Autumn Floods (1)

秋水(一)



1 In the rain season of autumn, the confluent floods from many places overflowed in the courses of rivers. Cattle and horse usually browsing on the banks of rivers left then because the overflowing floods drowned the banks.

秋天雨季來時,各地匯流而下的洪水,將河道灌的滿滿地; 平時在河岸兩旁吃草的牛馬,這時因為河水暴漲,河岸被淹沒而離開了。

2 Then the River God flattered himself, “Look, the surging river. How splendid and powerful it is! I believe the most beautiful scene of the world is it!”

這時河神沾沾自喜地說:「你看河水澎湃洶湧的樣子多麼雄壯而威武,我看天下最美的景象也就是這樣了。」

秋水時至,百川灌河。涇流之大,兩涘渚崖之間,不辯牛馬。於是焉河伯欣然自喜,以天下之美為盡在己。

3 When river flows east to North Sea, the River God looked east and couldn’t find the other bank. Upon that he stopped flattering himself and signed to the sea. He told the Sea God, “People think that they are great for reading some books. Alas! In my opinion, it is like a frog on the bottom of well. Once I objected to it that someone criticized Confucius’ knowledge and scorn Boyi’s righteous deeds. I considered that of all ages literati despised each other. Today I see the broadness of North Sea and then I believe that they, such as Confucius and Boyi, just hold their narrow views, not the complete one, may truly have missed something important. It is lucky that I come here and find there are skies beyond our skies and there are people excellent than ours. Otherwise, I will lose my face for being sneered as a frog on the bottom of well by others.”

當河水逐漸東流到了北海,河神向東望去,完全看不見對岸在哪里。於是河神將沾沾自喜的面孔收了起來,望而興歎。他對北海若說:「別人說讀了一點書就以為自己了不得。唉!看來我就是這類井底之蛙啊!從前我聽人批評孔子的見識,鄙視伯夷的義行,我都不以為然; 認為是文人相輕自古皆然的事。今天我見了北海的遼闊才相信,也許孔子及伯夷他們真的只是持一方之見,還不夠周全。還好我今天來到你這堙A發現天外有天,人外有人; 否則就糟了。被人恥笑為井底之蛙是多沒面子的事啊!」

順流而東行,至於北海,東面而視,不見水端。於是焉河伯始旋其面目,望洋向若而歎曰:「野語有之曰:『聞道百,以為莫己若者。』我之謂也。且夫我嘗聞少仲尼之聞,而輕伯夷之義者,始吾弗信。今我睹子之難窮也,吾非至於子之門則殆矣,吾長見笑於大方之家。」

4 The Sea God fairly favored the newcomer. He laughed. “You can’t talk with fishes in lake and river about sea because they never live in sea and don’t know the situation of sea.

北海若對這位初生之續相當疼愛. 他笑著說:「不是海魚,你不能跟他們談海。那是因為湖堛熙翩B河堛熙翩A他們沒有住過深海,不知道海的實景。

5 The insects that live within summer and will die after summer season so you can’t describe the scene of snow and ice in winter to them.

夏天生長的昆蟲,夏天一過牠們就死去了。所以你不能跟牠們描述冬天冰天雪地的景象。

6 You can’t talk with the ignorant about Tao because their knowledge is limited. They don’t know the broadness of sea and profoundness of sky. Today you are lucky to go out of the limitation to see the sea. You know that you must be modest and your knowledge is limited. Therefore, I could talk with you about Tao.

孤陋寡聞者不能跟他談道。那是因為他的見聞有限,不知海之遼闊,天之深遠。今天你很幸運走出了你那有限的崖岸,來到大海之中; 知道應該謙虛,知道自己知之有限,所以現在可以跟你談真正的大道理了。

北海若曰:「井蛙不可以語於海者,拘於虛也;夏蟲不可以語於冰者,篤于時也;曲士不可以語於道者,束於教也。今爾出於崖涘,觀于大海,乃知爾醜,爾將可與語大理矣。

7 No water under the sky is more than that in sea. Rivers from different places flow into seas of all ages. We don’t know how long and how much the water flow in. We however, don’t see its overflowing.

天下之水,沒有比海更大的了。各地的河流都將水傾注其中,古往今來也不知道流了多久,流了多少水; 可是我們就是看不出它有滿出來的樣子。

8 Everyday wind and sunlight take away countless water to form cloud that sprays water everywhere. Nevertheless, sea doesn’t dry up. Sea line in the spring is as the same as that in the autumn. Nothing changes. The sea line when flood is as the same as that in the drought. Nothing reduces. Water in sea is innumerable times more than that in river. As sea, we don’t think it great, because we are a small thing in Nature, comparing to Heaven, Earth and Qi. We dare not to be arrogant.

