talasari and Dahanu areas; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Daman and Diu; Karnataka: Rajasthan. Alternate names: DUBALA, DUBLA, RATHOD, TALAVIA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil.
 

DUNGRA BHIL

[DUH] 200,000 (1998). Gujarat, Baroda District; Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil.
 

DURUWA

[PCI] 90,000 speakers out of 100,000 in the ethnic group (1986), 2/3 in Bastar, 1/3 in Koraput. Madhya Pradesh, Bastar Disctrict, southeast Jagdalpur Tahsil; Orissa, Koraput District. Alternate names: DHURWA, DHRUVA, DURVA, PARJI, PARJHI, PARAJA, PARAJHI, THAKARA, TAGARA, TUGARA. Dialects: TIRIYA, NETHANAR, DHARBA, KUKANAR. Classification: Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba.
 

ENGLISH

[ENG] Second language speakers: 11,021,610 (1961 census). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.
 

GADABA, BODO

[GBJ] 32,500 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). At least 7,460 mother tongue speakers in Lamtaput Block, Koraput, and 1,080 in Khairaput Block, Koraput (1995). Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam District; Orissa, Koraput District. Lamtaput block in Koraput is the largest concentration. Alternate names: GADBA, GUTOB, GUTOP, GUDWA, GODWA, GADWA, BOI GADABA. Dialects: MUNDA ORISSA GADABA, MUNDA ANDHRA PRADESH GADABA. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta', Gutob-Remo.
 

GADABA, OLLAR, POTTANGI

[GDB] 15,000 (1997), 4,000 to 7,000 in Pottangi Block, Koraput District (1995). Orissa, Koraput District, Pottangi and Nandapur blocks. Alternate names: OLLAR GADABA, OLLARI, OLLARO, HALLARI, ALLAR, HOLLAR GADBAS, SAN GADABA, GADBA, SANO, KONDEKAR, KONDKOR. Classification: Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba.
 

GADABA, OLLAR, SALUR

[GAU] 10,000 (1996). Andhra Pradesh, Vizianagaram, Vishakapatnam, and Srikakulam districts. Classification: Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba.
 

GADDI

[GBK] 120,000 (1997 IMA). Himachal Pradesh, Chamba District, Brahmaur Tahsil and Holi Sub-Tahsils; Uttar Pradesh; Jammu and Kashmir. Higher elevations in summer, lower in winter. Alternate names: BHARMAURI BHADI, PAHARI BHARMAURI, PANCHI BRAHMAURI RAJPUT, GADDYALI, GADIALI, GADI. Dialects: BHARMAURI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.
 

GAHRI

[BFU] 4,000 (1997). Population total both countries 4,000 or more. Alternate names: GHARA, LAHULI OF BUNAN, BOONAN, PUNAN, POONAN, ERANKAD, KEYLONG BOLI, BUNAN. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri.
 

GAMIT

[GBL] 233,000 (1997 IMA). Gujarat, mainly Surat District, some in Bharuch, Dangs, and Valsad districts. Alternate names: GAMATI, GAMTI, GAMTA, GAVIT, GAMITH, GAMETI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil.
 

GANGTE

[GNB] 11,000 or more (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 11,000 or more. Alternate names: GANTE. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

GARASIA, ADIWASI

[GAS] 100,000 (1988 Williams). Northern Gujarat, Banaskantha and Sabarkantha districts. Alternate names: ADIWASI GIRASIA, GIRASIA, ADIWASI GUJARATI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil.
 

GARASIA, RAJPUT

[GRA] 62,000 (1997 IMA). Rajasthan, Sirchi, Pali, and Udaipur districts; Gujarat. Alternate names: RAJPUT GARASIA, GIRASIA, GRASIA, DUNGRI GRASIA, DHUNGRI GARASIA, DUNGARI GARASIA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil.
 

GARHWALI

[GBM] 2,186,000 (1997 IMA). Kashmir; Uttar Pradesh. Alternate names: GADHAVALI, GADHAWALA, GADWAHI, GASHWALI, GODAULI, GORWALI, GURVALI, PAHARI GARHWALI, GIRWALI. Dialects: SRINAGARIA, TEHRI, BADHANI, DESSAULYA, LOHBYA, MAJH-KUMAIYA, BHATTIANI, NAGPURIYA, RATHI, SALANI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Garhwali.
 

GARO

[GRT] 575,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 650,000. Alternate names: GARROW, MANDE. Dialects: A'BENG (A'BENGYA, AM'BENG), A'CHICK (A'CHIK), A'WE, CHISAK, DACCA, GANCHING, KAMRUP, MATCHI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Garo.
 

GATA'

[GAQ] 3,055 (1991 census). Orissa, Koraput and Malkangiri districts, Kudumulgumma and Chitrakonda blocks, south of the Bondo Hills. Some communities in the Khairput block. 47 villages. Alternate names: GATAQ, GETAQ, GETA', GTA', GTA ASA, DIDEI, DIDAYI, DIRE. Dialects: PLAINS GETA', HILL GETA.' Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta', Geta.'
 

GONDI, NORTHERN

[GON] 1,954,000 Betul (1997 BSI). 2,632,000 all Gondi (1997 IMA). Madhya Pradesh, Betul, Chindwara, Seoni, Mandla, Balaghat districts; Maharashtra State, Amravati, Wardha, Nagpur, Bhandara, Yavatmal districts. Alternate names: GONDI, GAUDI, GONDIVA, GONDWADI, GOONDILE, GOUDWAL, GHOND, GODI, GONDU, GOUDI. Dialects: BETUL, CHINDWARA, MANDLA, SEONI, AMRAVATI, BHANDARA, NAGPUR, YAVATMAL. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi.
 

GONDI, SOUTHERN

[GGO] 600,000 to 700,000 (1993). Andhra Pradesh, Adilabad District; Maharashtra, southern Yavatmal, southern Chandrapur and southeastern Garhichiroli districts. Alternate names: TELUGU GONDI. Dialects: SIRONCHA, NIRMAL (ADILABAD), BHAMRAGARH, UTNOOR, AHERI, RAJURA, ETAPALLY GONDI. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi.
 

GOWLAN

[GOJ] Maharashtra, Amravati District, and in some cases in the same communities as Korku tribal people. Also in Hoshangabad District. Some reported in northern Karnataka. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified.
 

GOWLI

[GOK] 35,000 (1997 IMA). Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra, Amravati District. Alternate names: NAND. Dialects: NAND, RANYA, LINGAAYAT, KHAMLA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified.
 

GROMA

[GRO] Sikkim. Alternate names: TROMOWA. Dialects: UPPER GROMA, LOWER GROMA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern.
 

GUJARATI

[GJR] 45,479,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total all countries 46,100,000 or more. Alternate names: GUJRATHI, GUJERATI, GUJERATHI. Dialects: STANDARD GUJARATI (SAURASHTRA STANDARD, NAGARI, BOMBAY GUJARATI, PATNULI), GAMADIA (GRAMYA, SURATI, ANAWLA, BRATHELA, EASTERN BROACH GUJARATI, CHAROTARI, PATIDARI, VADODARI, AHMEDABAD GAMADIA, PATANI), PARSI, KATHIYAWADI (JHALAWADI, SORATHI, HOLADI, GOHILWADI, BHAWNAGARI), KHARWA, KAKARI, TARIMUKI (GHISADI). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati.
 

GUJARI

[GJU] 600,000 to 700,000 in India (1996). Population total all countries 1,400,000. Alternate names: GUJURI, GUJER, GUJAR, GUJJARI, GURJAR, GOJRI, GOGRI, KASHMIR GUJURI, RAJASTHANI GUJURI, GOJARI. Dialects: AJIRI OF HAZARA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified.
 

GURUNG, WESTERN

[GVR] 82 in India (1961 census). West Bengal, Darjeeling. Also possibly in Myanmar. Alternate names: GURUNG KURA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic.
 

HAJONG

[HAJ] 19,000 in India (1997 IMA) to 60,000 (1998 Karotemprel). Population total both countries 19,000 or more. Alternate names: HAIJONG, HAZONG. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese.
 

HALBI

[HLB] 736,000 (1994 IMA). Madhya Pradesh, open plains in Bastar District; Maharashtra; Orissa; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: BASTARI, HALBA, HALVAS, HALABI, HALVI, MAHARI, MEHARI. Dialects: ADKURI, BASTARI, CHANDARI, GACHIKOLO, MEHARI, MURI (MURIA), SUNDI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese.
 

HARAUTI

[HOJ] 572,000 (1997 IMA). Rajasthan, Kota District; Madhya Pradesh. Alternate names: HADAUTI, HADOTI, HADOTHI, PIPLODA. Dialects: SIPARI, HARAUTI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified.
 

HARYANVI

[BGC] 13,000,000 or 85% of Haryan population of 16,000,000 (1992 SIL), including 107,000 Haryanvi proper (1997 IMA). Haryana; Punjab; Karnataka; Delhi; Himachal Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh. Alternate names: BANGARU, BANGER, BANGRI, BANGRU, HARYANI, HARIYANI, HARIANI, DESARI, CHAMARWA. Dialects: BANGARU PROPER, DESWALI, BAGDI, MEWATI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified.
 

HINDI

[HND] 180,000,000 in India (1991 UBS), 363,839,000 or nearly 50% of the population including second language users in India (1997 IMA). Population total all countries 366,000,000 first language speakers (1999 WA), 487,000,000 including second language users (1999 WA). Alternate names: KHARI BOLI, KHADI BOLI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani.
 

HINDURI

[HII] 138 (1961 census). Himachal Pradesh, Shimla and Solan districts. Alternate names: HANDURI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.
 

HMAR

[HMR] 50,000 (1997 IMA). Assam, North Cachar and Cachar districts; Manipur; Mizoram. Alternate names: HAMAR, MHAR, HMARI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central.
 

HO

[HOC] 1,077,000 in India (1997 IMA), including 444,000 in Singhbhum, 200,000 in Oriya (1990 UBS). Population total both countries 1,077,000 or more. Alternate names: LANKA KOL, BIHAR HO. Dialects: LOHARA, CHAIBASA-THAKURMUNDA. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari.
 

HOLIYA

[HOY] 8,000 (1984 GR). Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Karnataka. Alternate names: HOLAR, HOLARI, HOLE, HOLIAN, HOLU, GOLARI-KANNADA, GOHLLARU. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada.
 

HRANGKHOL

[HRA] 18,000 in India (1997 IMA). Manipur; Assam; Tripura. Alternate names: RANGKHOL. Dialects: HADEM. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

HRUSO

[HRU] Arunachal Pradesh, between Monpa on the west and the Tani languages on the east. Alternate names: AKA, HRUSSO, ANGKA, ANGKAE, TENAE. Dialects: HRUSO, DHAMMAI (MIJI), LEVAI (BANGRU). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified.
 

IDU

[CLK] 8,569 (1981 census). Population total both countries 15,569. Alternate names: CHULIKATA, CHULIKOTTA, MIDHI, MIDU, IDA, YIDU LUOBA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani.
 

INDO-PORTUGUESE

[IDB] 700 monolingual speakers in Korlai (1977 Theban). Maharashtra, Korlai near Bombay, Daman and Diu; Vypeen Island, and Cochin area. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based.
 

IRULA

[IRU] 75,000. Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri, Coimbatore, Periyar, Salem, Chengai Anna districts; Karnataka; Kerala, Palghat District; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: ERAVALLAN, ERUKALA, IRAVA, IRULAR, IRULAR MOZHI, IRULIGA, IRULIGAR, KORAVA, KAD CHENSU. Dialects: MELE NADU IRULA, VETTE KADA IRULA, IRULA PALLAR, NORTHERN IRULA, URALI. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil.
 

