[COMMENT: The images with this article have yet to be scanned or reduced to an small enough size. These should be available soon. AJ. (2005)]
We are told by Col. Collins in his history of New South Wales that ;
“Among the buildings that were undertaken shortly after our arrival must be mentioned an Observatory, which was marked out on the western point of the cove, to which the astronomical instruments were sent, which had been sent out by the Board of Longitude for the purpose of observing the comet which was expected to be seen about the end of this year. The construction of this building was placed-under the direction of Lieut. Dawes, of the Marines, who, having made this branch of science his peculiar study; was appointed by the Board of Longitude to make astronomical observations in this country .”
It is subsequently recorded that ;
“...the Observatory was erected as soon as the colonists landed, but being afterwards found small and inconvenient, as well for the purpose of observing as for the residence of Lieut. Dawes and the reception of the astronomical instruments, a new one was built of stone, the materials for which were found in abundance upon the spot. .”
The comet for which all these preparations were made was that which had been observed in 1532 and 1661, and which was generally expected to return about the end of 1788 or the beginning of 1789. It was one of the twenty-four which Dr. Halley had used in his celebrated investigation, in which he proved that comets were subject to the then new law of gravitation and like all other astronomical bodies revolved about some centre. In 1786 Maskelyne pointed out that this comet would be affected by the major planets, and that for the investigation of this important matter it was very desirable that it should be observed in the Southern Hemisphere, where it would first be visible ; hence the establishment of the Dawes’ Point Observatory, the first on Australian soil, and strange to say standing on the same present Sydney Observatory. We are not told what was done at the Dawes’ Point Observatory, but no doubt a great deal of useful work in determining position and other things committed to Lieut. Dawes’ care ; for we know that he was a most energetic officer, as was particularly evidenced by his early attempts to find a road over the Blue Mountains, the great barrier to the progress of the Colony; and though he failed in this, like so many others, it was not until he had made many journeys about these almost inaccessible mountains that he gave up the enterprise.
From this time onward we hear nothing of the Observatory at Dawes’ Point; but in 1821 Sir Thomas Brisbane was made Governor of the Colony; always an ardent student of astronomy, he had made himself familiar with the practice as well as with the theory, and saw in his new appointment the opportunity of indulging his love for the science; he was going to a climate already famed for its clear skies and almost a new field for the astronomer; La Caille had worked at the Cape it is true, but with such inferior instruments that it was obvious much must have been overlooked: under these circumstances Sir Thomas at his own cost provided a very complete set of instruments, consisting of a Transit Instrument, 3¾ inches aperture and 64 inches focal length, a 2-feet mural circle by Troughton, a 16-inch repeating circle by Reichenbach, and an Equatorial of 3¼ inches aperture and 42 inches focal length, mounted on Smeaton's block; besides a valuable astronomical library, and two first-class astronomical clocks, one of which had been made originally at great cost for the French Commission of Longitude, also magnetic instruments and other necessary apparatus. He then secured the services of Mr. Carl S. Rümker, afterwards director of the Observatory at Hamburg, and Mr. James Dunlop as assistant and mechanic.
Immediately upon the arrival of Sir Thomas Brisbane, in November, 1821, a site was selected for the Observatory in the rear of Government House, Parramatta, close to the present railway line where it cuts through the public park; the building was begun at once and finished ready for use by the end of April, 1822. It was a square building with a flat roof and measured 28 feet on each side; the east and west walls, as well as portions of the north and south sides were straight, making a rectangular building; but on the north and south sides the walls. Were in the middle built into a curve, in order to support parts of the two domes, each 11ft. 6in. in diameter, which were placed above the flat roof of the building; these projections in the walls gave the building a remarkable appearance, which was not lessened by the fact that each contained three small windows, the only lights in it. Carefully made foundations, which still remain, were prepared for the Transit and other instruments, and astronomical work was begun on May 2nd, 1822. It is well known that the Observatory was placed in the immediate vicinity of Government House, in order that the Governor might devote every spare moment to his favourite study. He took an active part in the work; the most important part of which was the formation of the Parramatta catalogue, numbering 7,383 stars; for this every star had to be observed at least twice, once with the transit and once with the mural circle, and many were observed oftener. Besides this, special observations of the solstice of 1822 and again of 1823 were made, together with many occasional observations of comets, etc. So much was done in the space of a few years that the Royal Astronomical Society decided to present its gold medal to Sir Thomas Brisbane and Mr. Dunlop as a mark of their high appreciation of their labours.Sir John Herschel in presenting the medal eulogized the “care and skill with which the observations had been made,” and said “that they formed one of the most interesting and important series which has ever been made, and must ever be regarded as marking a decided era in the history of modern astronomy.”, Mr. Rümker finally resigned and left the Colony in 1829, and Mr. Dunlop was appointed in his place, which he continued to hold until 1842. When Sir Thomas Brisbane left the Colony in 1827, the Government purchased all his interest in the Observatory, which was thenceforth carried on at the expense of the Government.