每天,海風及陽光將不計其數的水份自海面吸走,形成雲氣,施灑各地。可是海也不會因此而枯竭。春天降臨時,我們看海岸線是這樣; 秋天到了,它還是那個樣子,毫無改變。水災時,海岸線是那樣; 旱災時海岸線也還是老樣子,不見一絲減少。海的水量比起江河來不知要大上多少倍,可是做為海,我們也不認為那有什麼了不起。因為如果拿我們與天地比,與氣比,在這大自然之間我們也只是山中的小石,小木而已; 哪里敢有一絲自大的念頭存在。

天下之水,莫大于海,萬川歸之,不知何時止而不盈;尾閭泄之,不知何時已而不虛;春秋不變,水旱不知。此其過江河之流,不可為量數。而吾未嘗以此自多者,自以比形於天地,而受氣於陰陽,吾在於天地之間,猶小石小木之在大山也。

9 Conflux of the four seas is no more than a small puddle on the swamp. Middle kingdom is big, however, comparing to the four seas, it just is a grain of rice in the barn.

四海加起來也不過是沼澤中的一個小洞穴罷了。可是將中國這麼大的土地放在四海之中,中國也不過是米倉中的一顆米而已。

方存乎見小,又奚以自多!計四海之在天地之間也,不似礨空之在大澤乎?計中國之在海內不似稊米之在太倉乎?

10 There are millions of creature in Nature while human just is a member of them. Human distribute themselves in land and island. People who live on rice and employ carriage and boat are countless. We are just a small part of them. Comparing with all creature, aren’t we like a hair of horses?

大自然各種生物何止千萬種,而人類只是其中的一種而已。人類分佈九州,舉凡吃殼物,乘舟車者又是多的不計其數; 而我們自己也只不過是其中之一罷了。這與萬物比起來,是不是有如馬身上的一根汗毛呢?

號物之數謂之萬,人處一焉;人卒九州,穀食之所生,舟車之所通,人處一焉;此其比萬物也,不似豪末之在於馬體乎?

11 In order to protect the system of abdicating throne, the Five Kings went all out to continue convention; the Three Emperors went on with wars for their own interest. In order to educate next generation, improve ethos of society and politics, sages strived. However, is it worth doing these in the macro viewpoint of the Nature?

為了禪讓王位的體制,五帝全力地要求務必延續傳統。三王為了己身的利益,爭戰不休。仁人賢士為了下一代的教育,社會風氣,政風優劣等憂心奮鬥。可是站在宇宙大自然宏觀的立場上看,你說他們這麼做值得嗎?

五帝之所連,三王之所爭,仁人之所憂,任士之所勞,盡此矣!

12 Boyi’s resignation was for the shit faith that Confucius canonized greatly. They were self-righteous. Wasn’t it like inland you who stand on the edge of cliff? In the long run and in the macro viewpoint, the trivia seem not to be important.”

伯夷辭官不任是為了一些狗屁信念。孔子則將這些信念推崇成為不得了的見解。像他們這樣自以為是的情形,是不是有點像你還在內陸, 置身崖岸時的情景呢?當我們把事情往遠看,往大處想,那些雞毛蒜皮的事似乎就不再是那麼重要了。」

伯夷辭之以為名,仲尼語之以為博。此其自多也,不似爾向之自多於水乎?」

13 River God said, “At this rate, may I think the universe is big while the hair is small?”

河神說:「如此說來,那麼我是否可以認為,宇宙是大的,而頭髮是小的呢? 」

河伯曰:「然則吾大天地而小豪末,可乎?」

14 The Sea God said, “No. The field is boundless; time is endless; the environment is changing. They running in rotation just like the day and night.

海神說:「不能這麼說,所謂的範圍都是無限的,時間也是無止境的。環境是無常的,也是生生息息,循環不已的。

15 Therefore, the wise man goes around universe, he doesn’t think the small is too small and the big is too big; since he knows that the field of Nature is boundless.

因此,聰明的人,他縱橫宇宙,不會認為小的太小,也不會覺得大的太大。因為他知道,大自然的範圍是無限的。

北海若曰:「否。夫物,量無窮,時無止,分無常,終始無故。是故大知觀於遠近,故小而不寡,大而不多:知量無窮。

16 Looking back, he doesn’t regret time flying away. He doesn’t hug himself on something upcoming. He knows time is endless and environment is changing so he doesn’t delight in gain and doesn’t worry about the loss. He knows the rising and declining of life is actually the secret of evolution. Hence, he is not happy for living and not sad for death.

回顧過去,他不會懊惱時光飛逝一去不回,他不會沾沾自喜於某事之即將來臨。因為他知道,時間是無止境的,環境是無常的。所以他得之不喜,失之不憂。他知道,萬物興衰的輪替,實際上是生物演化的契機。因此,他生而不悅,死而不悲。

17 Living in the vast and boundless universe, the attitude we should have is that: we recognize what we know and what we don’t know, instead of showing off what we know.

身在這個浩翰,無邊無際的宇宙之中,我們所抱持的態度應該是: 清楚瞭解自己所知有限,及有所不知,而不是誇誇其談,說自己曉得了什麼?

證向今故,故遙而不悶,掇而不跂,知時無止;察乎盈虛,故得而不喜,失而不憂,知分之無常也;明乎坦塗,故生而不說,死而不禍,知終始之不可故也。

18 Also, we should not judge Tao by the phenomenon in our lifetime. We should consider the phenomenon before our life –the longer time and the process of changing of Heaven and Earth, according to which we learn the truth of universe.

