|As the American west opened up, it was a beckoning "golden door" of opportunity to thousands of people craving a fresh start, and a chance for a future on their own. Not only young white men (and some families) feeling crowded in the East, but countless non-whites, too. It has been estimated that at least 1/6 and perhaps as high as 1/3 of all the emigrants to the West were African-American, and/or mixed blood individuals. Some traced their citizenship / freedom to colonial times, others bought themselves from their masters, some were freed by law or proclamation, others "purchased" their freedom with their feet. Their story is an exciting one, and increasing scholarship is honing in on their crucial role. Here are some study sources to browse thru.|
- An all-American Epic ~ One Day to be Told
- BlackWest - Herb Ruffin: Africans in the America West ~ Claremont (CGU)
- Black Cowboys of Texas - Sara Massey's just-published best seller
- Black Frontiers: A History of African American Heroes in the Old West - by Lillian Schlissel
- Otis Young of TV's The Outcasts (series)
- The Black Cowboys - John Wukovits tells the story of these rugged old west cowboys, including Jim Beckwourth, Bill Pickett, Bose Ikard, and other Afro-American cowboys who contributed to the development of the West.
- Jim Beckwourth and the Beckwourth Trail - a Sierra route to the Gold Country
- Jim Beckwourth and the War Horse Ranch - the story of a trail blazer to northern California
- Black Pioneers, Settlers, Cowboys and Outlaws - excellent resource giving "the rest of the story."
- Black Cowboys rode the trails, too - Borderlands project (El Paso College) documents a forgotten side of the old west
- The Bongas of northern Minnesota - even in colonial days, there is a story waiting to be told.
- Cottonwood and Red Bluff: Logan family - pioneer blacks help build old west towns
- Our multicultural West - resources that give a much richer picture
- Biddy Mason, from slave, to Mormon, to So-Cal pioneer - a midwife, pioneer and entrepreneur
- Biddy Mason, Open Hands, Open Heart - her legacy from old South to young West
- Meet some of the black cowboys of the wild west - a list of the most noted
- Quaker John L. Bullis - commander of the famed Black Seminole scouts
- The Black Seminole scouts - the 'black Indians' of Florida's everglades, their Texas destiny
- Black Cowboys in the old west - notes by Dr. Latta
- Bill Pickett: Texas rodeo cowboy - rodeos came from Mexico, but Pickett gave us bulldogging
- Nat Love - better known as Deadwood Dick- rugged cowboy and sharpshooter, his story
- Links to "Black Cowboys of Texas" contributors - authors and writers behind the articles
- Nat Love - (1854-1921) Black Cowboy - was he the greatest of them all?
- The Cowboy Mike web site (Professor Mike Searles) - he makes history come alive
- Black Scout Jacob Dodson - John C. Fremont and Kit Carson were aided in their explorations by intrepid veteran Negro scout Jake Dodson
- Black Cowboys of Texas- makes the Augusta (GA) Chronicle (about Augusta professor)
- Mary Fields, Stagecoach Mary- perhaps the toughest woman ever to work in a convent
- Mary Fields from slave to nun and pioneer - faith and fortitude of this Montana woman
- Black American West - Paul's Stewart's Heritage Museum (Denver) : displaying our past
- DuSable - African-American explorer, pioneer, founder of what is now known as Chicago
- African Ammericans in the Fur Trade - Beyond the Pale, by William Gwaltney
- Buffalo Soldiers on the Western Frontier - from IMH : international museum of the horse
- Art Burton's Western Frontier - Lest We Forget - from Prof Burton's book
- Black Pioneers of the Oregon Territory - an array of vignettes
- Black Pioneers of the Oregon Territory - more stories of old glories
- African-American Mosaic - Western Migration and Homesteading
- Who killed William Robinson - new look at an old mystery - in oldwest British Columbia
- A Quest for Freedom - the Black Experience in the American West