In the early part of his career Mr. Dunlop was a most energetic, observer of double stars and nebulae and clusters of stars; of these he recorded 600, besides a large and valuable list of double stars. In 1842 he resigned, and, no fresh appointment being made, the Observatory went rapidly to decay and in 1847 it was decided to dismantle it and remove the instruments to Sydney, which was done, and they were placed in the care of Mr. Dawson, chronometer-maker.
Before leaving the Parramatta Observatory it should be mentioned that a careful drawing of it, to scale, was made by the late Reverend W. B. Clarke, who always took a lively interest in the scientific work that was done there; this shows the plan and elevation as well as the positions of all the instruments. In 1870 Mr. Tebbutt suggested that an obelisk should be erected to mark the site of the Observatory, but no action was taken in the matter until 1875, when J. S. Farnell, Esq., M.L.A., who had been long impressed with the importance of permanently marking every point connected with astronomical science or the Trigonometrical Survey of the Colony, seeing that the walls of the old Observatory, which was in his electorate, were fast disappearing induced the Government to place a sum of £150 on the Estimates for the purpose of erecting a suitable monument to mark the site of the Parramatta Observatory. The following gentlemen were appointed trustees of the work "Mr. James Squire Farnell, M.L.A., Mr. James Barnett, Colonial Architect, Mr. H. C. Russell, Government Astronomer." In execution of their trust, they have had erected a veined white marble obelisk, exactly in the position occupied by the transit instrument in former years. On the east side of the obelisk an outline diagram of the transit instrument has been engraved, and the following inscription:- “An Astronomical Observatory was founded here May 2, 1822, by Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, K.C.B., F.R.S., Governor of New South Wales. This obelisk was erected in 1880 to mark the site of the transit instrument in that Observatory.”
During the later years of Mr. Dunlop’s career, work at the Observatory had not been carried on with energy ; and in 1840, the Government of the Colony decided to establish complete meteorological observatories at the three important points in their widely scattered domains ; for at that time New South Wales included what is now Victoria, and also what was more recently made into the Colony of Queensland. The three points were Sydney, at South Head ; Port Macquarie, an important settlement and Port Phillip, now within the Colony of Victoria, and then a recent and prosperous settlement. At Ports Macquarie and Phillip, the observations were carried on for six years, and at Sydney for fifteen until 1855, at which date the observer left the Colony. Sir William Denison arrived in the Colony, January 20th, 1855; and there seems to be no reason to doubt that his energy in astronomical and meteorological observations induced the observer at South Head, who had been for years working in a groove, and was disinclined for change, to resign and leave the Colony. In March, 1855, His Excelleney addressed a memorandum to the Executive Council suggesting the appointment of an astronomer wholly supported by the Colonial Government. The Council concurred in the proposal made by His Excellency, and the matter was at once submitted to the Legislature, and a sum of £7,000 was voted to provide buildings and instruments. The Rev. W. Scott, M.A., of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, was selected by the Astronomer Royal to fill the office of Astronomer for New South Wales. Mr. Scott arrived in Sydney, November 1st, 1856, and at once selected a site for the Observatory.