同理,與其用我們現在"生" 這段時間的現象,來判斷宇宙的道; 還不如將目光投注在未生之前,那段更長、更久的時光堙A天地的變化過程。根據這些變化過程,並來瞭解宇宙的真理。

19 If we judge the truth of universe by phenomenon that happen in a very small space and short time, then we are like summer butterfly who mistakes there is abundant sunlight, plentiful rain and flourishing plant in four seasons; and our misunderstanding of the Nature is uncountable.

如果,我們就一個極其狹小的時空範圍堜珛o生的現象,去判斷宇宙的真理; 那麼,我們將會如同夏天的蝴蝶,誤認為一年四季都會陽光充足,雨量豐富,枝葉茂盛。假如是這樣的話,我們對宇宙大自然的誤解就不可以道理計矣!

計人之所知,不若其所不知;其生之時,不若未生之時;以其至小,求窮其至大之域,是故迷亂而不能自得也。

20 In general, we know that in boundless space and time, we verily can’t judge a thing small by our thinking it small, nor judge a thing large and vast by our thinking it large and vast, since there is something smaller or bigger than that we think. We had better not think ourselves always right. It is better to be modest and pragmatic. Taking part for the whole is the start of misunderstanding.”

綜上之論,我們知道在無限的時空堙A我們實在不能自以為凡是小的東西就一定是這樣,也不能自認為大的物件就表示所有大的,廣的物件都是那樣。因為在無限時空堙A小的有比它更小,大的有比它更大; 我們最好不要自以為是,謙虛地就事論事比較好。以偏蓋全會造成短視,是一切誤解的開始。」

由此觀之,又何以知毫末之足以定至細之倪,又何以知天地之足以窮至大之域!」

21 River God was enlightened somewhat. He told Sea God. “People often said that a really tiny thing is shapeless; a really huge thing is boundless. Is it right, Sir?”

河神逐漸有些開竅了。他對北海若說:「世人常說,『真正細微的東西是沒有形狀的,真正巨大的東西是沒有範圍的』。北海先生,請問是這樣嗎?」

河伯曰:「世之議者皆曰:『至精無形,至大不可圍。』是信情乎?」

22 Sea God replied, “It is incomplete to see the huge thing in the sight of the tiny thing. For example, ant can’t understand what human is. Nevertheless, it is unclear to see tiny thing in the sight of huge thing. People have to use microscope to watch microbe. As for the structure of atom, even people use the most advanced microscope they are still not able to get its’ details.

北海若說:「由細小的東西去看巨大的東西是看不全的。就像螞蟻無從瞭解我們人類的樣子。然而,假如從巨大的這個立場去看細小的東西,也一樣是看不清楚的。就如同我們人,不用顯微鏡就看不到微生物; 就算用高倍顯微鏡,我們對原子內部的結構,也是無法看清全貌的。

北海若曰:「夫自細視大者不盡,自大視細者不明。

23 It is common known that the tiny is the smallest of the small; the huge is the largest of the large. As the above said, there is no absolute small and no absolute big. The small and the big are relative, depending on your viewpoint. Therefore, we should not pay too much attention to the size of any object.

一般人說 "精" 是指小中更小的。而 "垺" 是指大中更大的。正如我們前面討論過,沒有絕對的小,也沒有絕對的大。只看你站在什麼位置上去看比你小的或比你大的東西。由此可見,凡事皆有其合理性,都有其合理存在的空間; 大小是相對的,因此,對事物的體積、尺寸及容量等,我們實在不應過於重視。

夫精,小之微也;郛,大之殷也:故異便。此勢之有也。

24 Usually, tiny and huge are judged by the size and shape. If a thing is too tiny to be tangible, it can’t be counted by number. If a thing is too huge to be bounded, it can’t be counted too. In this case, our consciousness can’t distinguish and discuss it.

所謂精細和粗大都是我們根據事物的形狀來判斷的。如果一件東西細小到沒有形狀,那就不能用數量去統計; 巨大到沒有範圍,也一樣不能給它一個適當的尺寸。在這種情形下,我們的意識就無法對它展開辨識,或進行討論了。

25 The shapeless, the boundless and the incalculable thing are beyond the field of material. However, our consciousness only can operate in the field of material. For this reason, we can’t image a thing it is shapeless, boundless and incalculable, and of course, we are not able to describe it by size and shape too.

沒有形狀,沒有範圍,不能計算,就已超越了物質的範圍; 而我們人類的意識,卻只能在物質範圍內運作,沒有形狀,範圍,數量的東西於我們而言是無法想像的,當然也就談不上什麼大小,精粗了!

夫精粗者,期於有形者也;無形者,數之所不能分也;不可圍者,數之所不能窮也。

26 In the modern science it is also true. The scientist stresses domain. Within a certain domain the meaningful discussion is possible; otherwise, scientist can’t set the rule and definition and consequently, the scientific study is meaningless.

科學是講究界定的。凡是有意義的討論,一定要先設定界線,否則規律,定義就無從制定,科學研究也就變得毫無意義了。

27 When we learn that there is no absolute big and small, and even no absolute richness and poverty, even no absolute nobleness and humbleness, our attitude of life is changed.