- The Black Experience in the West - the Symposium in Washington DC (OVERVIEW)
- America's Racial Frontier - the 2001 Exhibition at the Behring Center of the Smithsonion
- National Historic Sites - Honoring the Black heroes and pioneers of American history
- Quintard Taylor - A Different View of the American West
- African American presence in the West - scholarly bibliographic essay (Quintard Taylor)
- In the Steps of Esteban - Moorish explorer with the Spanish in the American southwest
- Black Stephen - Esteban the Moor (Est�vanico), with the conquistadores of Coronado
- Est�vanico or Stephen the Black - Explorer in American Southwest of Nueva Espa�a
- John Marrant, apostle to Cherokee - had credibility with Native folk, God used him greatly
- John Stewart "Man of Color" - adopted into Wyandotte as if their own; he led them to Christ
- Blacks and Indians - Tribute to Moses Williams (CMH), book just published
- 'Faraway Blue' by Max Evans - based on history of Sgt Moses Williams CMH
- Ron Tarver photography - Yes Virginia, there really WERE, and are, black cowboys - lots of them! Pictures galore
- Esteban the Black Moor who accompanied Coronado's Expeditions in La Nueva Espa�a
- Black Confederates the controversy of the blacks who served the South
- One Black Confederate the story of one soldier who fought the yanks
- The lost treasure of King Juba presenting the case for Africans in America before Columbus
- The Buffalo Soldiers : a Narrative of the Negro Cavalry in the West. (William H. Leckie) Keeping the frontier peace
- Emanuel Stance, Buffalo Soldier - first Black winner of Congressional Medal of Honor (CMH)
- John Jasper - Notable and eloquent Black Preacher (his word was `with power`)
- Black Valor: Buffalo Soldiers and the Medal of Honor, 1870-1898 - by Frank N. Schubert 
- Fort Davis - and the heroism of its Buffalo Soldier defenders in the Tran-Pecos southwest
- Isaiah Dorman - the Black Man who died with Custer - wasicun sapa
- The 'black white man' - (wasicun sapa) at the Little Bighorn - Isaiah Dorman
- We Can - We Will - the story of Buffalo Soldier George Jordan (Sgt) Medal of Honor winner
- African American heroes - recipients of the CMH "medal of Honor" : our nation's highest decoration
- Buffalo Soliders - 9th and 10th Cavalry -- nearly two dozen CMH winners
- 9th Cavalry San Antonio buffalo Soldiers - joining in keeping the memory alive
- Buffalo Soldier Regiment : History of the Twenty-Fifth United States Infantry, 1869-1926
- Buffalo Soldiers defending the west - specific details on black troops by Stanford Davis.
- Portraits in Black-The Buffalo Soldiers - African Americans on America's Western Frontier
- Buffalo Soldiers black US history net - "Definitive" Info Source ~ America's Unsung Heroes
- Buffalo Soldiers and the Constitution - excellent overview of the historical background leading to prominant African American military involvement in the West.
- Buffalo Soldiers Baltimore Chapter - honoring comrades who have passed on...and the history and many accomplishments of the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry Regts in defense of our country.
- America's Buffalo Soldiers Re-Enactors Association (ABSRA) - features 9th and 10th Cavalries and 24th and 25th Infantries.
- Buffalo Soldiers - history from post Civil War regiments through World War II.
- Buffalo Soldiers - trusted with the task, they performed it with valor.
- 9th and 10th Cavalry - Buffalo Soldier Regiments defending the frontier from Montana to Texas
- Buffalo Soldiers Buried at Ft. Bayard, NM - contains list of soldiers from the 9th and 10th Cavalry and 24th and 25th Infantry buried at the site from the 1870's to the 1930's.
- Buffalo Soldiers in Sidney in 1911 - contains photos with captions.
- Buffalo Soldiers on the Western Frontier - includes creation of the units in 1866, history of the 9th and 10th Cavalries, daily life on the western frontier, and list of Congressional Medal of Honor recipients.