It was required that the time-ball should be visible from the harbour generally, and that the Observatory should be within easy reach of the other Government departments ; practically these conditions decided the question of site, as the only suitable piece of Government land was on Flagstaff Hill. For purely scientific reasons it would doubtless have been better to place it outside the city bounds to avoid the dust, smoke, and vibration; but these considerations were made subservient to the practical purposes for which the Observatory was established. The building was commenced in 1857, and finished in June, 1858 ; it is a handsome stone structure; the eastern front comprises the Astronomer’s residence. On the south or principal face there is a stone tower 58 feet high, upon the top of which is the time-ball, 5 feet in diameter, and having a drop of 10 feet. Here also are placed the self-registering anemometer and pluviometer. Adjoining the tower on the east side is the meteorological computing room, and on the west side the Transit Circle room, 24 feet by 16 feet, with two transit openings ; and next to this the Equatorial tower, which has three floors, and was then covered by a dome 18 feet in diameter.
In June, 1858, meridian observations were begun with the old transit instrument, one of the relics of Parramatta Observatory, then the only available instrument; for transit circle by Jones, which had been sent out new, and set up at Parramatta but never used, had been sent to England to be remodelled, and made ready for work.
During the building of the Observatory, Mr. Scott took the opportunity to establish twelve meteorological observatories in the principal centres of population; two of these at Brisbane and Rockhampton were subsequently transferred to the Queensland Government; the others were maintained until Mr. Smalley’s arrival in 1864 ; each station had a standard barometer, wet and dry bulbs, max., rain., and solar radiation, and rain-gauge.
Owing to the imperfections of the astronomical instruments at his command, Mr. Scott was at first obliged to confine his observations to time determinations; no provision for new instruments had been made, and the only instrument worth the name was the transit circle then on its way from England; the small equatorial used at Parramatta was still in existence, but its mounting was so worn and dilapidated that it was useless. It was a fortunate circumstance that just then, October, 1858, the great comet of Donati, one of the finest of this century, appeared in our southern sky, and it was found that, although the Colony had an astronomer, he had nothing but a common sextant to observe the comet; under these circumstances, the Parliament, with that liberality which has always marked its provision for science, voted for the sum of £800 for a new equatorial; and this was at once sent home to the Astronomer Royal, with a request that he would purchase a suitable instrument. He was fortunate in finding a new 7¼-in. refractor of 10ft. 4in. focal length in the manufactory of Merz and Son, Munich, and this was purchased and sent to the Colony, where it arrived in May, 1861, in fact just at the time when Mr. Tebbutt announced the discovery of the great comet of 1861, which rightly bears his name. The new telescope was set up with all possible despatch, and the comet was first observed with it on June 9th. Some repairs to the old Parramatta equatorial had been effected, and observations of the comet, prior to June 9th, made with it. In October, 1858, the transit circle had arrived and was mounted at once. Its graduated limb is 42 in. in diameter, telescope 3¾ in., with a focal length of 62 inches. This, with the new equatorial mentioned above, furnished the Observatory with all the astronomical instruments it was to get for many years; and Mr. Scott at once set to work to make the best use of the instruments in his possession by meridian observations of stars near the zenith of Sydney and moon culminations for the determination of longitudes and observations of such comets as were visible from time to time; but, as he had only one assistant, the meridian observations and meteorological work engaged all his attention. It soon became manifest that the meridian circle, though good of its kind, was faulty in several particulars, especially when applied to determinations of the right ascensions of stars; and that it was not equal to the meridian circle used at the Cape of Good Hope in doing the same work; and it became a question with Mr. Scott, whether he should continue the meridian observations or take up the observation of double stars. The volume of results for 1859 contains 884 meridian observations of stars, with many moon culminations, the determination of the position of the Observatory, &c. ; that for 1860, 2,507 ; and for 1861, 2,100 ; in these volumes all his comet work was also published. The work for 1861 was less than for 1860, because some time had been devoted to double star work for the reason just stated. It will be seen from the number of observations that, with but one assistant for both astronomical and meteorological work, Mr. Scott must have worked with very great energy, in order to get through so much. During part of the time also he devoted some time to a class of students, who came to the Observatory ostensibly to learn astronomy ; but the attempt was not a success ; it was found that the gratuitous teaching in mathematics was accepted; but, so soon as astronomical teaching began, the class ceased to exist. These four years of hard work had told seriously upon Mr. Scott’s health, and early in 1862 he sent in his resignation.