當我們瞭解到這世上沒有絕對的大小,粗精,甚至富貧,貴賤時,我們做人的態度就不同了;

可以言論者,物之粗也;可以意致者,物之精也;言之所不能論,意之所不能察致者,不期精粗焉。

28 The men of perfect practice don’t do harm to others but they don’t make efforts to do well everywhere. Their deeds aren’t based on interest, while they don’t consider it is wrong that philistines seek pretty interest and pretty position and ask for money. They don’t scramble for the present wealth, but they will not pretend to be lofty to refuse the interest in hand.

修行完備之人,他們的存在雖不會對人造成傷害,但他們也不會費心地做大善人,到處施惠,為自己建功德。他們的作為不以利益為出發點,可是市井小民求些小利小貴,他們知道了也不會認為這些人有什麼不對,或伸手要錢有什麼丟臉。擺在眼前的財物,他們不會跟人爭的頭破血流,可是送到手中的利益,他們也不會自命清高,辭而不受。

29 They would like to accomplish everything by themseles. They would not bother others unless by no choice. They don’t pant for making more money; however, they don’t condemn and scorn the common people who strive for money.

他們凡事都喜歡靠自己去親自完成,非不得已,不願意麻煩別人; 可是他們卻也不會為了多賺些錢,而把自己累的喘不過氣來。一般人貪心不足,奮力積財的作為,他們也不會加以指責,或輕視他們。

30 The men of perfect practice are different in deeds, living customs and mindset from the common people but you can’t say that they are weird. They don’t look like Hippie with queer clothes and unique behavior. They do in Rome as Rome do, act as the same as the common people. In society, they stand with the masses. They don’t flatter somebody for convenience and personal interest and echo the opinion of a few man of high position. Nevertheless, they think it as living tactics that some philistines adore hero and flatter man of high position. They don’t consider it is wrong or mean.

他們的行為,生活習慣、思想方式確是與一般人不同,可是你也不能說他們怪異; 因為他們並沒有如嬉皮之奇裝異服,特立獨行的樣子。而且他們入境問俗,在俗從俗,跟大家打成一片。在社會中他們是站在大眾這一邊的。他們絕對不會為了方便,或為了個人利益而拍某些人的馬屁,附從少數專權人士的主張; 可是對一些市井小民崇拜英雄,阿諛諂媚權貴,他們只認為這是一般人求生存的計謀,也無所謂對、錯,更無所謂人格高下的問題。

31 Fame, position and wealth can’t lure them because these are not their goal of life. High pressure, punishment and insult can’t change their thought and deed too. They are tough and resistive. Why are they so, because they are deeply aware that right and wrong, small and big, rich and poor, and nobleness and humbleness are not absolute but relative.

名位、財富不是他們追求的人生目標,自然不能誘惑他們。高壓、刑罰、羞辱等同樣也不能改變他們的想法及作法。真正是所謂軟硬不吃,固持己見。之所以能達成這一境界,重點就在他們深刻地瞭解是非、對錯、大小、貧富及貴賤等都是相對的,而並非是絕對的。

是故大人之行,不出乎害人,不多仁恩;動不為利,不賤門隸;貨財弗爭,不多辭讓;事焉不借人,不多食乎力,不賤貪污;行殊乎俗,不多辟異;為在從眾,不賤佞諂;世之爵祿不足以為勸,戮恥不足以為辱;知是非之不可為分,細大之不可為倪。

32 The saying in this world goes well --- a man of practice seeks no fame and virtue. A man who practices to a certain level doesn’t seek anything. The true man of perfect practice even forgets his own body---, which maybe is the best conclusion for our discussion about size and shape, rich and poor, and nobleness and humbleness.”

世俗間有句話說的好:『修行人不求聲名、德行』。修到一定境界的人不會再苛求什麼東西。而真正修行完備的人,他們連自己這個身子都忘掉了; 這大概就是我們討論大小,精粗,貧富,貴賤這問題時的最好的結論吧!」

聞曰:『道人不聞,至德不得,大人無己。』約分之至也。」

33 River God asked, “How to distinguish the big and the small, nobleness and humbleness in the field of material and spirit?”

河神問:「那麼請問在物質界及精神界,人們又應當如何區別大小及貴賤呢?」

河伯曰:「若物之外,若物之內,惡至而倪貴賤?惡至而倪小大?」

34 Sea God replied, “In the standpoint of Tao, there is no nobleness and humbleness in all things. Only by the view of personal interest, there are nobleness and humbleness, high and low position, and the light and the heavy. But we should know clearly that even in this field, their distinctions are relative, not absolute.”

海神答曰:「站在道的立場,萬物是不分貴賤的。只有站在個人利益的立場才有貴賤、高低、輕重之分。而這些區別也是相對的,並非是絕對的。

35 If we judge a thing by its own standard, then there is no big and small in this world. To us, whale is big. However to a whale, the other whales are not so big and they are of common size. To us, ant is small. However, soldier ant is a jumbo in the eyes of working ant. The working ant runs away quickly when seeing soldier ant. How dare it despise soldier ant?

