haplogroup K (mtDNA) and R1b (yDNA) on Alpenland and Altaitalia Hinterland (AAH) like all-cisalpine hinterland genetic root of the indigenous alpine montagnards and cisalpine peoples like all-aboriginals only page established February 13th 2008 - updated on 6 april 2017 by Maureen Raymo's enlarged diagrams and links to time-line papers updated September 8th 2012 linking our Tyrolean iceman complete genome database new CEE Alpine map by 31 august 2015 about our Alpine hinterland - fixed on 9 june 2016 link to Colin Renfrew books www.alpenlander.eu and www.mailander.eu ( www.similaun.eu provisional sitemap )

Cisalpini's provisional pages
( THREE FOLDERS )

COMING SOON
.....three folders labelled as [1-TIME] [2-TERRITORY] [3-PEOPLE] to store useful maps and diagrams and documents detailing history and geography and people of our genetic hinterland and the organization of genetic screening by our families

page under construction: valid by monday (lunedii) 6th August 2012 corrected to friday 9 june 2016
meanwhile keep the contact using our email:

 

This FOREWORD deals with identification of haplogroup Kappa (K) showing a location map where was found our most ancient relative The iceman body of Similaun on Raetian Alps in Altaitalia and list readable books for a genetic picture about early European populations..... next you see here short diagrams about European haplogroups by mtDNA and yDNA along with sequencing of iceman mitochondrial DNA tables..... moreover there are maps of alpina/cisalpina hinterland detailing geography of our Kappa haplogroup like was dwelling here in early prehistoric time hence some diagrams detailing time of our genesis well beyond the Last Glacial Maximum many thousand years ago.....

FOREWORD

the most ancient of our relatives by haplogroup-K we can address and greetings is
the man of Similaun named
the iceman worldwide

here pronounced on our and his romance language: See me laah-oonn

a name born after five millennium-long sleeping under tons of ice..... his grave embedded by rock plates to steady resist all the glaciers flowing downward over our alpine peaks in the Similaun mountain group few miles west of Castel Tirolo the capital city of Tirolo County in the Raetian Alpine Group (ranging between Aprica and Arlberg and Spluga and Brennero passes) just on the backbone of our alpine hinterland so-called cisalpina

by sequencing his mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that is inherited only trhu maternal lines (and is never merged or recombined with anything) we knows that iceman of Similaun is indigenous here on our Alps and is typical as our altaitalia aboriginal population because his mtDNA haplogroup is marked by the K (kappa) genetic packet that is typical of Altaitalia arising here like you can inherit by altaitalian ancestors only

here is the Similaun mountain group summits
(click photo to read italian caption)

please note the word "aboriginal" ever means
that population at home since origins of that territory

and so in exemple the Mohawk (iroquois) are aboriginals in Northamerica like are not the Vikings coming there only one thousand years ago: these two populations eventually can meet if they care but the ancestral territory ever pertains to iroquois aboriginals definitely

because

you are not aboriginal on my territory
notwithstanding how many years you are claiming to be on my land

according prof. Bryan Sykes (Oxford university) who
early investigated the genetics of european populations in "The Seven Daughters of Eve" we knows that
haplogroup K within mtDNA genetic packet arises here in the altaitalian hinterland apart from other five european mtDNA haplogroups (and hinterlands) like U (greece) H (languedoc) T (tuscany) V (basque) X (georgia) measuring the actual and so ancient genetic picture of Europe

beside this maternal line "catalogue" there is a tiny paternal line "catalogue" completing the ancient and actual landscape of european populations and thus totalling 9 (nine) ancestral genetic hinterlands like these: haplogroups yDNA R1b (andalusia) I1b (illiria) I1b2 (sardinia) haplogroups mtDNA U (greece) H (languedoc) T (tuscany) V (basque) K (altaitalia) X (georgia)

the first three haplogroups (R1b+I1b+I1b2) are measured on male chromosome-Y (yDNA) and the other six (U+H+T+V+K+X) are measured on female mitochondria (mtDNA) when male R1b is typical into H+T+V+K populations overall even if it is not so widely accepted into DNA packet of the population U (greece) where it remains well under 50% of entire genetic hinterland - to complete an actual (modern) genetic picture of Europe another haplogroup named J (that however arises in middle east) arrive later on our continental shores