Upon his resignation a request was sent home to Sir George Airy, Astronomer Royal, to secure the services of an astronomer for New South Wales. Meantime Mr. Russell, who had joined the Observatory in 1859 as Mr. Scott’s assistant, was made Acting Astronomer.He, having no assistant, continued the meridian observations for time and longitude only, and carried on the meteorological observations and reductions. During the opposition of Mars in 1862 he made a long and valuable series of micrometer measures of that planet with stars on his path, but there was not time to publish them before Mr.Smalley’s arrival, and they were not published afterwards. At the end of 1863 the Acting Astronomer designed and set up at the Observatory the first self-recording anemometer in the Colonies. Special attention was also given to the computation, of such observations as Mr. Scott had left unpublished; so that all this work and all the meteorological observations might be cleared up when the new astronomer arrived, and all were ready to go to press by the end of 1863.
On the 7th January, 1864, Mr. George Roberts Smalley, B.A., who had been selected by the Astronomer Royal to take Mr. Scott’s place, arrived in the Colony. Mr. Smalley had been for a time engaged as Magnetical Observer at the Cape of Good Hope, and had spent some time at Greenwich before leaving England After an examination of the meridian circle and after hearing Mr. Scott’s report upon it, Mr. Smalley determined not to devote his time to meridian carried on with an imperfect instrument, the more so as it came evident that the blasting and quarrying operations 100 yards of the Observatory caused constant movement in the foundations. The only meridian observations made by him therefore were such as were required for time determinations, and with the Equatorial the only observations were those of Encke’s comet published in the R.A.S. notices. He devoted considerable time and attention to magnetical observations, and made several journeys into the countryfor the purpose of determining magnetic variations at different places.
At this time an additional room was built for the Astronomer, and a cellar constructed for magnetical observations, and also a detached wooden house on the north side of the Observatory, and in the meridian of the transit instrument.
The meteorological work of the Observatory was improved
and extended, and a suitable shed or house made for the
thermometers. In 1867 he began the publication of the
Sydney observations monthly, in pamphlet form, a very
great improvement upon that in use before, but the number
of country stations was reduced, and for a time their
observations were not published. Mr. Smalley finding the
unsatisfactory nature of the meridian instrument used all
his influence to induce the Government to commence a
trigonometrical survey of the Colony, which was urgently
required. At length he succeeded, and the work was
entrusted to him, and reports were sent in from the
surveyors in various parts of the Colony showing the best
sites for a base line in each district. That at the south
end of Lake George was finally selected, cleared, roughly
measured and levelled. Before, however, it could be
accurately measured the waters of the lake rose and
covered great part of it. This involved selecting another
line near it, but above the water. In doing this there was
necessarily more delay in clearing and preliminary work,
and when it was just ready to measure another rise in the
lake water covered it and again delayed the work. The
worry and annoyance of these delays, and the trouble of
carrying out such works so far from the city had told
seriously upon Mr. Smalley’s health, and during the
latter part of 1869 and all 1870 till his death in July of
that year, he was not able to do much to the work which he
had determined to carry out. During the time he was
engaged in the base line operations the work of the
Observatory, both astronomical and meteorological, had
been left almost entirely to Mr. Russell, and the
astronomical part of it was necessarily confined to
meridian observations for time.
Upon Mr. Smalley’s death, Mr. Henry Chamberlain Russell, B.A., who had been in the Observatory since January, 1859, was appointed Astronomer.
Having had a share in all the work done with the Meridian
Circle and knowing its imperfections, he determined to
confine the observations made with it to those required
for time and longitude, and at once urged the necessity
for a new Meridian Instrument, a necessity which was kept
constantly before the Board of Visitors. Meantime
observation of double stars was taken up vigorously with
the large Equatorial, the working list being Herschel's
He next re-established the Meteorological Stations which Mr Smalley had discontinued, and then commenced systematically to increase the number of Meteorological Stations, and to invite amateurs to join in the work of recording rain and temperature.
In December, 1871, an important Solar Eclipse took place,
and the moon's shadow crossed, the Gulf of Carpentaria.