如果我們判斷一件東西,是根據此一物件自己的標準來評斷,那麼這個世界就無所謂大,也無所謂小了。當我們覺得鯨魚很大時,可是以鯨魚甲的立場,看鯨魚乙卻也不是那麼的大,普通罷了。我們看螞蟻覺得螞蟻小,可是工蟻看兵蟻卻等於是體型壯碩的龐然大物,避之唯恐不及,哪媮棷惘頂斯曭漫擬Y。

36 Thinking so, we may look universe as a grain of rice and a hair as a mountain. The standard is relative.

能夠這樣想的話,我們就可以視宇宙為一顆小米,也可以視一根頭髮為一座大山。所有的標準都是相對的。

北海若曰:「以道觀之,物無貴賤;以物觀之,自貴而相賤;以俗觀之,貴賤不在己。以差觀之,因其所大而大之,則萬物莫不大;因其所小而小之,則萬物莫不小。知天地之為稊米也,知毫末之為丘山也,則差數睹矣。

37 If we judge the fact of existence of an object by its function, then everything in this world do exists, and will be vanished at end of the day.

如果,我們依照某件東西本身所具有的功能,來判斷此客觀事物之存在或不存在,那麼,世間沒有一件東西是不存在的。同時,也沒有一件東西是不會消失的。

38 All things that created by Heaven must have their own use and function. However, the functions exerted by the things are limited. When time is out, the functions weaken and even vanish. The things are gone too. This is what we call "impermanence".

天生萬物必有用,都有它一定的功能。可是這些東西所能發揮的功能也是極其有限的; 當終了的時間一到,它本身的功能就開始減弱,消失; 然後這件東西也就消失了。這就是所謂無常之理了。

39 The function of a spring jacket is to keep warm. So people need it and it is worth existing. However, in the winter, it can not keep people warm enough, it is gone from body. To people, it disappears.

一件春衫,它有禦寒遮體的功能。所以人們需要它,它有它一定存在的價值。可是,當時節到了冬季,春衫的功能不足,人們必須穿上棉襖才足以禦寒保暖。春衫因為功能不足,也就立刻在人體上消失了。

以功觀之,因其所有而有之,則萬物莫不有;因其所無而無之,則萬物莫不無。

40 We know that the east is opposite to the west. Nevertheless we should remember that the east and the west depend on each other so they can exist. West is meaningless without east. Also, there is no east without west.

我們知道“東”、“西”是兩個相對的方向。可是,我們也應該知道,“東”、“西”這兩個方向是相互依賴才有可能存在的。沒有東方,西方就沒有了意義;沒有了西方,同樣的也就沒有了東方的存在了。

知東西之相反而不可以相無,則功分定矣。

41 If we judge the good and the bad of an object by personal taste, there is no good thing or bad thing.

如果我們是根據個人的好惡來判斷一件東西的好壞,那麼,世上就沒有一件能被稱為是好的東西,也沒有一件東西算是壞的。

以趣觀之,因其所然而然之,則萬物莫不然;因其所非而非之,則萬物莫不非。

42 If we listen to what Yao and Jie said, why he is a good man; why the other is a bad man, from the standard of his taste, we know what kind of a man he really is.

當我們聽任堯及桀去辯論及講述他們自己何以是好人,而別人為什麼是壞人時; 我們就能借由他們的好壞,喜惡的標準堙A來判斷他們到底是怎麼樣的一個人了。

知堯、桀之自然而相非,則趣操睹矣。

43 In the past, Yao demised to Shun, which is lucky to the country. However, in the Warring States Period, Prince of the State of Yan demised to Zizhi, his minister. The demising led to a catastrophe –a convulsion of the county- and Prince Yan and Zizhi were both killed.

從前堯讓位給舜,國家慶倖得人。而戰國時期,燕王讓位給宰相子之,卻引來大禍。國家動亂,君臣俱亡。

44 King Tang and King Wu fought for the throne and both of them got it successfully. Bai Sheng, however, the grandson of Duke of Chu was not that lucky, he uprose for the crown but was killed by Ye Gao at end of the day.

湯武爭而得王位,而楚平王之孫白勝起兵爭位,卻被葉高所殺。

昔者堯、舜讓而帝,之、噲讓而絕;湯、武爭而王,白公爭而滅。

45 As far as history is concerned, it doesn’t matter whether the throne is obtained by demise or by the war. There is no last word on the kind governance of Yao and the brute governance of Jie. We may not deem that the system of Demise is certainly good or certainly bad; Yao definitely is good or Jie definitely is bad. They are concluded in terms of time and space.

由上述史實看來,王位由禪讓而得與起兵爭奪而獲都無甚關係。是堯的仁政也好,是桀的暴政也罷,它會有什麼樣的結果,其實是沒有一定的定論的,一切完全要看時空的安排,不可認定禪讓一定好或不好,堯一定好,而桀一定壞。

由此觀之,爭讓之禮,堯、桀之行,貴賤有時,未可以為常也。

46 In attacking a city, a girder may be used as the weapon to knock down the gate. However, if you use it to stuff crack, it is out of place.