more interesting is that haplogroups U and K (both mtDNA) are the oldest arising here about 50.000 or 60.000 years ago when all other haplogroups seem totalling 30.000 years of life on their maximum..... and if it is sure these all 9 (nine) aboriginal european populations have the same antiquity (because they all today are here) it is sure too that into U and K groups there is a stability that weigh twice (60.000:30.000=2) the thickness of other seven populations

stability means steadiness of our genetic packet like is typical
by every so-called mendelian population in the world

thirty thousand years ago
well beyond the
Last Glacial Maximum (named Wurm or LGM) there was above our Alps an heavy plate of ice 1.800-2.000 meters thick overwhelming the valley bottom when these nine peoples was experiencing the Aurignacian culture typical of stone age (palaeolithic) nevertheless appearing like a "modern" culture in the eyes of that times..... because outclassed the Mousterian culture typical of elder Neandertalers

moreover must be noted that all these 9 populations inhabited their typical ancestral territory (their primitive hinterland) just under the pinetree line (south of northern pinewood border) because north of the line there was a bare arctic desert: they inhabited all year long south of the line drawn by Cognac - Tarascona - Cilli - Debrecen - Danube iron doors - Odessa - Astrakan hence they all inhabited only territories connected to a frozen mountain range ever joining it and so just under the classic katabatic (warm) windflow or daily breeze alike

who pretend that our nine hinterlands was a sort of so-called "refugium" don't know nothing of aboriginal life here into our hinterland and do not know classic pleistocene prehistoric life (of course) because we do not need a refugium just here where we are home longtime and forever (!) .....what refugium (?)

modern genetic (prof. Bryan Sykes) suggest our ancient origins here

genetic screenings show today we are here again: what refugia? who need a refugium staying home? a refugium escaping from what? we are home here and do not escaped out of another land: this is our land forever..... before and after glaciations of Pleistocene

this is our land (nobody's refugium) unsuitable for anyone out of us

moreover these 9 ancient (so actual) populations arised on these hinterlands from their ancestors Cro-magnon and Heidelberg humans and sharing the same ancient hinterlands just here together Neandertal humans who (eventually) leave space for us when the Wurm glacial maximum was at lowest temperatures between 20/30 thousand years ago

now maybe you can name twenty or sixty modern populations in Europe (?) nevertheless the heritage of Europe are these 9 only nine most ancient populations (plus Neander) all 9+1 arised from Heidelberg humans and today living here again as aboriginals alike indigenous peoples: 9+1 and nobody others if not emerging after defrost of Wurm just yesterday but (if any) not so ancient like we are

[ click mountain diagram to read italian captions ]

on our most recent times the old Aurignacian culture
leave to pass a new (neolithic) stone age that next developed into copper (first breath of metallurgy) and
just there we find our iceman about 5.300 years ago .....his culture like that of early Cyclades and Bodrogkeresztur and Baden-Pecel and Ezero and Los Millares and Vilanova San Pedro and Chassey-Lagozza-Cortaillod and Wessex and Troy all running toward the fast incoming Villanovan-type (bronze) cultures

merged in our actual romance language like that of Raetians and Ladins and Ligurians and Histrians and Venetians there are ancient words arising from the life of these ancient copper cultures ....but the oldest of these words stops somewhere on the distant "raetian (linguistic) horizon" (the orizzonte retico) when beyond that line you can hear only their older parent words being that you hear today on the plain of Lombardy only

these are words born when the Alps was under the heavy pack of Wurm (one hundred thousand years ago) when we all lived on hers fair windy side (under a dolce favonio) for sure warmer than whatsoever side: are words related to water and torrents and cream and milk and sheeps and shepherd and shepherdess .....and mountains: the name of Monte Rosa (dubbed as Pinky Mount because his fairy color under sunrise) begins here as Monte Roccia being his name The (big) Rock-a-Mount towering over the piana di Lombardia