Professor Wilson, of the Melbourne University, proposed
that a colonial expedition should proceed to Cape Sidmouth
to observe it. Mr. Russell entered heartily into the
scheme and by the representations he made the Government
of Queensland were induced to lend their then new steamer,
"Governor Blackall", free of all expense, except that for
insurance, for the purpose of carrying the observers to
Cape Sidmouth. Mr. Russell organised a strong party of
observers to represent New South Wales, and everything was
ready for the eclipse, when on the important day a
thunderstorm obscured the sun until it was over.
Prior to Mr. Smalley’s death active preparations were going on in Europe for the then approaching transit of Venus, but he had determined not to take part in it, and made no preparations. When therefore in the latter part of 1870 Mr. Russell took office with a strong desire to engage in this work, everything had to be done. The question had to be brought before the Government and then before Parliament before any steps could be taken to secure the necessary instruments. Parliament liberally granted £1,000 for this purpose, greater part of which was expended upon the splendid. 11½-inch refractor which the Observatory now possesses, and upon the photoheliograph made after the same pattern as those used by the English observers. Besides these a number of minor instruments were secured, making in all twelve instruments. These were divided amongst four parties, located at Sydney, Woodford, Goulburn, and Eden; each party in addition to the telescopes for observing the ingress and egress of the planet was provided with the means of taking rapid photographs of the sun during the Transit. Of the observers only three came from the Observatory staff and the other nine were volunteers who required more or less training for the work. For this purpose regular practice upon an artificial transit and in the photographic work was kept up for some months, until all felt prepared for the work assigned to them.
The weather proved all that could be wished, and extremely satisfactory observations of ingress and egress were secured as well as some 1,300 photographs of Venus in transit. These observations and photographs were a valuable contribution to the data in the Astronomer Royal's report on the Solar Parallax.
The labour of preparation for this work had been
compressed as stated before into a very short time and had
involved great changes. The old dome had to be taken down
and a new one of metal 22 feet in diameter put up, and all
the necessary alterations made for the new equatorial
chronographs had to be made telescopes fitted up for the
special work and many minor pieces of apparatus, prepared
in the Colony under Mr. Russell’s personal
supervision. This, together with the training of the
observers and the general case of the undertaking proved a
severe strain upon him, and he was therefore given eight
months' leave of absence in order to take the results of
the observations in England. At the insistence of the
Surveyor-General a sum of money £1,000, was placed
in Mr. Russell’s hands for the purchase of a new
transit instrument; and after visiting all the makers in
Europe and examining their work he finally gave the order
to Messrs. Troughton and Simms, London, who produced a
splendid instrument with every modern improvement,
objective 6½ inches, focal length 6 feet 8 inches,
two circles of 24 inches, each read by four microscopes;
special precautions were taken to prevent flexure and
unsteadiness. In this instrument the piers are made of
hollow cast iron and there is no provision for adjustment
in level or azimuth, which is great improvement. The
circles are so arranged that one can be used to test the
other, and the magnifying power of the microscopes is 60
diameters. The axis is a very massive casting in gun metal
strengthened by internal braces, and : having steel pivots
resting on segmental Y’s the ends of the
telescope are made as light as possible to avoid flexure.
One lamp placed at a distance illuminates the four
microscopes and the field of view, and at the eyepiece the
illumination can be changed from dark to bright wires at
During the same trip opportunity was found to purchase a very large spectroscope by Hilger, giving dispersion through eighteen prisms and means and measuring one three-hundredth part of the space between the D lines; and also a very large Rumkorff coil for the spectroscopic work and many other pieces of apparatus. A large barrel chronograph with the new compound pendulum governor has been made in the Colony, a very perfect barograph, and also a meteorograph on which barometer, thermometer, wind, and rain are recorded. In fact, since 1870, the Observatory has been entirely refurnished with instruments of the most modern and perfect forms, and although they are not equal in size to some of the giant telescopes which have been recently erected in Europe at enormous cost, they are quite equal in quality to those in the best European Observatories, as is proved by the observations now made with them.