JANGSHUNG

[JNA] 1,990 or 4% of the population of Kinnaur District (1998). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur District, Jangi, Lippa, and Asrang villages in Morang Tahsil. Alternate names: JANGRAMI, ZANGRAM, ZHANG-ZHUNG, JANGIAM, THEBOR, THEBÖR SKADD, THEBARSKAD, CENTRAL KINNAURI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri.
 

JARAWA

[ANQ] 200 (1997 CIIL). Andaman Islands, interior and south central Rutland Island, central interior and south interior South Andaman Island. Classification: Andamanese, South Andamanese.
 

JAUNSARI

[JNS] 97,000 (1997 IMA). Uttar Pradesh, Jaunsar, Dehra Dun District, Chakrata tahsil; Himachal Pradesh, Jansar-Bawar Division. Alternate names: JAUNSAURI, JANSAURI, PAHARI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.
 

JUANG

[JUN] 40,000 (1996 A. Matthew). Orissa, southern Keonjhar, northern Angul, and eastern Dhenkanal districts. Alternate names: PUTTOOAS, PATUA, PATRA-SAARA, JUANGO. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Kharia-Juang.
 

JURAY

[JUY] Orissa. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Sora-Juray.
 

KACHARI

[QKC] 56,413 (1994 IMA). Assam, North Cachar District and the Cachar Hills; Nagaland. Alternate names: CACHARI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo.
 

KACHCHI

[KFR] 806,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total all countries 866,000 or more. Alternate names: KACHCHHI, KUTCHCHI, CUCHI, CUTCH, KUTCHIE, KACHI, KATCH, KAUTCHY, KATCHI. Dialects: JADEJI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi.
 

KADAR

[KEJ] 2,265 (1981 census). Kerala, Ernakulam, Palghat, and Trichur districts; Andhra Pradesh; Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore District. Alternate names: KADA, KADIR. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam.
 

KAIKADI

[KEP] 11,846 (1971 census). Maharashtra, Jalgaon District; Karnataka. Alternate names: KOKADI, KAIKAI, KAIKADIA. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil.
 

KAMAR

[KEQ] 23,456 (1981 census). Madhya Pradesh, Raipur and Rewa districts; Maharashtra. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified.
 

KANASHI

[QAS] 1,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Himachal Pradesh, Kullu District, Kullu Tahsil, glen of the Bios Valley, around the village of Malana (Malani). Alternate names: KANASI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri.
 

KANAUJI

[BJJ] 6,000,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Uttar Pradesh. Alternate names: BHAKHA, BRAJ KANAUJI, BRAJ. Dialects: KANAUJI PROPER, TIRHARI, TRANSITIONAL KANAUJI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified.
 

KANIKKARAN

[KEV] 25,000 (1982 GR). Kerala, Calicut, Ernakulam, Quilon, Trivandrum districts, Neyyattinkara and Nedumangadu taluks; Tamil Nadu, Tirunelveli District. Alternate names: KANIKKAR, KANNIKAN, KANNIKARAN, KANNIKHARAN, MALAMPASHI. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified.
 

KANJARI

[KFT] 55,386 (1971 census). Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh, Aligarh, Farrukhabad, Etawah, Sitapur, Kheri districts; Rajasthan. Alternate names: KAGARI, KANGAR BHAT, KANGRI, KANJRI. Dialects: KUCHBANDHI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified.
 

KANNADA

[KJV] 35,346,000 (1997 IMA). 44,000,000 including second language users (1999 WA). Karnataka; Andhra Pradesh; Tamil Nadu; Maharashtra. Alternate names: KANARESE, CANARESE, BANGLORI, MADRASSI. Dialects: BIJAPUR, JEINU KURUBA, AINE KURUBA. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada.
 

KASHMIRI

[KSH] 4,391,000 in India including 4,370,000 Kashmiri, 21,000 Kishtwari (1997 IMA). 52.29% of the population of Jammu and Kashmir. Population total all countries 4,511,000. Alternate names: KESHUR, KASCHEMIRI, CASHMIRI, CASHMEEREE, KACMIRI. Dialects: BAKAWALI, BUNJWALI, STANDARD KASHMIRI, KISHTWARI (KASHTAWARI, KISTWALI, KASHTWARI, KATHIAWARI), MIRASKI, POGULI, RAMBANI, RIASI, SHAH-MANSURI, SIRAJI OF DODA, SIRAJI-KASHMIRI, ZAYOLI, ZIRAK-BOLI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kashmiri.
 

KATKARI

[KFU] 4,951 (1961 census). Maharashtra, Raigad and Thane districts, along the foothills of the Sahayadri Range; Rajasthan, northwest, Onga, Samicha Parebati, Mubusha, Jhadol police station areas; Gujarat, Surat, Bharuch, Sabarkantha, Dang districts; Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Amboli and Dapada Panchayat areas. Alternate names: KATARI, KATAKARI, KATHODI, KATVADI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani.
 

KHALING

[KLR] Darjeeling and Sikkim, scattered. Alternate names: KHALINGE RAI, KHAEL BRA, KHAEL BAAT. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Western.
 

KHAMTI

[KHT] 6,181 in India (1981 census). Assam, Lakimpur District; Arunachal Pradesh, Siang and Lohit districts. Also possibly in China. Alternate names: KHAM-TAI, HKAMTI, KHAMPTI, KHAMTI SHAN, KHANTIS, TAI KHAM TI. Dialects: ASSAM KHAMTI, NORTH BURMA KHAMTI, SINKALING HKAMTI. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Northwest.
 

KHAMYANG

[KSU] 812 (1981 census). Assam, Rowai Mukh village; Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit and Tirap districts. Alternate names: KHAMJANG, KHAMJANG. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Northwest. Nearly extinct.
 

KHANDESI

[KHN] 1,579,000 (1997 IMA). Maharashtra; Gujarat. Alternate names: KHANDESHI, KHANDISH, DHED GUJARI. Dialects: KUNBI (KUNBAU), RANGARI, KHANDESI, KOTALI BHIL. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Khandesi.
 

KHARIA

[KHR] 278,500 (1994 IMA). Population total both countries 278,500. Alternate names: HARIA, KHARVI, KHATRIA, KHERIA, KHADIA, KHARIYA. Dialects: DHELKI KHARIA, DUDH KHARIA, MIRDHA-KHARIA. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Kharia-Juang.
 

KHARIA THAR

[KSY] Bihar, Manbhum. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese.
 

KHASI

[KHI] 865,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 950,000. Alternate names: KAHASI, KHASIYAS, KHUCHIA, KASSI, KHASA, KHASHI. Dialects: BHOI-KHASI, LYNGNGAM (MEGAM), KHASI, WAR, CHERRAPUNJI (SOHRA). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian.
 

KHIRWAR

[KWX] 34,251. Madhya Pradesh. Alternate names: KHIRWARA, KHERWARI. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi.

KINNAURI

[KFK] 48,778 in Kinnaur District in India, 72% of the population of the District (1991 census). 15,000 to 20,000 second language speakers in Kinnaur District. Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur and Lahul-Spiti districts, from Chauhra to Sangla and north along the Satluj River to Morang and several villages of the upper Ropa River Valley; Uttar Pradesh; Punjab; Kashmir. Alternate names: KINNAURA YANUSKAD, KANOREUNU SKAD, KANORUG SKADD, LOWER KINNAURI, KINORI, KINNER, KANAURI, KANAWARI, KANAWI, KUNAWARI, KUNAWUR, TIBAS SKAD, KANORIN SKAD, KANAURY ANUSKAD, KOONAWURE, MALHESTI, MILCHANANG, MILCHAN, MILCHANG). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri.
 

KINNAURI, BHOTI

[NES] 6,000 (1998). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur District, Morang Tahsil, upper Kinnauri Sutlej River basin where it turns into the Spiti River, Nesang village in Morang Tahsil, Puh village in Puh Tahsil. It may also be spoken in Kuno and Charang villages. Alternate names: NYAMSKAD, MYAMSKAD, MYAMKAT, NYAMKAT, BUD-KAT, BOD-SKAD, SANGYAS, SANGS-RGYAS, BHOTEA OF UPPER KINNAURI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri.
 

KINNAURI, CHITKULI

[CIK] 1,060 or 2% of the population of Kinnaur District (1998). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur District, Chitkul and Rakchham villages along the Baspa River in the Sangla Valley. Alternate names: CHITKULI, CHITKHULI, TSÍHULI, TSITKHULI, KINNAURI, KANAURI, THEBARSKAD. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri.
 

KINNAURI, HARIJAN

[KJO] 6,331 (1998). Himachal Pradesh, spoken by Scheduled Caste communities in villages throughout Kinnaur District. Alternate names: HARIJAN BOLI, ORES BOLI CHAMANG BOLI, SONAR BOLI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.
 

KOCH

[KDQ] 23,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 35,000 (1973 MARC). Alternate names: KOC, KOCCH, KOCE, KOCHBOLI, KONCH. Dialects: BANAI, HARIGAYA, SATPARIYA, TINTEKIYA, WANANG. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Koch.
 

KODAGU

[KFA] 122,000 (1997 IMA). Karnataka, Coorg (Kodagu) District, around Mercara, bordering on Malayalam to the south. Alternate names: COORGE, KADAGI, KHURGI, KOTAGU, KURJA, KURUG, KODAVA THAK. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu.
 

KOIRENG

[NKD] 2,000 (1991). Manipur, Senapati District, Saikul and Kangpokpi subdivisions, Lamphal in the Imphal Valley; Nagaland. Alternate names: KWOIRENG, KOIRNG, QUOIRENG, LIYANG, LIYANGMAI, LIANGMAI, LIANGMEI, LYENGMAI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme.
 

KOK BOROK

[TRP] 691,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 769,000. Alternate names: TRIPURI, TIPURA, USIPI MRUNG, TRIPURA, KAKBARAK, KOKBARAK. Dialects: JAMATIA, NOATIA, RIANG (TIPRA), HALAM, DEBBARMA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo.
 

KOLAMI, NORTHWESTERN

[KFB] 50,000 (1989 F. Blair). 115,000 all Kolami (1997 IMA). Maharashtra, Yavatmal, Wardha, and Nanded districts; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh. Alternate names: KOLAMBOLI, KULME, KOLAM, KOLMI, KOLAMY. Dialects: MADKA-KINWAT, PULGAON, WANI, MAREGAON. Classification: Dravidian, Central, Kolami-Naiki.
 

KOLAMI, SOUTHEASTERN

[NIT] 10,000 (1989 F. Blair). Andhra Pradesh, Adilabad District; Maharashtra, Chandrapur, and Nanded districts. Dialects: METLA-KINWAT, UTNUR, ASIFABAD, NAIKI. Classification: Dravidian, Central, Kolami-Naiki.
 

KOLI, KACHI

[GJK] 400,000 in India including 100,000 Kachi Koli, 250,000 Rabari, 50,000 or more Vagri Meghwar, Katai Meghwar, and Zalavaria Koli (1998). There may be a group in India, concentrated in their ancestral homeland centered around Bhuj, in the Rann of Kach, Gujarat. Alternate names: KUCHI, KACHI, KATCHI, KOLI, KOHLI, KOLHI, KORI, VAGARI, VAGARIA, KACHI GUJARATI. Dialects: KACHI, RABARI (RAHABARI), KACHI BHIL, VAGRI (KACHI MEGHWAR), KATAI MEGHWAR, ZALAVARIA KOLI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati.
 

KOLI, WADIYARA

[KXP] 175,000 to 180,000 in India possibly (1998). Alternate names: WADARIA, WADHIARA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati.
 

KOM

[KMM] 14,000 (1997 IMA). East and central Manipur, Churachandandpur, tamenglong, and Senapati districts. Alternate names: KOM REM. Dialects: KOLHRENG. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

KONDA-DORA

[KFC] 32,000 (1997 IMA). Konda-Dora in Andhra Pradesh, Visianagaram, Srikakulam, East Godavari districts; Kubi in Orissa, Koraput District; Assam. Alternate names: PORJA. Dialects: KONDA-DORA (KONDA), KUBI. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Konda.
 