樑柱可以用來衝擊城門,做為攻城的利器,可是如果你用它來塞小縫子,它就不適宜了。

47 A good horse can travel a thousand li in a day, but it is worse than the cat and weasel to prey on mice.

千里馬可以日行千里,但是捉老鼠,他就比不上貓及黃鼠狼。

梁麗可以沖城,而不可以窒穴,言殊器也;騏驥驊騮,一日而馳千里,捕鼠不如狸狌,言殊技也;

48 Owl can catch flea on its body at night, but it can’t see the mountain opposite to it in the daytime.

貓頭鷹夜堻ㄞ鉈鄙簳迨W的跳蚤,可是到了白天,它就是瞪大眼睛也看不見對面的山。

49 These illustrate that different strong suit exists owing to different nature. In the different standpoint and in the requirements of different environment, we can’t tell who is strong or weak, good or bad.

所有這一切,都在在的說明了,這些動物間彼此習性的不同,與本能上長短優劣的回異,皆是源自於彼此天性的不同而有以致之。因此,在不同的立場、與不同的環境要求下,我們實在不能說誰強,誰弱,誰好,或誰不好。

鴟鵂夜撮蚤,察毫末,晝出瞋目而不見丘山,言殊性也。

50 If a man likes the good side of a thing, refusing the bad side, or he only accept the good policy by a ruler, refusing the bad one, we conclude that he doesn’t know the law of Heaven and Earth or the nature of things in the world. It is just like that he only want the Heaven and don’t want the Earth, only Yin not Yang, which is unreasonable.

如果一個人只喜歡事物美好的一面,而不喜歡那不好的一面; 只接受這個主政者好的政策,而拒絕他失策的部分; 那麼我們就能獲知,這個人實在是不懂天地之理,萬物之情。正如同一個人,只要天,不要地; 只要陰,而不要陽。所有這些,都是不可能辦到的。

故曰,蓋師是而無非,師治而無亂乎?是未明天地之理,萬物之情也。

51 However, many people in this world don’t know it. They keep arguing all days. They are either an extremely stupid or a rascally dishonest person.

然而,世間許多人就是不明白這個道理,整天在那兒爭論不休; 這些人不是愚蠢之極,就是一群無賴蠻子。

是猶師天而無地,師陰而無陽,其不可行明矣!然且語而不舍,非愚則誣也!

52 The said examples tell us that the same demise and the same way of succession were deemed as different deeds because of the different time and space: some of them were deemed as usurping rascals; some of them were deemed as righteous deeds by the atlases of the state.

根據上面諸多實例,我們就能知道,同樣禪讓,同樣的繼位方式,因時間空間的不同,有的被人認定為篡位的惡徒,有的卻被大眾接受而被稱為義舉,甚至國之棟樑。

53 Hence, my River God! Your knowledge is too little to know what noble family is, what poor family is, what the generous is, and what the miserly is.”

所以,河神呀!單憑你那點兒見識,是無法懂得,什麼是出身高貴的家庭,什麼是出身低賤的家庭。什麼是大方的,什麼是小器的。」

帝王殊禪,三代殊繼。差其時,逆其俗者,謂之篡夫;當其時,順其俗者,謂之義之徒。默默乎河伯!女惡知貴賤之門,小大之家!」

54 River God were not angry at Sea God’s remark; instead, because he made it clear that Sea God’s experience was more than his. Standing before the elder full of wisdom, he had to fold his arrogance. He asked modestly, “What is the noble family? What should a member of noble family do? What should not do? What should accept? What should refuse?”

河伯聽了北海若這樣的批評,非但沒有生氣,態度反而更加的謙恭了; 因為他已經清楚地瞭解到了北海若見過的世面確實要比他來得廣而且深,因此,在這位充滿智慧的長者面前,他乖乖的收拾起自己一向高視闊步的態度,謙虛地問道:「那麼應如何才算是出身名門呢?一位出身名門者他應該做什麼,不應該做什麼?他應該接受什麼,又應該拒絕些什麼?」

河伯曰:「然則我何為乎?何不為乎?吾辭受趣舍,吾終奈何?」

55 Sea God replied, “There is no unchangeable definition for nobleness and humbleness in the light of Tao. There is nobody born noble or humble. There is no family whose members are born noble race, nor born humble race. Actually, a man’s culture chooses his nobleness or humbleness.

北海若回答說:「依照道的標準看,貴賤其實是沒有一定規範的。沒有說哪個人天生下來就是高貴的或低賤的,更沒有說哪個家庭出身的就屬於高貴人種,哪個家庭出身的就註定一生低賤。人的高貴與低賤是看他個人的修養而定。

北海若曰:「以道觀之,何貴何賤,是謂反衍;無拘而志,與道大蹇。

56 A man should beware of not be controlled by the impulsive and fierce mood; he should know that the exciting mood infringes the principle of Tao. He who can often maintain the sound, tranquil and peaceful mood is deemed as the noble person.

一個人應該留意,不要經常被一些激烈的,衝動的情緒所控制,因為激動的情緒是違背道的原則的。經常能維持沉穩,安寧,祥和情緒的人,我們就認為他們是高貴的;

57 On the contrary, he, who is excited all day and even is fussy about pretty disturbance or pretty trouble, is deemed as a man of bad mood.

相反地,一天到晚情緒激動,一點風吹草動就急躁不安而惶惶不可終日,我們認為有這樣情緒的人不好。

58 What’s the generous and what’s the miserly? We hold that he who has seen the world is generous. He doesn’t consider things in the eyes of the frog in well. The men of perfect practice know that the Nature has very close bearing on our people. When they make some achievements, they know that they must be grateful to the Heaven who bestows it on them and show the humble and the modest attitude.