When the Observatory was built one serious oversight in the design was made. The tower for the equatorial was placed due west of the Time Ball Tower; the effect of this was that a part of the eastern horizon was hidden from the large telescope, and on several occasions important observations of objects in the east had to be made with inferior instruments. After the 11½-inch Equatorial was erected an addition was made to the Observatory forming a west wing, at the northern end of which a second dome was placed for the 7¼-inch refractor. This is in such a position that all parts of the heavens hidden from the large refractor are visible with it. Several additional rooms which were urgently needed were provided at the same time, including one for spectroscopic and kindred investigations.
In 1877, the new Transit Circle was received and at once set to work upon stars for the Trigonometrical Survey, and others near the Zenith for catalogue. During the first year also it was used for observing stars and the planet Mars in apposition, for the purpose of determining the Solar Parallax. A long series of observations was made, which, when combined with observations made at Washington, gave 8.885 as the value of the Solar Parallax.
The results in 1877 and 1878 with the observations of Mars have been published ; those for '79, '80 and '81 are ready for the printer. All the double star work up to 1881 have been printed ; it contains besides measures of all the stars in Herschel’s Cape Catalogue, south of the zenith of Sydney, a list of 350 new double stars which have been discovered at Sydney.
The effort to increase the Meteorological Observatories, begun in 1870, has been highly successful ; at present there are fifty stations connected with the Observatory, and 240 private observers who regularly send returns; so that now records are obtained from 290 points in the Colony, while in 1870 there were only six. This numerous band of observers scattered over the Colony furnish data which form the history of all local droughts, floods, and other meteorological phenomena of importance.
The meteorological work at the Observatory, as will be gathered from the instruments mentioned, has been made much more complete.
Since 1878 the rain returns have been published in pamphlet form, with a map showing localities, and a diagram showing the result of daily observations of the principal rivers. This is an addition to the annual volume which has also increased from eighty pages in 1870 to 200 pages of closely printed matter in 1881.
In February, 1877, Mr. Russell began the publication of a daily weather map which combines the observations of South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland, giving in fact at one view the weather of all the Australian Colonies. This took the place of a tabular statement which had been previously printed in the Herald. An outline of Australia showing the mountains and the reporting stations was made up, partly in stereo and partly in type, so ingeniously arranged that the whole could be prepared for printing in less than two hours. Of these maps a sufficient number are printed daily at the Observatory for the various Observatories to which they are sent, and after that the Herald takes a copy and reproduces it daily. The number of stations reporting weather and also the area over which they extend has gradually increased, and now there are fifty in New South Wales and twenty-seven from the other Colonies, which include New Zealand and the Overland line in South Australia, in addition to those already mentioned. The maps thus produced are invaluable in studying the weather, and are sent to all the principal Meteorological Observatories. For the past two years a diagram showing the state of the barometers all round the coast has been added. This shows clearly the progress of the usual storm centres which travel along the south coast, and was instrumental in showing their character and rate of progress.
In this very brief sketch of the Observatory, the works published, as the outcome of what has been done, have not been included in the text. It was thought better to arrange them in tabular form, which will be more convenient for reference.
In concluding this part of our subject it may be mentioned the formal attempt to teach astronomy in a class has not been repeated. Mr. Russell thinks that the object in view can be better attained by the publication of such astronomical information as will excite interest in the subject, and by freely giving instruction and advice to all who ask for it. The experiment has proved very satisfactorily that the plan is a good one. There are now in many parts of the Colony amateurs who have been assisted in this way, and who are finding in the study of astronomy pleasure and instruction, and there are some who go beyond this and do valuable work. The majority of the instruments in use are of 3-inch aperture, but some are of 4-inch, 4½, 5, and even 6-inches aperture, the latter a high class instrument, by Cooke, of York. Some have chosen reflectors and have instruments of 8½-inches, and one 10½-inches. Some of these are valuable instruments with which important work has been done. It would be difficult to compare the percentage of amateur observers here with that in other places, England for instance; but it is probable that the percentage of amateur astronomers is quite as great here as in the older countries of Europe.
Papers published by the Rev. W. Scott, M.A.
“On the Meteorology of New South Wales”
Read - Wednesday, October 14, 1857. Sydney Magazine of Science and Art. Vol. I, page 128.
“On the Plurality of Worlds.”
Read - August 11, 1858. Sydney Magazine of Science and Art. Vol. II, page 118
“Meteorological Observations, Part 1857 and 1858-62” and “Astronomical Observations, 1859-1861.”