KONKANI

[KNK] 4,000,000 (1999 WA), including 99,000 Thakuri (1991 IMA). North and central coastal strip of Maharashtra; Karnataka; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Kerala. Alternate names: KONKAN STANDARD, BANKOTI, KUNABI, NORTH KONKAN, CENTRAL KONKAN, CONCORINUM, CUGANI, KONKANESE. Dialects: PARABHI (KAYASTHI, DAMANI), KOLI, KIRISTAV, DHANAGARI, BHANDARI, THAKURI (THAKARI, THAKRI, THAKUA, THAKURA), KARHADI, SANGAMESVARI (BAKOTI, BANKOTI), GHATI (MAOLI), MAHARI (DHED, HOLIA, PARVARI). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani.
 

KONKANI, GOANESE

[GOM] Population total all countries 2,000,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Alternate names: GOMATAKI, GOAN. Dialects: STANDARD KONKANI (GOANESE), BARDESKARI (GOMANTAKI), SARASVAT BRAHMIN, KUDALI (MALVANI), DALDI (NAWAITS), CHITAPAVANI (KONKANASTHS), MANGALORE. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani.
 

KORAGA, KORRA

[KFD] Total ethnic Koraga: 16,665 (1981 census). Karnataka, Dakshin Kannad District; Kerala, Cannanore and Kasargod districts; Tamil Nadu. Alternate names: KORAGAR, KORAGARA, KORANGI, KORRA. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu, Koraga.
 

KORAGA, MUDU

[VMD] Total ethnic Koraga: 16,665 (1981 census). Kerala. Alternate names: MU:DU. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu, Koraga.
 

KORAKU

[KSZ] Madhya Pradesh, Surguja district. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari.
 

KORKU

[KFQ] 478,000 (1997 IMA). Southern Madhya Pradesh, southern Betul District, north of and around Betul city, Hoshangabad District, East Nimar (Khandwa) District; northern Maharashtra, Amravati, Buldana, Akola districts. Alternate names: BONDEYA, BOPCHI, KORKI, KURKU, KURI, RAMEKHERA, KURKU-RUMA. Dialects: BOURIYA, BONDOY, RUMA, MAWASI (MUWASI, MUASI). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Korku.
 

KORLAI CREOLE PORTUGUESE

[VKP] 750 (1998 J.C. Clements). Maharashtra, Korlai, 200 km. south of Bombay, west coast. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based.
 

KORWA

[KFP] 66,000 (1997 IMA). Bihar, Palamau and Gumla districts; Madhya Pradesh, Surguja, Raigarh, Bilaspur districts; Orissa, Mayurbhanj and Sundargarh districts; Uttar Pradesh, Mirazpur District; West Bengal; Andhra Pradesh; Maharashtra. Alternate names: ERNGA, SINGLI. Dialects: MAJHI-KORWA. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari.
 

KOTA

[KFE] 2,000 (1992). Tamil Nadu, Madras; Nilgiri Hills, Trichikadi village and a few others around Kokkal Kotagiri. Alternate names: KOTTA, KOWE-ADIWASI, KOTHER-TAMIL. Dialects: KO BASHAI. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Toda-Kota.
 

KOYA

[KFF] 330,000 (1997 IMA), including 24,320 Dorli (1972 census). Estimates up to 10,000,000 speakers. Andhra Pradesh, south of the Godavari River and in adjoining districts north of the river; Maharashtra; Madhya Pradesh, Bastar District; Orissa, Koraput District, Malkangiri subdivision; 300 km. east to west, 200 km. north to south. Alternate names: KOI, KOI GONDI, KAVOR, KOA, KOITAR, KOYATO, KAYA, KOYI, RAJ KOYA. Dialects: MALAKANAGIRI KOYA, PODIA KOYA (GOTTE KOYA), CHINTOOR KOYA (DORLA KOITUR), JAGANATHAPURAM KOYA (GOMMU KOYA, GODAVARI KOYA), DORLI (KORLA, DORA, DOR KOI, DORA KOI, DORLA KOITUR, DORLA KOYA). Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi.
 

KUDIYA

[KFG] 2,462 (1981 census). Kerala, Cannanore District; Karnataka, Coorg and South Kannara districts; Tamil Nadu. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu.
 

KUDMALI

[KYW] 37,000 (1997 IMA). Bihar; West Bengal; Orissa; Assam. Alternate names: KURMALI, KURUMALI, KURMALI THAR, BEDIA, DHARUA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari.
 

KUI

[KXU] 717,000 (1997 IMA). Orissa, Phulbani, Koraput, Ganjam districts, Udayagiri area in Ganjam; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Tamil Nadu. Alternate names: KANDH, KHONDI, KHOND, KHONDO, KANDA, KODU, KODULU, KUINGA, KUY. Dialects: KHONDI, GUMSAI. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi.
 

KUKNA

[KEX] 570,419 (1981 census), plus 100,000 second language speakers (1998). Gujarat, Dangs and Valsad districts; Maharashtra, Dhule, Nasik, and Thane districts; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Karnataka, Kanara; Rajasthan. Alternate names: KANARA, KOKNA, KOKNI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani.
 

KULUNG

[KLE] Dehradun, Sikkim; Buthan, Dalpiguri, West Bengal. Alternate names: KHULUNGE RAI, KULU RING, KHULUNG, KHOLUNG. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern.
 

KUMARBHAG PAHARIA

[KMJ] 12,000 to 14,000 plus several thousand in West Bengal (1994). Central eastern Bihar, central part of former Santhal Pargana District, Sundar Pahari Block of Godda District, and all but southernmost block of Pakaur District. Reported in at least Bankura, Barddhaman, and Murshidabad districts of West Bengal; Orissa, Mayurbhanj. Alternate names: MALTO, MALTI, MALTU, MALER, MAL, MAD, PAHARIA, PAHARIYA, KUMAR. Classification: Dravidian, Northern.
 

KUMAUNI

[KFY] 2,360,000 in India (1998). Population total both countries 2,360,000 or more. Alternate names: KAMAONI, KUMAONI, KUMAU, KUMAWANI, KUMGONI, KUMMAN, KUNAYAONI. Dialects: CENTRAL KUMAUNI, NORTHEASTERN KUMAUNI, SOUTHEASTERN KUMAUNI, WESTERN KUMAUNI, ASKOTI, BHABARI OF RAMPUR, CHAUGARKHIYA, DANPURIYA, GANGOLA, JOHARI, KHASPARJIYA, KUMAIYA PACHHAI, PASHCHIMI, PHALDAKOTIYA, RAU-CHAUBHAISI, SIRALI, SORIYALI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Central Pahari.
 

KUPIA

[KEY] 4,000 (1983 SIL). Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam and East Godavari districts. Alternate names: VALMIKI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya.
 

KURICHIYA

[KFH] 29,375 (1981 census). Kerala, Wynad, Cannanore districts; Tamil Nadu, Dharampuri District. Alternate names: KURICHIA, KURICHCHIA. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified.
 

KURUMBA

[KFI] 150,000 to 200,000 (1998). Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore District, Pollachi, Western Fields, Western Gate Hills; Dharmapuri, South Arcot and Chengalpet districts; in pockets in Salem and North Arcot districts; Theni District, Cumbari Valley; Dindukat District, Sirumalai, Senkuruchi Hillocks, Palani; Karnataka; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: KORAMBAR, KURAMWARI, KURUMAR, KURUMBAR, KURUBA, KURUMVARI, KUREMBAN, KURUBA, KURUBAS KURUBAN, KURUBAR, KURUMA, KURUMAN, KURUMANS, KURUMBAS, KURUMBAN, PALU KURUMBA, NONSTANDARD KANNADA, SOUTHERN KANNADA, CANARESE. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu.
 

KURUMBA, ALU

[QKA] 2,500 (1997). Tamil Nadu, eastern side of Nilgiri Hills. Alternate names: ALU KURUMBA NONSTANDARD KANNADA, PAL KURUMBA, HAL KURUMBA. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu.
 

KURUMBA, BETTA

[QKB] 10,000 (1994). Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri District; Karnataka, Mysore District, north side of Nilgiri Hills, just east of Kerala border; Kerala, Wynad District. Alternate names: BETTA KURUMBA NONSTANDARD TAMIL, KADU KURUMBA, URALI KURUMBA. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil.
 

KURUMBA, JENNU

[QKJ] 35,000 (1997 IMA). North side of Nilgiri Hills on the border between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, just east of the Kerala border, Mysore and Kodagu districts of Karnataka; Kerala, Wynad District. Alternate names: JENNU KURUMBA NONSTANDARD KANNADA, JEN KURUMBA, TEN KURUMBA, JENNU NUDI, NAIKAN, KATTU NAYAKA, NAIK KURUMBA. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu.
 

KURUMBA, MULLU

[KPB] 6,000 (1994 Singh). Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri District; Kerala, Wynad District. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu.
 

KURUX

[KVN] 2,053,000 in India, including 1,834,000 Oraon, 219,000 Kisan (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 2,053,000 or more. Alternate names: URAON, KURUKH, KUNRUKH, KADUKALI, KURKA, ORAON, URANG, KISAN, KUNHA, KUNHAR, KUNUK, KUNNA, KUDA, KORA, KODA, KOLA, MORVA, BIRHOR. Dialects: ORAON, KISAN. Classification: Dravidian, Northern.
 

KUVI

[KXV] 300,000 (1990 UBS). Orissa, mainly Koraput District, also Kalahandi, Ganjam, and Phulbani districts; Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, Srikakkulam districts. Alternate names: KUWI, KUVINGA, KUVI KOND, KOND, KHONDI, KHONDH, JATAPU. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi.
 

LADAKHI

[LBJ] 102,000 in India (1997 IMA) including 29,800 to 33,300 Shamma (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977.328). Population total both countries 114,000. Alternate names: LADAPHI, LADHAKHI, LADAK, LADWAGS. Dialects: LEH (CENTRAL LADAKHI), SHAMMA (SHAM, SHAMSKAT, LOWER LADAKHI), NUBRA LADAKHI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western, Ladakhi.
 

LALUNG

[LAX] 23,000 (1997 IMA). Assam, Nowgong, Karbi Anglong, Kamrup, Sibsagar, Lakhimpur districts; Meghalaya, Khasi Hills District. Alternate names: DOWYAN. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo.
 

LAMBADI

[LMN] 2,867,000 including 1,961,000 Lambadi (1994 IMA), plus 769,120 Banjari. Andhra Pradesh; Madhra Pradesh; Himachal Pradesh; Gujarat; Tamil Nadu; Maharashtra; Karnataka; Orissa; West Bengal. Alternate names: LAMANI, LAMADI, LAMBANI, LABHANI, LAMBARA, LAVANI, LEMADI, LUMADALE, LABHANI MUKA, BANJARA, BANJARI, BANGALA, BANJORI, BANJURI, BRINJARI, GOHAR-HERKERI, GOOLA, GURMARTI, GORMATI, KORA, SINGALI, SUGALI, SUKALI, TANDA, VANJARI, WANJI. Dialects: MAHARASHTRA LAMANI, KARNATAKA LAMANI (MYSORE LAMANI), ANDHRA PRADESH LAMANI (TELUGU LAMANI). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified.
 

LAMKANG

[LMK] 10,000 (1996 UBS). Southeast Manipur, 26 villages in Chandel District; Nagaland, Thamlakhuren. Alternate names: 'LAMGANG', 'HIROI-LAMGANG', LAMKAANG. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

LEPCHA

[LEP] 38,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total all countries 41,300. Alternate names: LAPCHE, RONG, RONGKE, RONGPA, NÜNPA. Dialects: ILAMMU, TAMSANGMU, RENGJONGMU. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Lepcha.
 