[ click the photograph to read italian captions ]

see northward view english text and italian text and southward view english text and italian text

the (big) rock-a-mount as the name Similaun and Ortles alike.....
even if today nobody remember the true significance of this name because
who heavy rules above fair peoples do not care the people (of course) and so destroy everything it can .....early commencing with your memory mainly if these aliens are unable to destroy your ancient words

in fact these are words ever used today but created when our haplogroup K arises in this same hinterland and next was transfered down to our Romance Language living many thousand years..... identical as identical remains our haplogroup today notwithstanding who (friend or foe) boast on their schoolbooks that sometime someothers conquered us and our land

our land is not for sale
and a thief grabbing our land by force or adroitness do not turn into a proprietor: because the land remain our land and a thief remain a thief..... and piracy will be sanctioned ever at last

[ click all these airphotos to read italian captions ]

click here to wider maps: the Similaun widearea/airmap and mappa/aerofoto del Similaun

for sure the modern genetic "catalogue" show us now that during 60.000 years of life no migrant nor wanderer nor conqueror has annihilated the population who created haplogroup K just here on altaitalian hinterland being unique and typical like are all the prehistoric european hinterlands by U.H.T.V.K.X (mtDNA) R1b.I1b.I1b2 (yDNA) and show us that no aliens was able here to destroy anything during many millennia..... no frankic no slavic no germanic no italic was able to complete our annihilation as in fact the haplogroup-K is here today alike was yesterday

on fourteen maps out of 36 about genes geography by prof. Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza and Alberto Piazza and Paolo Menozzi (Stanford University) along with Guido Barbujani (Ferrara University) and scholars edited on "History and Geography of Human Genes" by Princeton University Press in 1994 (the first "bible" of genetic geography) you see that some genes are at home on our hinterland and some others are not (blackandwhite maps n. 1 2 3 4 5 6 & color maps n. 4 6 10 13 15 24 29 30) because every population on the catalog of mtDNA & yDNA can procreate..... itself only

like is typical already for every mendelian population you have on earth

here in modern times we know that romance language typical of whole alpine hinterland is born hinged by his parent romance language typical of whole altaitalia hinterland being culture of the whole same population arising 60.000 years ago wearing the mtDNA-K haplogroup (along with some related populations wearing the yDNA-R1b etc.) and so here we all are aboriginals

rumors that our iceman of Similaun could be a possible ancestor of some aliens arrived here after the fall of Roman empire one millennium ago (and who never meet us since 60 thousand years) are ridiculous.....
here the ancestors are us since
60.000 years like iceman is one of our childs

.


PROTOCOLS and METHODS
who: aboriginals and similaun
basket 1 - our basic books will be two or three above older and recent papers

every text on our bookshelf must be easy readable by millions people at first and pointing to detailed or specialized texts after bibliography searches

that is the case of (book 1) THE SEVEN DAUGHTERS OF EVE by Bryan Sykes (Oxford) edited in 2001 and next reprinted many times describing actual european mitochondrial haplogroups after the DNA sequencing over 15000 modern human bodies

here prof. Bryan Sykes tracks the birth of european genetic clusters U H T V K X during the last ice-age of Pleistocene experienced by all these groups well beyond 29000 years ago even if one of them (haplogroup J of course) never see an icecube out of frigidaire..... being born on middle east shores

in fact all the geographic hinterlands of these six main haplogroups seemingly are located leeward of huge frozen mountains like Alps, Pyreneans, Cevennes, Gran Sasso, Olympus, Caucasus, and Sierra Nevada, and so under the warm katabatic flow typical of all glaciers that (during pleistocene for sure) was 2000 meters thick above valley bottom

in this book B. Sykes deals with the whole haplogroup complex (all these seven) and afford the widest description of the people groups where and when other scholars remained hidden into bare codenumbers

out of personal investigation by Bryan Sykes into european prehistory the book show that (1) these are the clusters and (2) these are the hinterlands even if in recent years (3) the time of our genesis was doubled for some haplogroups like U and KAPPA that now is suggested (measured) about 60000 years at least

[ book 1 is on our BASIC PROTOCOL ] [ click picture to enlarge ]

prof. Bryan Sykes is the geneticist who performed the DNA sequencing on our Tyrolean iceman (5300 years old) in Altaitalia alike on the Cheddar man (9000 years old) in Great Britain and interestingly Sykes ever sequenced DNA on peoples also near the prehistoric finding locations