Sydney Magazine of Science and Art. Vol. II, page 831.
Papers published by G. R. Smalley, Esq., B.A., &c.,
Read before the Royal Society of New South Wales.
"On the Mutual Influence of Clock Pendulums."
[Read - 4th December, 1867.] 5 pages.
"Opening Address to the Royal Society, delivered at its first meeting,"
Vice-President [Read - 3rd June, 1868] (11 pages.)
"On the Value of Earth Temperatures"
Vice-President. [Read - 1st July 1868.] (3 pages.)
"Meteorological Observations." (Abstract.) 1864-69 .
01. Remarks on Table for Calculating the Humidity of the
Air. (8 pages and diagram.) Read - December 8th, 1869.
02. Meteorology in New South Wales. (36 pages, 2 diagrams.) Read - 1870.
03. Remarks on the Nebula About Eta Argus. (10 pages and maps.) Read - May 12th, 1871.
04. On the Magnetic Variations in New South Wales. (4 pages, 13 diagrams.) Read - July 12th, 1871.
05. Astronomical Notes. (2pages.) Read - September, 1872.
06. On the Coloured Cluster About Kappa Crucis. (12 pages, 1 map.) Read - October 2nd,1872
07. A Self registering Tide Gauge and Electrical Barograph. (1 page.) Read- January, 1873;
08. Local Particulars of the Transit of Venus. (19 pages, 3 diagrams.) Read - September 3rd, 1873.
09. How to Adjust an Equatorial. (2 pages.) Read - August, 1874.
10. Some of the Results of the Transit of Venus, 1874. (19 pages.) Read - January 11th, 1875.
11. Scientific Notes. (16 pages.) Read - November 3rd, 1875.
12. Notes on some Remarkable Errors Shown by Thermometers. (8 pages, 1 diagram.) Read - June 7th, 1876.
13. Meteorological Periodicity. Read - October 11th, 1876. (20 pages, 3 diagrams.)
14. Climate of New South Wales. (25 pages, 5 diagrams.) 1876.
15. Anniversary Address, containing results of Spectroscopic Work. (20 pages.) Read - May 2nd, 1877.
16. Notes on some recent Barometric Disturbances. (6 pages.) Read - December 5th, 1878.
17. Storms on the Coast of New South Wales. (22 pages, 4 diagrams.) Read - August 7th, 1878.
18. Results of an Astronomical Experiment. (9 pages, 2 diagrams.) Read - November 6th, 1878.
19. Longitude, Sydney Observatory. (4 pages.) May 3rd, 1878.
19a. Clarke’s Companion to Sirius. (3 pages.) August 2nd, 1878.
19b. Triangle Micrometer (2 pages.) September 6th, 1878.
19c. Abstract of Results of Transit of Venus. (3 pages.) October 4th, 1878.
19d. Some Remarks on the mountings of large Objectives. (2 pages.) November 1st, 1877.
19e. On a new form of Equatorial Mountings. (3 pages.) November 1st, 1878.
20. On a method of printing Star Maps. (2 pages.) Read - May 2nd, 1879.
21. The Gem Cluster. (8 pages and map.) Read--June 4th, 1879.
22. On the conjunction of Mars and Saturn. (2 pages.) July 1st, 1879.
23. The River Darling- the water which should pass through it. (2 pages.) August 1st,1879.
24. The Wentworth Hurricane. (10 pages and map.) Read December 3rd, 1879.
25. Some new Double Stars and Southern Binaries. (7 pages, 2 maps.) June 3rd, 1880.
26. On Sliding Scale for correcting Barometer Readings. (3 pages, 1 diagram.) September 1st, 1880.
27. Recent Changes on Jupiter. (12 pages, 2 diagrams.) Read - December 1st, 1880.
28. On the Spectrum and Appearance of the recent Comet. 1881.
29. Results of Double Star Measures. (67 pages, 4 Diagrams.) . September 7th, 1881.
30. On the Transit of Mercury December, 1881
31. Results of Astonomica1 Observations or 1877 and 1878. (77 pages, 3 photographs)
32. Meteorological Observations 1863, 1870-1877, 1878-81 (and Rain Maps)