LHOMI

[LHM] 1,000 in India. West Bengal, Darjeeling. Alternate names: LHOKET, SHING SAAPA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central.
 

LIMBU

[LIF] 28,000 in India (1997 IMA). Sikkim, West Bengal, Darjeeling district. Alternate names: LIMBO, LUMBU. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern.
 

LODHI

[LBM] 75,000 (1997 IMA). Orissa, Mayurghanj and Baleswar districts; West Bengal, Midnapore District. Alternate names: LODHA, LODI, LOHI, LOZI. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Sora-Juray.
 

LOHAR, GADE

[GDA] 500 to 750 (1997). Rajasthan; Gujarat; Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Uttar Pradesh; Delhi; Haryana; Punjab. Alternate names: GADULIYA LOHAR, LOHPITTA RAJPUT LOHAR, BAGRI LOHAR, BHUBALIYA LOHAR, LOHARI, GARA, DOMBA, DOMBIALI, CHITODI LOHAR, PANCHAL LOHAR, BELANI, DHUNKURIA KANWAR KHATI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified.
 

LOHAR, LAHUL

[LHL] 750 (1996). Himachal Pradesh, Lahul Valley. Alternate names: GARAS, LOHAR. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified.
 

LUSHAI

[LSH] 529,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total all countries 542,500. Alternate names: DULIEN, DUHLIAN TWANG, LUSAI, LUSEI, LUSHEI, LUKHAI, LUSAGO, LE, SAILAU, HUALNGO, WHELNGO. Dialects: FANNAI, MIZO, NGENTE, PANG (PAANG), TLAU. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central.
 

MAGAHI

[MQM] 11,362,000 (1997 IMA). Southern districts of Bihar, eastern Patna District, northern Chotanagpur Division; West Bengal, Malda District. Alternate names: MAGADHI, MAGAYA, MAGHAYA, MAGHORI, MAGI, MAGODHI, BIHARI. Dialects: SOUTHERN MAGAHI, NORTHERN MAGAHI, CENTRAL MAGAHI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari.
 

MAGAR, EASTERN

[MGP] 1,136 in India (1961 census). Sikkim. Alternate names: MAGARI, MANGGAR, MANGARI, MAGARKURA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwari, Magar.
 

MAHALI

[MJX] 66,000 (1991 IMA). Bihar, Chotanagpur region; Orissa, Balasore, Mayurbhanj, Keonjhargarh districts; West Bengal; Assam. Alternate names: MAHILI, MAHLI, MAHLE. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali.
 

MAITHILI

[MKP] 22,000,000 in India (1981). Population total both countries 24,191,900. Alternate names: MAITLI, MAITILI, METHLI, TIRAHUTIA, BIHARI, TIRHUTI, TIRHUTIA, APABHRAMSA. Dialects: STANDARD MAITHILI, SOUTHERN STANDARD MAITHILI, EASTERN MAITHILI (KHOTTA, KORTHA), WESTERN MAITHILI, JOLAHA, CENTRAL COLLOQUIAL MAITHILI (SOTIPURA), KISAN, DEHATI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari.
 

MAJHI

[MJZ] 246 in Sikkim (1981 census). Bihar; Sikkim, South District, Majhigaon near Jorethang, East District, Majhitar near Rangpol. Alternate names: MANJHI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari.
 

MAJHWAR

[MMJ] 27,958. Madhya Pradesh, Bilaspur District, Katghora tahsil; Uttar Pradesh, Allahabad, Varanasi, Mirapur districts; Sikkim. Alternate names: MAJHVAR, MANJHI, MANJHIA. Classification: Unclassified.
 

MAL PAHARIA

[MKB] 51,000 to 71,000 plus possibly 40,000 in West Bengal (1994). Central eastern Bihar, southern part of former Santhal Pargana District, Ramgarh Hills. Mainly in Dumka District, but many villages are in Pakaur, southern Godda, and Deoghar districts, and a few as far north as Depart village north of Borio in Sahibganj District. Reported in at least Bankura, Barddhaman, and Murshidabad districts of West Bengal. Possibly in Bangladesh. Alternate names: MALTO, MALTI, MALTU, MALER, MALPAHARIA, MARPAHARIA, MAL PAHARIYA, MAL, MAR, MAW, MAWDO, MAWER, MAWER NONDI, MAD, MADER, DEHRI, PAHARIA, PARSI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese.
 

MALANKURAVAN

[MJO] 7,339 (1981 census). Tamil Nadu, Kanyakumari District; Kerala. Alternate names: MALAIKURAVAN, MALE KURAVAN, MALANKUDI. Dialects: MALAYADIARS. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified.
 

MALAPANDARAM

[MJP] 3,147 (1981 census). Kerala, Kottayam, Ernakulam, and Quilon districts; Tamil Nadu. Alternate names: MALAPANTARAM, MALEPANTARAM, HILL PANTARAM, PANDARAM BASHA. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam.
 

MALARYAN

[MJQ] 27,716 (1981 census). Kerala, Ernakulam, Kottayam, and Trichur districts; Tamil Nadu. Alternate names: MALAI ARAYAN, MALEY ARAYAN, MALE ARAYANS, MALAYARAYAN, ARAYANS, KARINGAL, VAZHIYAMMAR. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam.
 

MALAVEDAN

[MJR] 9,533 (1981 census). Kerala, Ernakulam, Kottayam, Quilon, Trivandrum districts; Tamil Nadu, Kanyakumari and Tirunelveli districts. Alternate names: MALAVETAN, TOWETAN, VEDANS. Dialects: VETAN, VETTUVAN. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam.
 

MALAYALAM

[MJS] 35,351,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total all countries 35,706,000 or more. Alternate names: ALEALUM, MALAYALANI, MALAYALI, MALEAN, MALIYAD, MALLEALLE, MOPLA. Dialects: MALABAR, NAGARI-MALAYALAM, MALAYALAM, SOUTH KERALA, CENTRAL KERALA, NORTH KERALA, KAYAVAR, NAMBOODIRI, MOPLAH, PULAYA, NASRANI, NAYAR. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam.
 

MALDIVIAN

[SNM] 4,500 in India (1997 CIIL). Minicoy Island in the Laccadive Islands in India. Alternate names: MALIKH, MAHL, MALKI, DEVEHI, DIVEHLI, DIVEHI BAS. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Sinhalese-Maldivian.
 

MALVI

[MUP] 1,102,000 (1997 IMA). Northwest Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Rajasthan; Gujarat. Alternate names: MALWADA, MALLOW, UJJAINI, MALWI, MALAVI. Dialects: BACHADI, BHOYARI, DHOLEWARI, HOSHANGABAD, JAMRAL, KATIYAI, MALVI PROPER, PATVI, RANGARI, RANGRI, SONDWARI (SOUDHWARI). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified.
 

MANDA

[MHA] Orissa, Kalahandi District. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Manda-Pengo.
 

MANDEALI

[MJL] 776,372 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Mandi District. Alternate names: MANDI, PAHARI MANDIYALI, MANDIALI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.
 

MANNA-DORA

[MJU] 18,964 (1981 census). Andhra Pradesh, East Godavari, Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam districts; Tamil Nadu. Classification: Dravidian, South Central, Telugu.
 

MANNAN

[MJV] 58,028 including 5,852 in the Scheduled Tribe, 52,176 in the Scheduled Caste (1981 census). Kerala, Idukki District, Devikulam taluk; Tamil Nadu, Kanyakumari and Tirunelvgeli districts. Alternate names: MANNE, MANNYOD. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam.
 

MARATHI

[MRT] 68,022,000 (1997 IMA). Population total all countries 68,022,000. Including second language speakers: 71,000,000 (1999 WA). Alternate names: MAHARASHTRA, MAHARATHI, MALHATEE, MARTHI, MURUTHU. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone.
 

MARIA

[MRR] 134,000 (1997 IMA). Maharashtra, Garhichiroli (Chanda) District; Madhya Pradesh. Alternate names: MADI, MADIYA, MADIA, MODH, MODI. Dialects: BHAMANI MARIA (BHAMANI), ADEWADA, ETAPALLY MARIA. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi.
 

MARIA, DANDAMI

[DAQ] 150,000 (1992 UBS). Madhya Pradesh, central and southern Bastar District, Dantewara tahsil. Alternate names: BISON HORN MARIA, MARIA GOND, MADIYA, DHURU, DANDAMI MADIYA. Dialects: GEEDAM, SUKMA (SUKA). Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi.
 

MARWARI

[MKD] 12,963,000 including 8,068,000 Marwari, 3,583,000 Rajasthani, 265,000 Dhundhari, 47,000 Shekawati (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 12,963,000. Alternate names: RAJASTHANI, MERWARI, MARVARI. Dialects: STANDARD MARWARI, JAIPURI, SHEKAWATI, DHUNDHARI, BIKANERI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari.
 

MAWCHI

[MKE] 76,000 (1997 IMA). Southwest Gujarat; Maharashtra, Dhule District. Alternate names: MAUCHI, MAVCHI, MAWACHI, MOWCHI, MAWCHI BHIL. Dialects: GAMTI, MAWCHI, PADVI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil.
 

MEITEI

[MNR] 1,240,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total all countries 1,648,000 (1996 UBS). Alternate names: MEITHEI, MEITHE, MITHE, MITEI, MEITEIRON, MANIPURI, MENIPURI, KATHE, KATHI, PONNA. Dialects: MEITEI, LOI, PANGAL. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Meithei.
 

MEMBA

[MMC] 2,000 (2000 Roland Breton). Northern Arunachal Pradesh, West Siang District, up near Pemak in China. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Unclassified.
 

MEWARI

[MTR] 1,220,000 including 1,058,000 Mewari and 162,000 Mewati (1997 IMA). Rajasthan, Udaipur, Bhilwara, Chitorgarh districts. Alternate names: MEWATI, MEWADI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari.
 

MIJU

[MXJ] 3,662 (1981 census). Assam; Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit District. Alternate names: KAMAN, MISHMI, MIJI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani.
 

MIKIR

[MJW] 478,000 including 341,000 Mikir (1997 IMA), 137,000 Amri (1997 IMA). Assam, Karbi Anglong District, Mikir and Rengma hills; Arunachal Pradesh, Lower Subansiri District, Balijan circle; Meghalaya, Jaintia and East Khasi Hills districts; Nagaland, foothills around Dimapur. Alternate names: MANCHATI, MIKIRI, KARBI, KARBI KARBAK, ARLENG ALAM. Dialects: AMRI (AMRI KARBI), BHOI MYNRI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Mikir.
 

MINA

[MYI] 900,000 (1991 IMA), or 2,087,075 (1981 census). Madhya Pradesh, Gwalior, Shiypuri, Guna, Rajgarh districts, Vidisha District, Sironj subdivision; Rajasthan, Jaipur, Alwar, Bharatpur, Sawai Madhopur, Tonk, Bundi districts. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified.
 

MIRGAN

[QMK] 12,000 including 10,000 in Orissa, 2,000 in Madhya Pradesh (1992). Madhya Pradesh, Bastar District; Orissa, Koraput District. Alternate names: PANIKA, PANKA, MIRKAN, MIRGAMI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese.
 

MIRI

[MRG] 400,000 (1998 BSI). Assam, North Lakhimpur, Dibrugarh, Sibsagar, Darrang districts; Arunachal Pradesh, a few villages near Pasighat. The Hill Miri are in Arunachal Pradesh, the Plain Miri are in Assam. Alternate names: MISHING, MISING. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani.
 