.....and ever reported relationship so tight showing that
(1) normal peoples do not move from their home and hinterland alike (2) these prehistoric findings are not ancestors of alien migrants but are aboriginals notwithstanding claims and boasts by all recent parvenues

all the seven (maybe eight) genetic clusters today located in Europe was named after alfabetic capitals like the names of alleged seven mothers who could be Eve's daughters: in fact human mitochondrial DNA (male and female) ever is that by your mother inheritance but Eve is a name devised for commercial purpose..... prof. Cavalli-Sforza pointed out that never existed a genetic bottleneck alike

[ book 2 is on our BASIC PROTOCOL ] [ click picture to read italian copertina ]

the basic fine study on human genome diversity we have
is (book 2)
THE HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY OF HUMAN GENES by prof. Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza and Paolo Menozzi and Alberto Piazza (Stanford and Milano) edited in 1994 and next reprinted many times

at least 1000 pages with many tables and diagrams about genetic diversity all over the world measuring aborigenes peoples from Buenos Aires to Edinburg Katmandu Canberra Panama and Sondrestromfijord including all european peoples and encompassing the works by many other scholars

(terrific)

so waiting an italian edition prof. Cavalli-Sforza resolved to edit a booklet showing how they worked out this immense database and published (book 3) GENES, PEOPLES AND LANGUAGE in 1996 with few maps and diagrams

[ book 3 is on our BASIC PROTOCOL ]

out of personal and necessary comments by prof. Cavalli-Sforza the two books show the mean results from 491 populations gathered on 42 bulk clusters (also measuring 120 alleles into 49 genetic systems) next comparing with other searches results on dozens of maps and diagrams

here about all european populations maps we have that (1) genetic diversities do not match political borders at all but are deeply wounded by all political borders (2) when populations are measured like "mixed" and into bulk systems they do not cease to show their genetic distances or diversities (3) all genetic measurements south of the Pleistocene pinetree line seems to match the typical aurignacian U H T V K X hinterlands like will be named next by the late Bryan Sykes

THREE BASIC BOOKS COMPLETE LIST:

(book 1) THE SEVEN DAUGHTERS OF EVE by Bryan Sykes (Oxford) 2001
(book 2)
THE HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY OF HUMAN GENES by Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza and Paolo Menozzi and Alberto Piazza (Princeton University Press) 1994
(book 3)
GENES, PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES by Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (Adelphi Milano) 1996

.

early when prof. Cavalli-Sforza and Bryan Sykes talked of ancestry (genes and peoples) all the politically corrected world commenced to "translate" the two books accordingly..... mutation of genes became migration of genes alike talks of peoples became walks of peoples and genographic distances became geographic distances so sharing worldwide the dogma of "defeat quickly that stupid european culture" like it seem now that 4 milliards world's peoples cannot tolerate our tiny 200 millions pale beatles in a boxcar..... our boxcar of course

and that's the picture twenty years after
.....Bryan Sykes described "
seven (european) daughters" of Eve? now hardly you could find the word "europe" across most so-called phylogeny trees and diagrams: even for Neandertalers (!?) this land now is merged in the word eurasia (or eurabia) going from Gibraltar to well over the river Kway bridge.....

sure this message is loud and clear

but the fact remains.....
notwithstanding how many peoples reached Europe during dozens and dozens of centuries..... you read today in Europe ever the same haplogroups we created dozens of centuries ago (!) that's the fact.....

there is an ethnic force well described by prof. Gregory Mendel or Hardy-Weinberg laws that read: nobody can evade the journey through the simple natural selection sieve..... no boat peoples nor seafaring farmers nor what's about other migrants or strolling peoples you could imagine and land here.....

they all was unable to defeat our ancient genes during many thousand years..... that's the fact even if newcomers claims through their politically corrected "genetics" that migration (not mutation) is their dogma so they reached yesterday i.e. the Danube or Zambesi or Ligurian shores and now claims to be home (!?) what home?

moreover it seem that before wurm glaciations there was nothing (!?) to note..... and Neandertalers? and Acheuleans? and Chelleans? and Villafrancans? and Olduwaians? what sort of genetics is that?