- Davis, Ulysses - living history reenactment of the Buffalo Soldiers. Discussion followed by cavalry maneuvers on horseback with a blank pistol, saber, and mounted balloons. Performed all over the southwest.
- Female Buffalo Soldier - presents the story of Cathay Williams/William Cathay, soldier from 1866-1868, the only known female soldier in the regiments.
- Texas Buffalo Soldiers - contains detailed information on cavalry, infantry, scouts, and more.
- Corporal Isaiah Mays - recognition long overdue.
- Honors at Arlington National Cemetery - Isaiah Mays (Congressional Medal of Honor).
- Who are the Buffalo Soldiers? - brief historical overview.
- Another Westerner dot com - extensive gallery, art, products celebrating these forg0tten heroes.
- An earthy democratic religion takes root in American soil - how black gospel influence shaped America's faith.
- Black Quakers and American history - general history of Friends, but helpful links
- The Black Influence at the roots of "white" country music
- Charley Pride the Mississippi roots of an icon of country music
- Trini Triggs and the story of black Country and Western from the beginning
- Cowboy Troy - Takes Black Music Down a Country Road
- Black Heroes in Every War - the integral role of African Americans throughout our US military history
If you find broken links, have a link to be listed, or need your link cancelled, please email: Web Wonk
Washington, John E. They Knew Lincoln. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1942. First edition. 8vo. Inscribed by the author on the half-title page, "To Dr. J. Ogle Warfield Jr. May you ever live by the precept of the great emancipator, 'With malice toward none, and charity for all.' Yours, the author, John E. Washington, May 7, 1955." Blue cloth, gold stamping on front cover and spine, facsimile decorated endpapers, 244  pp., frontis. [portrait of Lincoln by Clague painted from life in 1865 and given to Major General Philip Sheridan by President Lincoln], top edges yellow, page edges uncut, foreword, introduction, acknowledgments, prelude, illustrated, plates, portraits, appendix. Introduction by Carl Sandburg. Book is divided into five sections that deal with those who loved Lincoln, those who served Lincoln, those who remembered Lincoln, the Springfield revelation, and Elizabeth Keckley. Back panel of dust jacket says, "Here is the vivid personal narrative of a Negro boy and man who sought all that could be possibly known about Abraham Lincoln from Negroes having impressions or facts he considered worth record." Fine copy of the first printing of the first edition in a price-clipped dust jacket with the words "First edition" on bottom of front flap, with moderate wear to the spine ends, corners, and extremities. (26742)
[Western Art]. Carroll, John M. Buffalo Soldiers West. [Fort Collins: The Old Army Press, 1971]. First trade edition. Signed by the author. Oblong 8vo. Pictorial fabricoid, brown end-sheets, 64 pp., foreword, the artists. 50 illustrations, including 18 by Jose Cisneros, 9 by Lorence Bjorklund, 2 by Harold Bugbee, 2 by Bill Chappell, 1 by Nick Eggenhofer, 2 by Joe Grandee, 1 by Chuck Kemper, 1 by J.R. Ralston, 4 by Stanley M. Long, 3 by Frederic Remington, 2 by Ace Powell, 1 by William Reusswig, and 5 by Paul Rossi. Fine in dust jacket. 50 GREAT BJORKLUND 25, BUGBEE 36, CISNEROS 37, EGGENHOFER 46, REMINGTON 459. (27011)
Carroll, John M. [Editor]. The Black Military Experience In The American West. New York: Liveright, 1971. First edition. Limited to 300 signed copies, 50 of which are not for sale. This is copy 19. Signed by the author. Cloth, 591 pp., introduction, notes, bibliography, index. Illustrated with the works of Frederic Remington, Jose Cisneros, Lawrence Bjorklund, Harold D. Bugbee, Nick Eggenhofer, Joe Grandee, J.K. Ralston, Paul A. Rossi, William Reusswig., Stanley M.Long, Ace Powell and Charles M. Russell. Excellent history of the important role of the black man in the military history of the West. John M. Carroll has compiled a variety of accounts focusing on blacks in the frontier military by authors, scholars and participants such as Fray Angelico Chavez, Lt. Grote Hutcheson, Lt. John Bigelow, Jr., Lt. H.W. Hovey, Lt. George Andrews, Robert M. Utley, Frederic Remington, Col. H. B. Wharfield, Elizabeth Custer, Reuben Waller, Alex W. Perry, Erwin N. Thompson, Col. M.L. Crimmins, Kenneth W. Porter, John M Carroll, John H. Nankivell, Robert A. Murray, Capt. Lewis S. Morey and others. An important feature of this work is the reproduction of an extraordinary collection of art dealing with the black military in the American West. Fine in fine price-clipped dust jacket housed in the fine original black slipcase. (27019)