MOINBA

[MOB] 46,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 76,000. Alternate names: MONBA, MOMPA, MONPA, MOMBA, MENBA, KHAMBA. Dialects: MATCHOPA NAGNOO (BUT), CHUG, SANGLA (DIRANG), KALAKTANG, KISHPIGNAG (LISH), MONKIT (TAWANG). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern.
 

MRU

[MRO] 1,231 in India (1981 census). West Bengal, Nadia and Hoogly districts. Alternate names: MRO, MURUNG, NIOPHENG, MRUNG. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Mru.
 

MUKHA-DORA

[MMK] 17,456 (1981 census). Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram districts. Alternate names: REDDI-DORA, CONTA-REDDI, REDDI, RIDDI, NOOKA DORA, MUKHA DHORA. Classification: Unclassified.
 

MUNDARI

[MUW] 2,069,000 in India (1997 IMA), including 1,022,000 Mundari, 519,000 Munda, 528,000 Bhumij. Population total all countries 2,075,000 or more. Alternate names: MANDARI, MUNARI, MUNDA, MONDARI, HORO, COLH. Dialects: HASADA', LATAR, NAGURI, KERA', BHUMIJ (SADAR BHUMIJ, BHUMIJ MUNDA, BHUMIJ THAR). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari.
 

MURIA, EASTERN

[EMU] Madhya Pradesh, Northeastern Bastar District, northwestern Koraput District. Dialects: RAIGARH, LANJODA. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi.
 

MURIA, FAR WESTERN

[FMU] Maharashtra, northern Garhichiroli District, Kurkhed Taluk. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi.
 

MURIA, WESTERN

[MUT] 12,898 (1971 census). Madhya Pradesh, northern and western Bastar District. Alternate names: JHORIA, MUDIA, MURIA GONDI. Dialects: SONAPAL, BANCHAPAI, DHANORA. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi.
 

MUTHUVAN

[MUV] 12,219 (1981 census). Andhra Pradesh; Kerala, Calicut, Cannanore, Ernakulam, Kottayam, and Trichur districts; Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore District, Anaimalai Hills. One source says the Mudugar live in Kerala, Palghat District, Pudar and Agali panchayats. Alternate names: MUDAVAN, MUDUVAR, MUDUGAR, MUTUVAR, MUDUVAN, MUDUVA. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified.
 

NAGA PIDGIN

[NAG] Used by most of the 500,000 speakers of 29 Naga languages as second language (1989 J. Holm). Nagaland, especially Kohima District, Dimapur Subdivision; bordering areas of Arunachal Pradesh. Alternate names: NAGAMESE, NAGA-ASSAMESE, NAGA CREOLE ASSAMESE, KACHARI BENGALI, BODO. Classification: Creole, Assamese based.
 

NAGA, ANGAMI

[NJM] 109,000 (1997 IMA). Western Nagaland, Kohima District; Manipur; Maharashtra. Alternate names: GNAMEI, NGAMI, ANGAMIS, TSOGHAMI, TSUGUMI, MONR, TSANGLO, TENDYDIE. Dialects: KOHIMA, DZUNA, KEHENA, KHONOMA, CHAKROMA (WESTERN ANGAMI), MIMA, NALI, MOZOME, TENGIMA, TENYIDIE (TENYIDYE). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri.
 

NAGA, AO

[NJO] 141,000 (1997 IMA). Northeastern Nagaland, central Mokokchung District;, Assam. Alternate names: AORR, PAIMI, CHOLIMI, NOWGONG, HATIGORIA, URI, AO. Dialects: MONGSEN KHARI, CHANGKI, CHONGLI (CHUNGLI), DORDAR (YACHAM), LONGLA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Ao.
 

NAGA, CHANG

[NBC] 31,000 (1997 IMA). Assam; east central Nagaland, Tunsang District. Alternate names: CHANG, MOJUNG, MACHONGRR, MOCHUMI, MOCHUNGRR, CHANGYANGUH. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak.
 

NAGA, CHOKRI

[NRI] 20,000 (1991). Nagaland, Cheswezumi is the main village. Alternate names: EASTERN ANGAMI, CHAKRIMA NAGA, CHAKRU, CHOKRI, CHAKHESANG. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri.
 

NAGA, CHOTHE

[NCT] 2,852 (1988 Y. Hunem CNBA). Southeast Manipur, Chandel District; Nagaland, near Myanmar border. Alternate names: CHOTHE, CHOWTE, CHAWTE. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuku-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

NAGA, KABUI

[NKF] 48,268 (1994). Manipur, Imphal city, Satar Hills, Nagaland; Assam. Alternate names: KABUI, KAPWI, KOBOI, KUBAI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme.
 

NAGA, KHEZHA

[NKH] 23,000 (1997 IMA). Eastern Nagaland, Kohima District, Khezhakhonoma. Alternate names: KEZAMI, KHEZHAMA, KHEZHA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri.
 

NAGA, KHIAMNIUNGAN

[NKY] 25,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 25,000 or more. Alternate names: KHIAMNGAN, KHIAMNIUNGAN, KHIENMUNGAN, KHEMUNGAN, KEMMUNGAM, KALYOKENGNYU, MAKWARE, NOKAW, PARA, PONYO, AOSHEDD, WELAM. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak.
 

NAGA, KHOIBU MARING

[NKB] 20,000 (1987 A. Hongsha). Manipur, southeast, Laiching. Alternate names: KHOIBU, KHOIBU MARING. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuku-Chin-Naga, Naga, Tangkhul.
 

NAGA, KHOIRAO

[NKI] 20,000 (1992 K. Tombing). North Manipur, Senapati District, hill ranges of East and West Sadar Hills subdivisions. Most are east of Barak Valley groups. 250 square miles. Alternate names: KHOIRAO, KOIRAO, KOLYA, MAYANGKHANG, MIYANG-KHANG, NGARI, THANGGAL, THANGAL, TUKAIMI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme.
 

NAGA, KONYAK

[NBE] 105,000 (1997 IMA). Assam, Sibsagar District; northeast Nagaland, Mon District. Alternate names: KANYAK, KONYAK. Dialects: ANGPHANG, HOPAO, CHANGNYU, CHEN, CHINGKAO, CHINGLANG, CHOHA, GELEKIDORIA, JAKPHANG, KONGON, LONGCHING, LONGKHAI, LONGMEIN, LONGWA, MOHUNG, TABLENG, MON, MULUNG, NGANGCHING, SANG, SHANLANG, SHUNYUO, SHENGHA, SIMA, SOWA, SHAMNYUYANGA, TABU, TAMKHUNGNYUO, TANG, TOBUNYUO, TOLAMLEINYUA, TOTOK. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak.
 

NAGA, LIANGMAI

[NJN] 20,000 (1997 BSI). Nagaland, upper Barak Valley. Alternate names: LIYANG, LIANGMAI, LYENGMAI, LIANGMEI, LYANGMAY. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme.
 

NAGA, LOTHA

[NJH] 80,000 (1997 IMA). Nagaland, west central, Workha District. Alternate names: CHIZIMA, CHOIMI, HLOTA, LHOTA, MIKLAI, TSINDIR, LUTHA, LOTHA, TSONTSII. Dialects: LIVE, TSONTSU, NDRENG, KYONG, KYO, KYON, KYOU. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Ao.
 

NAGA, MAO

[NBI] 81,000 (1997 IMA). Northwest Manipur; Nagaland. Alternate names: MAO, SPOWAMA, SOPVOMA, MAIKEL, MEMI, SOPFOMO, EMELA. Dialects: PAOMATA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri.
 

NAGA, MARAM

[NMA] 15,000 (1993 UBS). Assam; north Manipur, Barak Valley, 5 locations. Alternate names: MARAM. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme.
 

NAGA, MARING

[NNG] 16,000 (1997 IMA). Manipur, southeast, Laiching. Alternate names: MARING. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuku-Chin-Naga. Naga, Tangkhul.
 

NAGA, MELURI

[NLM] 4 (1961 census). Nagaland. Alternate names: MELURI, MELUORY, ANYO. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuku-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri.
 

NAGA, MONSANG

[NMH] 2,550 (1988 Th. Kotha MNBCA). Manipur, Chandel District; Northern Nagaland, near Myanmar border. Alternate names: MOSHANG, MONSHANG, MUSHANG, MAWSHANG. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuku-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

NAGA, MOYON

[NMO] 2,970 (1988 W. Roel MYNBA). Nagaland, near Myanmar border; Manipur State, Chandel District. Alternate names: MOYON, MAYON NAGA, MAYOL. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

NAGA, MZIEME

[NME] 29,000 (1997 IMA). Southwestern Nagaland, northeast of Zeme. Alternate names: MZIEME. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme.
 

NAGA, NOCTE

[NJB] 33,000 (1997 IMA). Northern Nagaland, Namsang, Jaipur in Lakhimpur district and neighboring parts of Tirap Division; southeastern Arunachal Pradesh, Tirap District; Assam. Alternate names: NOCTE, BORDURIA, JAIPURIA, PANIDURIA, MOHONGIA, NAMSANGIA. Dialects: LAJU, PONTHAI, TOTCHA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak.
 

NAGA, NTENYI

[NNL] 6,600 (1980 UBS). West central Nagaland, northern section of Rengma. Kotsenyu is chief village of Ntenyi. Alternate names: NTENYI, NTHENYI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri.
 

NAGA, PHOM

[NPH] 34,000 (1997 IMA). Northeastern Nagaland, Tuensang District, Longleng subdivision, and Assiringia village. Alternate names: PHOM, PHON, TAMLU NAGA, CHINGMENGU, TAMLU. Dialects: YONGYASHA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak.
 

NAGA, POCHURI

[NPO] 13,000 (1997 IMA). Southeast Nagaland. All villages are in the Meluri subdivision of Phek District. Alternate names: POCHURI, POCHURY. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri.
 

NAGA, POUMEI

[PMX] 51,000 (1997 IMA). Manipur. Alternate names: POUMEI, PAUMEI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri.
 

NAGA, PUIMEI

[NPU] 2,500 in Manipur (1991). Manipur; Assam. Alternate names: PUIMEI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Unclassified.
 

NAGA, RENGMA

[NRE] 34,000 including 21,000 in Southern Rengma (1997 IMA), 13,000 in Northen Rengma (1997 IMA). West central Nagaland; Assam; Manipur. Tseminyu is the main center for the principal dialect. Alternate names: RENGMA, MOZHUMI, MOIYUI, MON, UNZA, NZONG, NZONYU, INJANG. Dialects: KETENENEYU, AZONYU (NZONYU, SOUTHERN RENGMA). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri.
 

NAGA, RONGMEI

[NBU] 59,000 (1997 IMA). Northwest Manipur; Nagaland; Assam, Cachar District. Alternate names: MARUONGMAI, NRUANGHMEI, RONGMEI, RONGMAI. Dialects: SONGBU. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme.
 

NAGA, SANGTAM

[NSA] 39,000 (1997 IMA). Southeast Nagaland. Alternate names: SANGTAM, ISACHANURE, LOPHOMI. Dialects: KIZARE, PIRR (NORTHERN SANGTAM), PHELONGRE, THUKUMI (CENTRAL SANGTAM), PHOTSIMI, PURR (SOUTHERN SANGTAM). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Ao.
 

NAGA, SUMI

[NSM] 132,000 (1997 IMA). Central and southern Nagaland; Assam. Dayang is by the Dayang River. Alternate names: SEMA, SIMI, SUMI. Dialects: DAYANG (WESTERN SUMI), LAZEMI, ZHIMOMI, ZUMOMI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri.
 

NAGA, TANGKHUL

[NMF] 110,000 (1997 IMA). Manipur, Ukhrul District; Nagaland; Tripura. Alternate names: TANGKHUL, TAGKHUL, THANGKHULM, CHAMPHUNG, LUHUPPA, LUPPA, SOMRA. Dialects: UKHRUL, KHUNGGOI, KHANGOI, KUPOME, PHADANG. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Tangkhul.
 