.

here the Bryan Sykes and Cavalli-Sforza list of books along with
comments by Nicholas Wade (The New York Times) and some other basic readings

all pages through amazon.com with links that opens in a new window

Luigi Luca Cavalli Sforza with Paolo Menozzi and Alberto Piazza:
The History and Geography of Human Genes (1994)
http://www.amazon.com/Luigi-Luca-Cavalli-Sforza/e/B000AP9G2S/

Bryan Sykes: The Seven Daughters of Eve (2001)
http://www.amazon.com/Bryan-Sykes/e/B001H6J09S/

Nicholas Wade: Before the Dawn (2006)
http://www.amazon.com/Nicholas-Wade/e/B001H6WF40/

basic readings and comments on primates prehistory

Robert Ardrey: African Genesis (1961)
http://www.amazon.com/Robert-Ardrey/e/B001K8MA2M/

Colin Renfrew: Before Civilization (1973)
http://www.amazon.com/Colin-Renfrew/e/B000AP7RX8/

Elaine Morgan: The Descent of Woman (1974)
http://www.amazon.com/Elaine-Morgan/e/B001HCW170/

Thelma Rowell: Rebel Animals (2008)
http://www.vincianedespret.be/2010/04/culture-and-gender-do-not...

basic readings and comments on early primates

Konrad Lorenz: Das Sogenannte Bose (1963)
http://www.amazon.com/Konrad-Lorenz/e/B004567XPU/

Jane Goodall: in The Shadow of Man (1971)
http://www.amazon.com/Jane-Goodall/e/B000APGLR6/

Dian Fossey: Gorillas in the Mist (1983)
http://www.amazon.com/Dian-Fossey/e/B000APH3NW/

basic readings and comments on modern primates

Eric Berne: Games People Play (1964)
http://www.amazon.com/Eric-Berne/e/B001IGV2L6/

Desmond Morris: The Naked Ape (1967)
http://www.amazon.com/Desmond-Morris/e/B000AQ0YWS/

Germaine Greer: The Female Eunuch (1970)
http://www.amazon.com/Germaine-Greer/e/B001IYTLYI/

basic readings and comments on primates environment

Barry Commoner: The Closing Circle (1971)
http://www.amazon.com/Barry-Commoner/e/B001HCVG1M/

David Attenborough: The First Eden (1987)
http://www.amazon.com/David-Attenborough/e/B000APV342/

Noam Chomsky with Adriana Belletti and Luigi Rizzi: On Nature and Language (2002)
http://www.amazon.com/Noam-Chomsky/dp/052101624X/

.


PROTOCOLS and METHODS
what: mutations and distances
basket 2 - genetic distances will be measured by mutations not migrations

every whatsabout genetic picture or genetic pattern and dimension and shape (anytime everywhere) hold his simple reason that must be
.....ever a genetic one

there never will be any sociologic and anthropologic or anthropomorphic reason for any sort of genetic picture we draw: mother Nature do not care of human reasons like not of whales or porcupines and insects or butterflies .....we all live (and kill whales and porcupines) but the reasons are not ours

that is: a genetic distance between mister Consul (a chimpanzee in London zoologic garden during nineteen century) and messer Athos (a king's own musketeer in Paris down to sixteen century) must be measured by a mutation (within genes) not a migration (within landscapes)

and that is true for all you whales and porcupines and chimpanzees and musketeers .....and lumbards and icemens

see here a diagram by prof. Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza detailing the genetic distance between seven Primates populations: kindly measured by mutations NOT migrations between these seven Peoples

[ this diagram is on our BASIC PROTOCOL ] [ click to read italian text ]

diagram show a quantity of mutations (between genes) within primates and NOT a quantity of kilometers (between landscapes) within the locations of Primates

THAT IS

that is unacceptable by pigtails (parrucconi and code di porco) but see you if is genetic or if is anthropologic this diagram

we think is simply genetic

nevertheless..... pigtails suggest you to go Europe and became men and wife or go to Borneo and became orangutan (even if tourism never changed haplogroups) notwithstanding the Australopitecinae inhabited Europe (near Nizza in Altaitalia if you care) and Borneo (maybe Flores island) many thousand years before our anthropomorphic schoolbooks

according the anthropomorphic doctrine (anthropomorphism) you could be a sciacma or amadriad baboon like italiani or pakistani and scottish or finnish and african or afrikaans and russian or indian and cheyenne or aztec (and wasp or wamh) but your ancestors ever .....must be aliens alike lawless and landless migrants .....and so you must do not care of (your) law and land

they do not care of geographic or geologic or genetic or biologic or mathematic or somewhat other laws written or unwritten..... they before are humans (they only) not animals and so they are the Gods on the Earth and do not care of any sort of law

you are not

[ this diagram is on our BASIC PROTOCOL ] [ click to read italian text ]

