Classes- Turbellaria, Trematoda, Monogenea, and Cestoidea
The phylum Porifera consists of multicellular aquatic animals commonly referred to as sponges.
There are approximately 5,000 distinct species of sponges, which can be found attached to surfaces anywhere from the intertidal zone to as deep as
8,500 m or further.
- shaped like tube
Choanocyte (collar cell)- Lines the inside of the sponge
flagella- Moves water through the sponge's collar cell
spicules- sharp pointed structures that provide support for a sponge and protection
Many body openings
dull brown, or green
make gemmules for protection
form coral reefs|
- Geographic location- Range from polar regions to tropical regions.
- Habitat- Marine intertidal zone. They live in warm water. Most live in salt water, but
some live in fresh water. They live in coral reefs.
- Reproducing sexualy- Sperm from one sponge swims to the egg of another, producing a motile
- Reproducing asexualy- Budding. A piece of sponge falls off, attaches to a rock, and grows
into a new sponge.
Classes- Anthozoa, Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, and Scyphozoa
Cnidaria are some of the simplest and most beautiful organsims. These creatures are flower-like and resemble plants in many respects. However, they have a mouth and a simple digestive system at the center of their tentacles. Because of these two features, these creatures are considered animals and not plants. There are 9000 species of Cnidaria.
Cnidarians are simple, radially symmetrical, animals.
- two different body forms, polyp (shaped like a vase and usualy sessile
and Medusa (bell-shaped and free-swimming)
- Armlike structures called tenticles, that surround the mouth. The tenticles have
stinging cells that help obtain food
- radial symmetry
- Contain gondas as their only organs
- movment is corrdinated by the nerve net and receptors
- respiration takes place by diffusion of oxygen directly through their tissues
- digestion takes place in the gastrovascular cavity
- Cnidarians have one body openings
- Adult sea anemones are polyps that grow attached to the ocean bottom, a rock, coral, or any surface.
- Jellyfish can perform upward movements but must float to move downward
- Geographic location- Each of the world's oceans and a few in fresh water
- Habitat- Coral reefs, most live in saltwater
- polyp Reproducing sexualy- Produce eggs or sperm. Sperm are released into the the water
and fertilize the eggs, which also are released into the water.
- polyp Reproducing asexualy- Produce buds that eventually fall off the cnidarian and develop
into new polyps.
- medusa Reproduction- Medusa forms have two stages of reproduction, a sexual
and an asexual stage. The free-swimming medusa produces eggs or sperm and releases them into the water.
The eggs are fertilized by sperm from another medusa of the same species and develope into larvae.
The larvae eventually settle down and grow into polyps. WHen the young medusa buds off the polyp,
the cycle begings again.