至於什麼是大方的?什麼是小器的?我們說見過世面的人落落大方,不會以井底之蛙的心態來看待事情。修行完備的人深深知道,大自然跟我們的關係是非常的密切,因此當他們有了一點小成就時,他們心堜白,這是上蒼所給予他們的恩賜,因此心存感激,在態度上也就自然的流露出謙卑的神請。

59 To the contrary, some people make some achievements; they become arrogant and regard themselves as a king or emperor. They think that they can excel the Heaven and can go around the country by the little knowledge they have.

相反的,有些人稍有一點作為,就趾高氣揚,傲傲然不可一世,自己稱公道寡,以為人定勝天,憑自己那點兒知識就能行遍天下。

60 They who master Tao have no prejudice. Like a mirror, they adjust the pace of actions according to the changes of environment.

能夠掌握道的人,心中沒有成見,他們配合道,恰像一面鏡子似的,隨著周遭環境的變化而隨時調整行動步伐。

何少何多,是謂謝施;無一而行,與道參差。

61 Cultivated by no-self, the men of perfect practice have no selfishness. They don’t figure for their own interest. They integrate themselves with the surroundings. What they think and do are for the whole group’s interest. Edified by the deeds, they concern everything, and then the whole universe and the Nature. Finally they melt into the Nature and become one part of the Natures.

在無相的修為下,修行完備的人是完全沒有私心的。他們不會為了自己的利益而去謀取什麼。他們將自己與大環境緊密的聯繫在一起,心中想的,平日所做的都是為了整體考慮。在這種修為的薰陶下,他們的心變得無窮遠大,擴及整個宇宙,關心整個大自然,最終與大自然合而為一,成為大自然的一份子。

62 Wise men are compatible with all things, never excluding something on purpose, because they know that in different places and at different time there is someone who will benefit or help him. The bosom that is compatible with all things is called impartiality.

修行的人心胸開闊,海納百川,絕不刻意排斥什麼東西。因為他們知道,在某個時空之下,何人會對他們有益,並且還能幫助他。這種兼容萬物的胸懷,我們稱之謂“無方”。

嚴乎若國之有君,其無私德;繇繇乎若祭之有社,其無私福;泛泛乎其若四方之無窮,其無所畛域。兼懷萬物,其孰承翼?是謂無方。

63 Before the Nature, all creatures are born equal. You shouldn’t say that whale is big and the Africa crucian is small, human is noble and ant is humble, pine is high and Lantana is low, turtle is of long life and moth is of short life.

在大自然的跟前,萬物都是平等的。你不能說鯨魚比較大,吳郭魚比較小;你不能說人比較高貴,螞蟻比較低賤;松柏比較高,馬櫻丹比較矮;烏龜比較長壽,而飛蛾比較短命;

64 Before Tao with boundless space and endless time, all the differences are nothing to speak of.

所有這些差異,在無限時空的道面前,都是不足掛齒的。

萬物一齊,孰短孰長?道無終始,物有死生,不恃其功。一虛一滿,不位乎其形。年不可舉,時不可止。

65 All creatures in the wonderful world shift between death and birth. Only Tao conserves endless life.

有色世界的物種,它們都是有生有死的,只有道才保有無限的生命。

66 In the life of limited space and time, any development of creatures is unworthy of flaunting. They change endlessly between emptiness and substance, being and nonexistence.

物種在它們有限時空的生命堙A任何的一點發展,都沒有什麼值得誇耀之處。它們只是在有與無,空與實之間,不斷地轉變而已。

67 The past time can’t be restored. Time can’t control rise and fall. Wax and wane shift each other. Each end is a new start.

隨之而來的時間難以複製已經消失的歲月,也無法控制物種的興衰與枯榮。增添與消耗相互輪替,而每一次的結束,就是另一個開始的起點。

68 In this case, it is meaningless to discuss birth, illness, aging and death. What we should only focus on is the truth behind the change, namely, essence of Tao.

在這種情形下討論物種的生老病死,變得毫無意義,而我們唯一應該專注的是,這些變化背後的真理,也就是道的真諦。

消息盈虛,終則有始。是所以語大義之方,論萬物之理也。

69 Lives of all creatures are short and hurried. Time passes as quickly as a galloping horse flashes before our eyes. What we should do or should not can’t make up for anything.

萬物的生命是短暫而急促的。時光有如飛馳的駿馬,在我們眼前一晃而過。無論我們認為自己應該做什麼,或不應該做什麼,都是無補於事的。

70 The best attitude is to lie there and watch leisurely the horse galloping.”

所以,最好的態度是,靜靜地躺在那兒,悠閒地觀賞,那馬兒奔跑的姿態吧!」

物之生也,若驟若馳。無動而不變,無時而不移。何為乎,何不為乎?夫固將自化。」

71 River God asked again, “Everyday I deal with many complicate and intricate problems. Do you think Tao is helpful in clearing up these problems?”