Lawson, Harry [Editor]. African American Churches In Tucson. A Report Of The African American History Internship Project. [Tucson]: The Arizona Historical Society and The African American History Internship Project, 1990. First edition. Quarto. Pictorial spiral bound wrappers, 29 pp., illustrated, references. The history surrounding Tucson's African American churches. Fine copy. (26367)
Lawson, Harry [Editor]. African American Settlers In Tucson. A Report Of The African American History Internship Project. [Tucson]: The Arizona Historical Society and The African American History Internship Project, 1991. First edition. Quarto. Signed by the author. Pictorial spiral bound wrappers, iii, 41 pp., illustrated, references. Summary reports of what life was like in Arizona for African-Americans during the early part of the 20th century. Fine copy. (26368)
Lawson, Harry [Editor]. AFRICAN AMERICANS IN AVIATION IN TUCSON. A REPORT OF THE AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY INTERNSHIP PROJECT. [Tucson]: The Arizona Historical Society and The African American History Internship Project, 1989. First edition. Quarto. Pictorial spiral bound wrappers, iii, 24  pp., illustrated, references. The history surrounding Tucson's African American aviation pioneers. Fine copy. (26369)
Cashin, Herschel V., Et Al. Under Fire With The Tenth U.S. Cavalry. Chicago: American Publishing House, 1902. Cloth, 361 pp., illustrated with numerous photographs. Map. "Being a brief, comprehensive review of the Negro's participation in the wars of the United States, especially showing the valor and heroism of the Negro soldiers of the Ninth and Tenth Cavalries and the Twenty-fourth and Twenty-Fifth Infantries of the regular Army; as demonstrated in the decisive Campaign around Santiago De Cuba, 1898, when these soldiers crowned themselves with a halo of unfading glory. Thrilling episodes interestingly narrated by officers and men, famous Indian campaigns and their results. A purely military history of the Negro." "Considered the best edition, revised from the 1899 original. An increasingly rare and desirable account of the most famous unit of black soldiers, the 10th U.S. Cavalry, covering service in the Indian campaigns of the post-Civil War era, with most attention given to fighting in Cuba during the Spanish American War. Also includes chapters on the 9th Cavalry, and the 24th and 25th Infantry Regiments."---Ben Pingenot. Rebound in brown cloth with title, author, year in gilt on spine. The original pictorial cloth from the front cover has been neatly and attractively affixed to the new front free endpaper. Original text block is exceptionally clean and complete. Fine condition. VENZON 744. WORK,p.401. AFRO-AMERICANA 2112. (25554)
Brady, Paul L. The Black Badge. Deputy United State Marshal Bass Reeves From Slave To Heroic Lawman. [Los Angeles]: Milligan Books, . First edition. 8vo. Red cloth, gold stamping on spine, xii, 242  pp., preface, prologue, illustrated from photographs, selected bibliography, references. A biography of Bass Reeves, an African-American U. S. Deputy Marshal who served for more than thirty years in Indian and Oklahoma Territories. Bass was born and raised a slave in northeast Texas and in 1875 was appointed by Judge Isaac C. Parker as a deputy U. S. Marshal. This biography is authored by a great-nephew of Reeves, Federal Judge Paul L. Brady. As new in dust jacket. (24521)