NAGA, TARAO

[TRO] 570 (1988 K. Mohon TRNBA). Southeast Manipur. Alternate names: TARAO, TARAU, TARAOTRONG. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

NAGA, TASE

[NST] 17,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 17,000 or more. Alternate names: TASEY, TANGSA, RANGPAN, CHAM CHANG. Dialects: LONGPHI, YOGLI, HAVE, KHEMSING, LUNGCHANG, LUNGRI, MOKLUM, PONTHAI, RONGRANG, RONRANG, TAIPI, TIKHAK, SANKE (SHANGGE), SANGCHE. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak.
 

NAGA, WANCHO

[NNP] 45,000 (1997 IMA). Assam; Nagaland; southeastern Arunachal Pradesh, Tirap District. Alternate names: WANCHO, BANPARA NAGA, JOBOKA. Dialects: CHANGNOI, BOR MUTHUN (BOR MUTONIA), HORU MUTHUN, KULUNG MUTHUN (MITHAN). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak.
 

NAGA, YIMCHUNGRU

[YIM] 37,000 (1997 IMA). Nagaland, northern between Namchik and Patkoi, Tuensang District. Alternate names: YIMCHUNGRU, YIMCHUNGER, YIMCHUNGRE, TOZHUMA, YACHUMI. Dialects: TIKHIR, WAI, CHIRR, MINIR, PHERRONGRE, YIMCHUNGRU. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Ao.
 

NAGA, ZEME

[NZM] 27,000 (1994 IMA). Manipur; Nagaland; Assam, large upper Barak Valley. Alternate names: KACHCHA, KACHA, KUTCHA, MEZAMA, SANGRIMA, SENGIMA, ARUNG, EMPUI, JEME, ZEMI. Dialects: PAREN, NJAUNA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme.
 

NAGARCHAL

[NBG] 7,090 (1971 census). Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Rajasthan. Alternate names: NAGAR, NAGARCHI. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi.

NAHARI

[NHH] 108 (1961 census). Madhya Pradesh, Raipur, Bilaspur districts; Orissa, Sambalpur District. Alternate names: NAHALI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese.
 

NEPALI

[NEP] 6,000,000 in India (1984 Far Eastern Economic Review). West Bengal, Darjeeling area; Assam; Arunachal Pradesh; Bihar; Haryana; Himachal Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh. Alternate names: NEPALESE, GORKHALI, GURKHALI, KHASKURA, PARBATIYA, EASTERN PAHARI. Dialects: GORKHALI, PALPA, NEPALI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari.
 

NEWARI

[NEW] Some in Bettiah, Bihar. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Newari.
 

NICOBARESE, CAR

[CAQ] 30,000 (1997 IMA). North Nicobar Islands, Car Island. Alternate names: PU, CAR. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Car.
 

NICOBARESE, CENTRAL

[NCB] 2,200 (1981), 800 Nancowry, 1,400 closely related dialects (1981 Radhakrishnan). 22,100 in all six Nicobarese languages (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Nicobar Islands, Katchal, Camorta, Nancowry, and Trinket islands. Alternate names: NICOBAR. Dialects: CAMORTA (KAMORTA), KATCHAL (KACHEL, TEHNU), NANCOWRY (NANCOURY), TRINKUT (TRINKAT). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Nancowry.
 

NICOBARESE, SOUTHERN

[NIK] Nicobar Islands, Little Nicobar and outer Great Nicobar islands. Alternate names: NICOBARA. Dialects: CONDUL, GREAT NICOBAR, LITTLE NICOBAR, MILO. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Great Nicobar.

NIHALI

[NHL] 5,000 (1987). Madhya Pradesh, Khandwa District, mainly around Temi (Tembi) village in Nimar District; Maharashtra, Buldana, Akola, Amravati, Jalgaon districts; 12 hamlets around Toranmal. Alternate names: NIHAL, NAHALI, NAHAL, KALTO, NAHALE. Classification: Language Isolate.
 

NIMADI

[NOE] 1,359,000 (1997 IMA). Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh; Maharashtra. Alternate names: NEMADI, NIMARI, NIMIADI. Dialects: BHUANI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified.
 

NISI

[DAP] 261,000 (1997 IMA). Assam, Darrang District; Arunachal Pradesh, Subansiri District. Alternate names: DAFLA, DAPHLA, NISSI, NISHI, NYISING, NYISHI, BANGNI, LEL. Dialects: AKA LEL, TAGIN, NISHANG. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani.
 

NUKA-DORA

[NUK] Andhra Pradesh, near Adiwasi Oriya. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Konda.
 

ÖNGE

[OON] 96 (1997 CIIL). Southern Andaman Islands, Dugong Creek and South Bay islands. Alternate names: ONG. Classification: Andamanese, South Andamanese.
 

ORIYA

[ORY] 31,666,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 32,000,000. Alternate names: URIYA, UTKALI, ODRI, ODRUM, OLIYA, ORISSA, VADIYA, YUDHIA. Dialects: MUGHALBANDI (ORIYA PROPER, STANDARD ORIYA), SOUTHERN ORIYA, BHATRI, NORTHWESTERN ORIYA, WESTERN ORIYA (SAMBALPURI), NORTH BALASORE ORIYA, MIDNAPORE ORIYA, HALBI, KORAPUT ORIYA (DESIA ORIYA). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya.
 

ORIYA, ADIVASI

[ORT] 300,000 mother tongue speakers, 150,000 in Andhra Pradesh, 150,000 in Orissa (1991 U. Gustafsson), 200,000 second language users (1998 U. Gustafsson). Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam District, Araku Valley; Orissa, Koraput District. Alternate names: TRIBAL ORIYA, DESIYA, DESIA, DESHIA, KOTIYA, KOTIA ORIYA, ADIWASI ORIYA. Dialects: ADIVASI ORIYA, VALMIKI ADIVASI ORIYA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya.
 

PAHARI, KULLU

[KFX] 109,000 in Kullu (1997 IMA). 2,173,000 all Pahari (1997 IMA). Himachal Pradesh, Kullu District. Alternate names: KULUI, KULLUI, KAULI, KULU BOLI, KULU PAHARI, PAHARI, PAHARI KULLU, PHARI KULU, KULVI, KULWALI. Dialects: INNER SIRAGI (INNER SERAJI, SIRAGI, SIRAJI, SARAJI), KLLUI, OUTER SERAJI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.
 

PAHARI, MAHASU

[BFZ] 500,000 (1992 estimate), including 3,976 Baghati (1961 census). Himachal Pradesh, Shimla (Simla) and Solan districts. Alternate names: MAHASUI. Dialects: LOWER MAHASU PAHARI (KIUNTHALI, SIRMAURI, BAGHATI, BAGHLIANI), UPPER MAHASU PAHARI (SHIMLA SIRAJI, SODOCHI, RAMPURI, ROHRURI). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.
 

PALIYAN

[PCF] 5,438 (1981 census). Kerala, Idukki District; Tamil Nadu, NadyraumTahavur, Pudukkotai, Tiruneveli, Coimbatore districts. Alternate names: PALAYA, PALAYAN, PALIYAR, PALLIYAR, POLIYAR, PALLEYAN, PALANI, MAKKAL, MALAI, SERAMAR. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam.
 

PANCHPARGANIA

[TDB] 274,000 (1997 IMA). Bihar, Ranchi, Singhbhum districts; West Bengal. Alternate names: TAMARIA, TAIR, TAMARA, TEMORAL, TUMARIYA, TANTI, CHIK BARIK, BEDIA, PAN, PAN SAWASI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari.
 

PANGWALI

[PGG] 17,000 (1997 IMA). Himachal Pradesh, Lahul-Spiti District, Udaipur down the Chenab (Chandra-Bhaga) River to the Chamba border at Purthi, and possibly from Tandi to the Sanch Pass. Another dialect over the pass; Chamba District, Pangi Tahsil. Alternate names: PAHARI, PANGI, PANGWALI PAHARI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.
 

PANIYA

[PCG] 63,827 (1981 census) including 56,952 in Kerala, 6,393 in Tamil Nadu, 482 in Karnataka. Kerala, Wynad, Kozhikode, Cannanore, Malapuram districts; Tamil Nadu, west of Nilgiris Hillls; Karnataka. Alternate names: PANIA, PANIYAN, PANYAH, NIL. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam.
 

PANJABI, EASTERN

[PNJ] 27,125,000 in India, including 26,975,000 Panjabi, 16,000 Majhi (1997 IMA), 134,000 Bhatneri (1991 IMA). Population total all countries 27,125,000. Alternate names: PUNJABI, GURMUKHI, GURUMUKHI. Dialects: PANJABI PROPER, MAJHI, DOAB, BHATYIANA (BHATNERI, BHATTI), POWADHI, MALWA, BATHI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Panjabi.
 

PANJABI, MIRPUR

[PMU] 98 in Jammu and Kashmir (1961 census). Population total both countries 20,000 to 30,000 or more. Alternate names: MIRPURI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda.
 

PANJABI, WESTERN

[PNB] 52,000 in India (1991 IMA). Jammu and Kashmir; Delhi; Haryana. Alternate names: WESTERN PUNJABI, LAHNDA, LAHANDA, LAHNDI. Dialects: MAJHI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda.
 

PANKHU

[PKH] Population total all countries 2,278 or more. Alternate names: PANKHO, PANKO, PANGKHU. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central.
 

PAO

[PPA] 7,223 (1981 census). Madhya Pradesh, Satna district. Alternate names: PABRA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified.
 

PARDHAN

[PCH] 116,919 (1981 census). Andhra Pradesh, Adilbad District; Madhya Pradesh, Seoni, Mandla, Chhindawara, hoshangabad, Betual, Balaghat, Raipur, Bislapur districts; Maharashtra, Vidarbha region. Alternate names: PRADHAN, PRADHANI. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi.
 

PARDHI

[PCL] 18,000 (1997 IMA). Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Gujarat; Maharashtra; scattered over wide area. Alternate names: BAHELIA, CHITA PARDHI, LANGO PARDHI, PAIDIA, PARADI, PARIA, PHANS PARDHI, TAKANKAR, TAKIA. Dialects: NEELISHIKARI, PITTALA BHASHA, TAKARI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil.
 

PARENGA

[PCJ] 4,281 (1992 Albert). Orissa, Koraput District; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: PARENGI, PARENG, PARENGA PARJA, PARENJI, POROJA, GORUM, GORUM SAMA. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Gorum.
 

PARSI

[PRP] 60,000 to 150,000 in India (1999). Population total all countries 230,000 or more. Alternate names: PARSEE. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran.
 

PATTANI

[LAE] 11,000 mother tongue speakers, 5,000 second language speakers (1997). Himachal Pradesh, Lahul Valley, Pattan, Chamba-Lahul, and lower Mayar valleys. Alternate names: MANCHATI, MANCHAD, PATTANI, PATNI, CHAMBA, CHAMBA LAHULI, LAHULI, SWANGLA, CHANGSAPA BOLI. Dialects: CHAMBA-LAJULI (WESTERN PATTANI), EASTERN PATTANI, CENTRAL PATTANI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri.
 

PENGO

[PEG] 1,254 (1961 census). Orissa, Koraput District, Kashipur, Pappadahandi, Nowrangapur, and Nandapur tahsils, Kalahandi District. Alternate names: PENGU, HENGO. Dialects: INDI, AWE, MANDA. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Manda-Pengo.
 

PHAKE

[PHK] Several thousand (A. Diller ANU 1990). Assam, villages along the Dihing River. Alternate names: PHAKIAL, PHAKEY, FAAKE. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Northwest.
 

PHUDAGI

[PHD] Maharashtra. Alternate names: VADVAL. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani.
 