河伯又問北海若:「我每天都要處理許多錯綜複雜的問題,依您之見,您認為道對釐清這些問題會有所幫助嗎?」

河伯曰:「然則何貴於道邪?」

72 Sea God replied, “A man of perfect practice understands why things happen, knows the truth of operation of the society, and the principle and necessary conditions by which people get alone with each other. Thus, he is able to deal with these worldly affairs at ease and with facility.

北海若回答說:「修行完備的人明瞭事情發生的原委,知道社會運作的原理,知道人與人之間相處必然的條件與原則,因為瞭解這些原則,所以在處理俗事上就顯得應付裕如,得心應手。

73 Eventually, he is free from the obsession and harm by these worldly affairs.

最終不會讓這些俗事困擾自己,傷害自己。

北海若曰:「知道者必達于理,達於理者必明于權,明于權者不以物害己。

74 He, who is able to apply Tao to his deeds, never draws fire against himself and never drowns in water. Severe environment, such as hot summer and cold winter, is not able to do harm to him; even the beast can’t come and attack at him.

能將道徹底地運用在行為之中的人,他絕不會引火焚身,也不會被水溺斃。酷暑,寒冬,再嚴苛的環境也不能侵害他的身體,禽獸更不能接近他,攻擊他。

75 A man of perfect practice has no any supernatural function to directly resist or weaken these jeopardies. He just knows how to distinguish safe from danger, what he can do and what he can’t do, where he can go and where he can’t go, when he can take and when he has to give up, where he can stay and where he has to leave.

修行完備的人並沒有什麼特異功能,能直接對抗這些危難或削弱它們的威脅。他只是可以很清楚地辨別安危,知道什麼可以做,什麼不能做; 那兒可以去,那兒不能去; 什麼時候可以取,什麼時候應該放手; 或什麼情況下可以呆下來,什麼情況下應該趕緊閃人。

76 Su Dongpo, the poet of Song Dynasty, said that marching or retreating depends on opportunity, taking office or recluse is up to me. If do so, he can handle everything at east, keeping his leisure and self-congratulation, despite richness, poverty, beauty and ugliness.

蘇東坡所說的,『進退由時,行藏在我』。能夠這樣,那麼在朝在野; 富也好,窮也好; 美也好,醜也罷; 他都能處之泰然,不改其怡然自得之氣度。

77 In a word, right choice makes you to prevent from all of jeopardy.

簡單地說,當知所選擇時,你就百害不侵了。

至德者,火弗能熱,水弗能溺,寒暑弗能害,禽獸弗能賊。非謂其薄之也,言察乎安危,甯於禍福,謹于去就,莫之能害也。

78 Therefore, the outward is flesh body and the inward that hide in body are self-nature, Buddha-nature, Qi, calmness and refinement. A man’s virtue is the representation of the inward. The inward combines with flesh body to form a man. The main behaviors of a man should stem from the inward and conform to the Nature, so that they can embody the virtue; they can do as what Su Dongpo said to the point. For those who handle varying objective environments according to experiences and the standards of old cases, they are doomed to have a difficult life.”

所以說,自性、佛性、氣、拙火、妙用等是隱藏在人體堶情A只有肉身是呈現在外面的。一個人的德性,等於是他自性等的浮現,自性等與肉身合而為一而成為人。而人的行為中心應該是發乎自性等才合乎自然,才能體現德性,才能真正進入所謂的『進退由時,行藏在我』的境界之中,凡事無一不恰到好處。反之,倘若死抱著一些過時的陳案舊例,去應付千變萬化的客觀環境的話,那麼,一切是不可能會順利過關的。」

故曰,天在內,人在外,德在乎天。知天人之行,本乎天,位乎得;蹢躅而屈伸,反要而語極。」

79 River God asked Sea God, “What do you mean ‘nature’ or ‘natural’? What do you mean ‘artificial’ or ‘man-made’? What’s the difference?”

河伯問北海若:「您說的“自然”或 “自然的”是什麼意思,您說“人為的”或 “人造的”又是什麼意思?它們之間的差別在那兒?」

曰:「何謂天?何謂人?」

80 Sea God answered, “a horse walks by its four feet, which we say it natural; the horse is controlled with rein on its neck and copper ring pulled on its nose, which is ‘artificial’.

北海若回答說:「當一匹馬以四隻腳走路時,我們認為這是自然的;而當我們將韁繩套在馬的脖子上,在馬鼻子上穿一個銅環,以此來控制馬的行動時,我們就說這是人為的。

81 In general, we think that artificial way or thing should not cover nature. It is also true to people. We suggest that you or your life should not be changed or spoiled for materials. Don’t lose yourself nature for fame and position. Beware of maintaining your inherent nature and prevent it from slipping into the evil way.

總之,我們不可將人為的東西或方法,勉強的加諸於自然的天性之上。同樣的道理,我們也不能過度執著於為了物質上的追求,而去改變,去破壞了自己的生活。更不要為了名譽、官位,犧牲了自己的自性。小心謹慎地維護自己的天性,千萬別讓他誤入歧途。

82 We call such thinking as “restoring inherent nature”.

這樣的思維,我們稱之為 “反其真”」。

北海若曰:「牛馬四足,是謂天;落馬首,穿牛鼻,是謂人。故曰,無以人滅天,無以故滅命,無以得殉名。謹守而勿失,是謂反其真。」

Hosted by www.Geocities.ws

1