Nankivell, Captain John H. [Compiled and Edited By]. History Of The Twenty-Fifth Regiment United States Infantry 1869-1926. [Denver: The Smith-Brooks Printing Company, 1927]. First edition. Quarto. Printed in an unspecified limited edition. Blue cloth, gold stamping on front cover, xvii , 212  pp., introduction, illustrated, plates, portraits, maps, appendices, bibliography. Rare history of an African-American regiment. The 25th Regiment served in the West, saw action in the Spanish American War, and was later stationed in the Philippines, Hawaii, and Arizona. This relatively unknown but important work is probably the rarest of all the U. S. regimental histories. Numerous photographs that depict both officers and men of the regiment. Light wear to spine ends and corners., else near fine copy. (24191)
Burton, Art T. Black Gun, Silver Star. The Life And Legend Of Frontier Marshal Bass Reeves. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, . First edition. 8vo. Two-tone quarter cloth and boards, xix , 346  pp., foreword, acknowledgments, introduction, illustrated, plates, portraits, map, epilogue, appendix, notes, bibliography, index. The author traces Reeves from his days of slavery to his soldiering in the Civil War battles of the Trans-Mississippi Theater to his career as a deputy U.S. marshal out of Fort Smith, Arkansas, beginning in 1875 when he worked under "Hanging Judge" Isaac C. Parker. He was an outstanding peace officer in late nineteenth-century America and was exceptionally adept at apprehending fugitives and outlaws, and his exploits were legendary in Oklahoma and Arkansas. Fine in dust jacket. (24489)
Leckie, William H. The Buffalo Soldiers. A Narrative Of The Negro Cavalry In The West. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, . First edition. 8vo. Original yellow cloth, xiv, 290 pp., foreword, illustrated, maps, list of abbreviations used in footnotes, bibliography, index. At the close of the Civil War, black soldiers, who wished to remain in the U.S. Army, were organized into the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry Regiments, and their service in controlling Indians on the Great Plains during the next twenty years was as invaluable as it was unpraised. The buffalo soldiers chased renegade Indians into Mexico from Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, at whose borders government policy all too often forced them to halt. This long-neglected story of their frustration, courage, and un-complaining devotion to duty as guardians of the Western frontier adds a new dimension to frontier and military history. Former owner's name stamped on front fly leaf, else fine in moderately rubbed, price-clipped dust jacket with light wear to spine ends and the extremities. (23055)
Grandee, Joe. Buffalo Soldiers 17 1/2" X 20" signed and numbered limited print. n.p., n.d. Limited to 300 signed and numbered prints of Buffalo Soldiers in hand-to-hand combat with Indian warriors. Image is black on white background. Four 4" creases to one edge, else near fine copy. (23314)
Carlson, Paul H. THE Buffalo Soldier Tragedy of 1877. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, . First edition. 8vo. Cloth, gold stamping on spine, tan endpapers, xiv, 177 pp., preface, illustrated, maps, Dramatis Personae, notes, bibliography, index. A detailed account of a failed 1877 army scout on the Staked Plains of West Texas in search of a band of Comanche Indians who had been raiding homesteads and hunting parties. The scout, made up of some 40 Buffalo Soldiers, their white officers, and 22 hunters, turned into a disaster. Fine in dust jacket. (23946)
Glasrud, Bruce A. And Michael N. Searles [Edited by]. Buffalo Soldiers In The West. A Black Soldiers Anthology. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, . First edition. 8vo. Cloth, vi , 319 pp., preface, introduction, chapter notes, contributors, permissions, index. This anthology focuses on the careers and accomplishments of black soldiers, the lives they developed for themselves, their relationship to their officers, their specialized roles, and the discrimination they faced from the very whites they were trying to protect. The seventeen selections have been written by prominent scholars. Included is a 24 page section titled Buffalo Soldiers: A Bibliography, compiled by the editors, which lists over 400 writings on this unique group of soldiers. As new in as new dust jacket. (25733)