PNAR

[PBV] 84,000 (1991 IMA). Assam, Khasi and Jaintia Hills; Maehalaya; Mizoram, northern Aizawi District. Dialects: JAINTIA (SYNTENG), NONGTUNG. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian.
 

PURIK

[BXR] 132,000 (1991 IMA). North Kashmir, Kargil District. Suru Valley is the main population center. It is the dominant group in Suru, a sizeable minority is in Dras Valley, and a minority is in the western Himalayas. Alternate names: PURIGSKAD, BURIG, PURIG, PURKI, PURIK BHOTIA, BURIGSKAT. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western.
 

RABHA

[RAH] 31,000 (1997 IMA). West Assam, Darrang, Goalpara, Kamrup districts; Nagaland; West Bengal, Jalpaiguri and Koch Bihar districts; Meghalaya, East Garo Hills District. Alternate names: RAVA. Dialects: MAITARIA, RANGDANIA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Koch.
 

RAJBANGSI

[RJB] 2,258,760 in India (1981 census). Population total all countries 2,350,000. Alternate names: RAJBANSI, RAJBANSHI, TAJPURI. Dialects: BAHE. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese.
 

RALTE

[RAL] 170 in India (1971 census). Assam; Mizoram, mainly Aizawi District, scattered in Lunglei and Chhimtuipui districts. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

RANGKAS

[RGK] Uttar Pradesh, facing the Nepal border along the Mahakali Valley. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Almora.
 

RATHAWI

[RTW] 308,640 (1981 census). Gujarat, Baroda and Panchmahals districts. Alternate names: KOHELIA, BAL-LA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil.
 

RAVULA

[YEA] 27,413 (1981) including 19,261 Yerava in Karnataka (1981 census), and 8,152 Adiya in Kerala (1981 census). Karnataka, Coorg (Kodagu) District; Kerala, Wayanad and Cannanore districts. Alternate names: ADIYA, ADIYAN, YORUBA, YERAVA, PANJIRI YERAVA. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam.
 

RAWANG

[RAW] The Kunlang dialect is in India. Alternate names: NUNG RAWANG, GANUNG-RAWANG, HKANUNG, NUMG, KRANGKU, TARON, KIUTZE, CH'OPA, CHIUTSE. Dialects: KUNLANG. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Nungish.
 

RAWAT

[JNL] 2,000 to 3,000 in India (1991). Uttar Pradesh, Pithorgarh District, north of Askot Maila. Alternate names: JANGGALI, JANGALI, JHANGAR, DZANGGALI, RAUT. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Janggali.
 

RELI

[REI] 19,000 (1997 IMA). Andhra Pradesh, near Adiwasi Oriya; Orissa, Koraput District. Alternate names: RELLI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya.
 

RIANG

[RIA] 139,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 139,000. Alternate names: REANG, KAU BRU. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo.
 

RUGA

[RUH] Meghalaya, near the Garo. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Koch. Nearly extinct.
 

SADRI

[SCK] 1,965,000 including 1,381,000 Sadani (1997 IMA), 574,000 Nagpuria (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 1,965,000. Alternate names: SADANI, SADANA, SADATI, SADARI, SADHAN, SADNA, SADRIK, SANTRI, SIDDRI, SRADRI, SADHARI, SADAN, NAGPURIA, NAGPURI, CHOTA NAGPURI, DIKKU KAJI, GAWARI, GANWARI, GOARI, GAUUARI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari.
 

SAJALONG

[SJL] 4,000 (1999 Breton). Arunachal Pradesh, West Kemang District, Bichom and Pakesa River valley. Alternate names: MIJI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified.
 

SAMVEDI

[SMV] Maharashtra. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani.
 

SANSKRIT

[SKT] 6,106 (1981 census). 194,433 second language users (1961 census). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan.
 

SANTALI

[SNT] 5,959,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total all countries 6,050,000. Alternate names: HOR, HAR, SATAR, SANTHALI, SANDAL, SANGTAL, SANTAL, SENTALI, SAMTALI, SANTHIALI, SONTHAL. Dialects: KARMALI (KHOLE), KAMARI-SANTALI, LOHARI-SANTALI, MAHALI (MAHLE), MANJHI, PAHARIA. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali.
 

SARAIKI

[SKR] 59,640 including 59,000 Multani (1997 IMA), 640 Bahawalpuri in India (1961 census). Punjab; Maharashtra; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh; Rajasthan; Delhi; Gujarat. Alternate names: MULTANI, MUTANI, SIRAIKI, SOUTHERN PANJABI, REASATI, RIASATI, BAHAWALPURI. Dialects: JAFRI, SIRAIKI HINDKI, THALI, JATKI, BAHAWALPURI (BHAWALPURI, RIASATI, REASATI). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda.
 

SAURASHTRA

[SAZ] 310,000 (1997 IMA). The districts mentioned each have communities of at least 5,000 speakers. Tamil Nadu, Madurai, Thanjavur, Dindugul Quaid-E. Milleth, Ramanathapuram, Chengai-Annai, Salem, Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli, North Arcot districts, Madras, Deccan, Madurai, Thanjavur, Salem cities; Karnataka; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: SAURASHTRI, SOURASHTRA, SOWRASHTRA, PATNULI. Dialects: SOUTHERN SAURASHTRA, NORTHERN SAURASHTRA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati.
 

SAURIA PAHARIA

[MJT] 74,000 to 86,000 (1994). Central eastern Bihar, northern part of former Santhal Pargana District, Rajmahal hills proper, mainly in Sahibganj and Godda districts, Litipara Block of Pakaur District; West Bengal, Bankura, Barddhaman, and Murshidabad districts. Alternate names: MALTO, MALTI, MALTU, MALER, SAWRIYA MALTO. Dialects: SAHIBGANJ, GODDA, HIRANPUR, LITIPARA (CHATGAM). Classification: Dravidian, Northern.
 

SAVARA

[SVR] Andhra Pradesh; Orissa. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu.
 

SENTINEL

[STD] 50 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southeastern Andaman Islands, Sentinel Island. Alternate names: SENTINELESE. Classification: Andamanese, South Andamanese.
 

SHENDU

[SHL] Assam, Lushai Hills. Alternate names: KHYEN, KHIENG, SHANDU, SANDU. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Sho.
 

SHERDUKPEN

[SDP] 1,144 (1982 Hale) to 4,000 (1999 Breton). Assam; Arunachal Pradesh, Kameng District, mainly Rupa, Shargang, Jigang villages. Alternate names: NGNOK. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Unclassified.
 

SHERPA

[SCR] 20,000 in India (1997 IMA). West Bengal, Darjeeling District; Sikkim; Arunachal Pradesh. Alternate names: SHARPA, SHARPA BHOTIA, XIAERBA, SERWA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanuari, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern.
 

SHINA

[SCL] 21,000 in India (1997 IMA). Northern Kashmir, Dras Valley and Gurais area in Kishenganga Valley near the cease fire line. Alternate names: SHINAKI, SINA. Dialects: DRASI, GUREZI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina.
 

SHOBANG

[SSB] Andaman and Nicobar Islands; West Bengal, Calcutta. Classification: Unclassified.
 

SHOLAGA

[SLE] 24,000 (1984 GR). Karnataka, Mysore District, Biligiri Rangana Hills; Tamil Nadu. Alternate names: SHOLIGA, SHOLIGAR, KADU SHOLIGAR, SOLIGA, SOLAGA, SOLIGAR. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil.
 

SHOM PENG

[SII] 214 (1982 census). Nicobar Islands, interior Great Nicobar Island. Alternate names: SHOM PEN, SHOMPENG. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Shom Peng.
 

SHUMCHO

[SCU] 2,174 5% of the population of Kinnaur District (1998). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur District, Kanam, Labrang, Spilo, Shyaso, Taling, and Rushkaling villages of Puh Tahsil. Alternate names: SUMCHU, SUMTSU, SHUMCU, THEBOR, THEBÖR SKADD, THEBARSKAD, CENTRAL KINNAURI, SUMCHO. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri.
 

SIKKIMESE

[SIP] 28,600 (1996). Sikkim, all districts; West Bengal, Darjeeling. Possibly also in Tibet. Alternate names: SIKKIM BHOTIA, SIKKIM BHUTIA, DANDZONGKA, DANJONGKA, DANYOUKA, DENJONG, DENJONGKHA, DENJONGPA, DENJONKE, DENJONKA, LACHENGPA, LACHUNGPA, SIKAMI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern.
 

SIMTE

[SMT] 20,000 (1993 UBS). Southwest Manipur. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

SINDHI

[SND] 2,812,000 in India (1997 IMA). Gujarat; Maharashtra; Rajasthan; Andhra Pradesh; Bihar; Delhi; Madhya Pradesh; Orissa; Tamil Nadu; Uttar Pradesh. Dialects: BHATIA, JADEJI, KAYASTHI, LARI, LASI, THARELI, THARI, VICCHOLI, VISHOLI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi.
 

SINGPHO

[SGP] 3,000 (1997 R. Breton). Assam, Tinsukia District, Margherita Subdivision; Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit and Tirap districts. Alternate names: SING-FO, KACHIN. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho.
 

SIRMAURI

[SRX] 14,542 (1971 census). Himachal Pradesh, Shimla (Simla) and Solan districts. Alternate names: SIRMOURI, SIRMURI. Dialects: GIRIPARI, DHARTHI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.
 

SORA

[SRB] 288,000 (1997 IMA). South Orissa, mainly in the Ganjam District, also in the Koraput and Phulbani districts; Andhra Pradesh, Srikakulam District; Madhya Pradesh; Bihar; Tamil Nadu; West Bengal; the Plains Division of Assam. Alternate names: SAORA, SAONRAS, SHABARI, SABAR, SAURA, SAVARA, SAWARIA, SWARA, SABARA. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Sora-Juray.
 

STOD BHOTI

[SBU] 2,500 (1996). Himachal Pradesh, Lahul region, Stod, Khoksar, and upper Mayar valleys. Alternate names: STOD, TOD, TOD-KAD, STOD-KAD, LAHUL BHOTI. Dialects: STOD (KOLONG), KHOKSAR (KHOKSAR BHOTI), MAYAR (MAYAR BHOTI, MAYARI). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central.
 

SULUNG

[SUV] 4,227 (1981 census). Arunachal Pradesh, east Kameng and lower Subansire districts, a remote corner of the eastern Himalayas. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani.
 

SUNAM

[SSK] 558 or less than 2% of the population of Kinnaur District (1998). Himachal pradesh, Kinnaur District, Sunam village in Puh Tahsil. Alternate names: SUNGAM, SUNGNAM, THEBOR, THEBÖR SKADD, THEBARSHAD, CENTRAL KINNAURI, SANGNAUR. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri.
 

SURAJPURI

[SJP] 273,000 (1997 IMA). Bihar. Alternate names: SURAIJI, CHOUPAL, CHAUPAL. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari.
 

TAMANG, EASTERN

[TAJ] 14,000 (1997 IMA). Darjeeling, Sikkim; Arunachal Pradesh;. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic.
 

TAMIL

[TCV] 61,527,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total all countries 66,000,000 first language speakers; 74,000,000 including second language users (1999 WA). Alternate names: TAMALSAN, TAMBUL, TAMILI, TAMAL, DAMULIAN. Dialects: ADI DRAVIDA, AIYAR, AIYANGAR, ARAVA, BURGANDI, KASUVA, KONGAR, KORAVA, KORCHI, MADRASI, PARIKALA, PATTAPU BHASHA, TAMIL, SRI LANKA TAMIL, MALAYA TAMIL, BURMA TAMIL, SOUTH AFRICA TAMIL, TIGALU, HARIJAN, SANKETI, HEBBAR, MANDYAM BRAHMIN, SECUNDERABAD BRAHMIN. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil.
 

TEHRI

[THB] Uttar Pradesh, Garhwal District. Alternate names: GANGAPARIYA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Garhwali.
 

TELUGU

[TCW] 69,634,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total all countries 69,666,000 or more. Including second language speakers: 75,000,000 (1999 WA). Alternate names: TELEGU, ANDHRA, GENTOO, TAILANGI, TELANGIRE, TELGI, TENGU, TERANGI, TOLANGAN. Dialects: BERAD, DASARI, DOMMARA, GOLARI, KAMATHI, KOMTAO, KONDA-REDDI, SALEWARI, TELANGANA, TELUGU, VADAGA, VADARI, SRIKAKULA, VISHAKAPATNAM, EAST GODAVERI, RAYALSEEMA, NELLORE, GUNTUR. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu.
 

TERESSA

[TEF] Nicobar Islands, Teressa and Bompoka islands. Alternate names: TAIH-LONG. Dialects: BOMPOKA (BOMPAKA, PAUHUT). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Chowra-Teressa.

THARU, DANGAURA

[THL] 31,000 in India (1981 census). Uttar Pradesh, along the border in Nighasan Tahsil of Kheri District and Tulsipur Tahsil of Gonda District. Alternate names: DANG, DANGORA, DANGURA, DANGALI, DANGHA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified.
 

THARU, KOCHILA

[THQ] Alternate names: SAPTARI. Dialects: MORANGIA. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified.
 

THARU, RANA

[THR] 64,000 in India (1981 census). Border with Nepal, Uttar Pradesh, near Nighasan Tahsil of Kheri District, Khatima, Sitargani, Kiccha, and Haldwani tahsils of Nainital District, and Pilibhit districts, Uttar Pradesh. Alternate names: RANA THAKUR. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified.
 

THULUNG

[TDH] 3,313 in India (1961 census). Sikkim; Uttar Pradesh. Alternate names: THULUNGE RAI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Western.
 

TIBETAN

[TIC] 124,280 in India (1994 IMA). Tibet border, Himachal Pradesh; Arunachal Pradesh; Assam; Delhi; Sikkim. The Darjeeling-Kalimpong area of West Bengal has been heavily settled by Tibetans since at least 1900. Alternate names: CENTRAL TIBETAN, BHOTIA, POHBETIAN, TEBILIAN, TIBATE. Dialects: KONGBO, SPITI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central.
 

TINANI

[LBF] 2,000 in India (1996). Population total both countries 2,400 to 3,600. Alternate names: LAHAULI, LAHOULI, RANGLOI, TINAN LAHULI, LAHULI, TEENAN, GONDLA, GONDHLA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri.
 

TODA

[TCX] 1,006 (1981 census). Orissa; Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri Hills, Kunda hills. Alternate names: TODI, TUDA. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Toda-Kota.
 

TOTO

[TXO] 20,000 (1994 King). West Bengal, Subhapara, Dhunchipara, Panchayatpara hillocks on the Indo-Bhutan border. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Dhimal.
 

TSHANGLA

[TSJ] Western Arunachal Pradesh, Bishing and several other villages. Alternate names: TSANGLA, SANGLA, CANGLOU MENBA, MENBA, MONBA, MONPA, MOTUO, CENTRAL MONPA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Bodish, Tshangla.
 

TUKPA

[TPQ] 723 (1998). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur District, Nesang, Charang, and Kunnu villages. Alternate names: NESANG. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri.
 

TULU

[TCY] 1,949,000 (1997 IMA). Andhra Pradesh; Kerala; Tamil Nadu; Maharashtra; Karnataka; Meghalaya. Alternate names: TAL, THALU, TILU, TULUVA BHASA, TULLU, THULU. Dialects: TULU, BELLARI. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu.
 

TURI

[TRD] 2,000 to 4,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin) out of an ethnic population of 150,000 (1981 census). Bihar, Ranchi, Gumla, Lohardaga districts, Chotanagpur area; Madhya Pradesh, Raigarh District; Orissa, Sambalpur and Sundargarb districts; West Bengal, Birbhum, Nadia, Murshidabad, Bankura districts. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali.
 

TURUNG

[TRY] Assam. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, East Central, Northwest. Nearly extinct.
 

ULLATAN

[ULL] 12,687 (1981 census). Kerala, palghat, Trichur, Ernakulam, Kottayam, Quilon, Alleppey, Trivandrum districts. Alternate names: KATAN, KATTALAN, KOCHUVELAN, ULLADAN. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Unclassified.
 

URALI

[URL] 18,257 (1981 census). Tamil Nadu, Periyar District, Sathayamangalam area, east of Nilgiri District; Kerala, Idukki, Wynad districts. Alternate names: OORAZHI, URALY, URLI. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada.
 

URDU

[URD] 48,062,000 in India (1997 IMA). Jammu and Kashmir and by Muslims in many parts of India. Alternate names: ISLAMI, UNDRI, URUDU. Dialects: DAKHINI (DAKANI, DECCAN, DESIA, MIRGAN), PINJARI, REKHTA (REKHTI). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani.
 

VAAGRI BOOLI

[VAA] 10,000 or more (1970 Varma. Tamil Nadu, Arcot District. Alternate names: NARAKUREAVAR, NARIKKORAVA, KURUVIKKARAN, KARIKKORAVA, HAKKIPIKKARU, HAKI PIKI, GUVVALOLLU, SHIKARUANAM, RATTIYAN, MARATTIYAN. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified.
 

VAIPHEI

[VAP] 21,000 (1997 IMA). Assam; south Manipur; Meghalaya; Tripura. Alternate names: BHAIPEI, VAIPEI, VEIPHEI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

VARHADI-NAGPURI

[VAH] 463 including 186 Dahngari, 271 Kumbhari, 6 Warhadi (1961 census). Maharashtra. Alternate names: MADHYA PRADESH MARATHI, BERARI, BERAR MARATHI, DHANAGARI, KUMBHARI. Dialects: BRAHMANI, KUNBI, RAIPUR, JHADPI, GOVARI, KOSTI (RANGARI), KUNBAN (KOHLI), MAHARI (DHEDI). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified.
 

VARLI

[VAV] 470,000 including 33,971 in Maharashtra (1981 census) and 126,108 in Gujarat (1971 census). Maharashtra, northern Thane District, especially Dahanu and Talasari taluks, and some in Nasik and Dhule districts; Gujarat, Valsad District, especially Dharampur taluk; Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Davari dialect in far north Thane District and southern Gujarat; Nihiri elsewhere. Alternate names: WARLI. Dialects: DAVARI, WESTERN NIHIRI, EASTERN NIHIRI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani.
 

VASAVI

[VAS] 900,000 or more (1997 BSI). Maharashtra, small villages and hamlets around the Tapti River; Gujarat, Surat and Bharuch districts, north of the Tapti River in the southern areas of Akkalkuwa and Akrani tahsils on a narrow belt of land between the Satpudas the the Tapti banks; some in the Satpudas; south of the Tapti in the central and northern Nandurbar and Nawapur tahsils. Alternate names: VASAVE, VASAVA, VASAVA BHIL. Dialects: DEHVALI (AMBODI), DUNGRI (DOGRI). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati.
 

VISHAVAN

[VIS] 150. Kerala, Ernakulam, Kottayam, Trichur districts. Alternate names: MALARKUTI. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified.

WADDAR

[WBQ] 61,000 (1997 IMA). Andhra Pradesh; Karnataka; Maharashtra, Jalgaon District. Alternate names: VADARI, WERDERS. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu.
 

WAGDI

[WBR] 1,621,000 (1997 IMA). Rajasthan, southern Udaipur District, Dungarpur and Banswara; Gujarat, Sabarkantha and Panch Mahals; Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad. Alternate names: WAGADI, VAGDI, VAGADI, VAGARI, VAGERI, VAGED, VAGI, WAGARI, WAGHARI, WAGRI, WAGHOLI, MINA BHIL, BHILI. Dialects: KHERWARA, SAGWARA, ADIVASI WAGDI. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil.
 

YAKHA

[YBH] Among British Gurkhas in Sikkim. Alternate names: YAKKHA, YAKKHABA. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern.
 

YERUKULA

[YEU] 300,000 (1997). Andhra Pradesh, Rayalseema, Telengana and Andhra regions; Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri, Coimbatore, Periyar, Salem, Chengai Anna; Karnataka; Kerala; Maharashtra. Alternate names: YERUKALA, YARUKULA, YERKULA, YERUKLA, ERUKALA, KORAVA, YERUKALA-KORAVA, YERUKULA-BHASHA, ERUKU BHASHA, KORCHI, KURUTHA, KURRU BHASHA. Dialects: PARIKALA, SANKARA-YERUKALA. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil.
 

ZAKHRING

[ZKR] Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit District, hilly terrain and banks of the Lohit River in the Walong and Kibithoo area. Dialects: LOWER ZYPHE, UPPER ZYPHE. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified.
 

ZANGSKARI

[ZAU] 8,000 to 10,000 (1984 Dayton and Wilson). Kashmir, Zaskar Mts.; southernmost end of Kargil District. Between Himalayas and Indus River Valley. Next to Leh-Ladakhi area and Kargil-Purik area. Possibly Tibet. Alternate names: ZANSKARI, ZASKARI. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western.
 

ZOME

[ZOM] 17,000 in India (1997 IMA). Manipur, Chandel and southern districts; Assam. Alternate names: ZORNI, ZOMI, ZOLI, ZO, ZOU. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern.
 

ZYPHE

[ZYP] Mizoram, Lakher District. Alternate names: ZOPHEI. Dialects: LOWER ZYPHE, UPPER ZYPHE. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern.
 

Extinct languages

AHOM

[AHO] Assam. Alternate names: TAI AHOM. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Northwest.
 

AKA-BEA

[ACE] Andaman Islands, coasts of South Andaman Island except northeast coast, and north and east interiors; coastal Rutland Island except south coast; small islands southeast of Rutland; and Labyrinth Islands. Alternate names: BEA, BEADA, BIADA, AKA-BEADA, BOJIGNIJI, BOGIJIAB, BOJIGYAB. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central.
 

AKA-BO

[AKM] Andaman Islands, east central coast of North Andaman Island, and North Reef Island. Alternate names: BO, BA. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern.
 

AKA-CARI

[ACI] Andaman Islands, north coast of North Andaman Island, Landfall Island, and other nearby small islands. Alternate names: CARI, CHARIAR. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern.
 

AKA-JERU

[AKJ] Andaman Islands, interior and south North Andaman Island, and Sound Island. Alternate names: JERU, YERAWA. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern.
 

AKA-KEDE

[AKX] Andaman Islands, central and north central Middle Andaman Island. Alternate names: KEDE. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central.
 

AKA-KOL

[AKY] Andaman Islands, southeast Middle Andaman Island. Alternate names: KOL. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central.
 

AKA-KORA

[ACK] Andaman Islands, northeast and north central coasts of North Andaman Island, and Smith Island. Alternate names: KORA. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern.
 

AKAR-BALE

[ACL] Andaman Islands, Ritchie's Archipelago, Havelock Island, Neill Island. Alternate names: BALE, BALWA. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central.
 

OKO-JUWOI

[OKJ] Andaman Islands, west central and southwest interior Middle Andaman Island. Alternate names: OKU-JUWOI, JUWOI, JUNOI. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central.
 

PALI

[PLL] Also spoken in Myanmar, Sri Lanka. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified.
 

Deaf sign languages

INDIAN SIGN LANGUAGE

[INS] 1,500,000 or more users (1986 Gallaudet Univ.) Population total all countries 1,500,000 or more. Dialects: DELHI SIGN LANGUAGE, CALCUTTA SIGN LANGUAGE, BANGALORE-MADRAS SIGN LANGUAGE, BOMBAY SIGN LANGUAGE. Classification: Deaf sign language.
 

 

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