.....a quantity of mutations (between genes) within primates and NOT a quantity of kilometers (between landscapes) within the locations of Primates means that .....in a genetic map all the lines must be traced between some nucleotides (or maybe SNP if you care) or pointing to somewhat other genetic only elements .....mainly when on a geographic map you read the location (or population) where the genetic element is at home

just there you see the thickness of the genetic element tracked or found: how many nucleotides or base pairs or whatsabout .....and next you will see all diversities on the landscape

that is a genetic map

the main engines of genes are mutations and natural selection and time overall

because one or onehundred mutations must be accepted (or refused) by the whole population to worth natural selection interest through time: the handful of haplogroups (34.mtDNA+20.yDNA=54 groups) you see today into three milliards people show that very very few mutations must interest many many peoples (3.000.000.000:54=56.000.000 at large) to survive time

so these few survived

notwithstanding where populations go on Earth or Moon
(natural selection don't care of)

[ both diagrams are on our BASIC PROTOCOL ]

all the measurements with RFLP by UPGMA method show mean (genetic) distances because of theoretical unchanged evolution speed rate used to draw the length of arms on tree but the count of polymorphisms highlights the differences between these arms (of course)

here under is our comment

[ this diagram is on our BASIC PROTOCOL ]

here an updated diagram showing mt/dna mutations about humans-relatives
(by Mannis van Oven opens in a new window)

.

Here this New York Times map by Steve Duenes and Nicholas Wade (May 2nd in 2000) is tracking human history through genetic mutations not migrations (honestly) even if the bulk of so-called "genetic maps" edited after the books by Brian Sykes and Luca Cavalli-Sforza are "migration-fashioned" typical of a politically-corrected "scientific" method.

Here the "european" arrows point to .....Europe (of course) when
into other maps are pointing straight northward where during the Pleistocene (20.000-100.000 years ago) there was the polar icecap outstretched above Scandinavia along the bare arctic desert reaching Normandy and Bohemia (!) all layered by permafrost

next the female (mtDNA) and male (yDNA) arrows drive here the same direction (of course) but on "migration" maps seem the males and females are going migrating sex-separated by thousand years.

Text by N. Wade on New York Times read "Genealogic Tree of Human Family: 10 Adams and 18 Eves" even illustrating new researches by B. Sykes who after his first list of seven european (out of nine) "daughters" of Eve is investigating other 14 in Africa and 16 in America and Asia and (anew) in Europe. Moreover, all these "Eves" speak for Cavalli-Sforza when at first he pointed out that an unique politically-corrected Eve (a sort of bottle-neck) could not (and never) exist, even if this map read "Adam and Eve" everywhere because is published by a popular newspaper, of course.

So when you are searching your past into your genes please add years (not kilometers) and stay beware of Adam and Eve.

[ this map-diagram is on our BASIC PROTOCOL ]

This Map now is into New York Times Archive and University of California Archives too
(pages opens in a new window)


PROTOCOLS and METHODS
how: prototypes and populations
basket 3 - european genetic picture will be about most ancient prototypes

all the known human genetic distances are here simplified by two DNA nomenclature diagrams that (alike the genetic distance diagram n.1 for Primates) shows the bulk of diversities in the human genes after thirty years of investigations

our two diagrams are organized by female mitochondria (mt-DNA)
and male ypsilon chromosome (y-DNA)

[ both diagrams are on our BASIC PROTOCOL ] [ click to enlarge ]

[ mt-DNA diagram ] [ y-DNA diagram ]

[ diagramma mt-DNA ] [ diagramma y-DNA ]

[ link to archived geographic database http://dna.xtvt.info/home/ is now broken ]

on our first simplified diagram for MT-DNA you see the alfabetic list of haplogroups (ABCDE etcetera etc.) along with a diversity number like C13626T or T10873C that are single nucleotide numbered locations detailing a DNA pattern in each of these alfabetic groups

here SNP C5178A by haplogroup D (d) in exemple:
we all (male and female) have in our cells a female
mitochondrial DNA inherited from our mother (not father) and organized on 16.569 locus (that are all possible locations available for use by three dozens of our genes in a cell) and so we call haplogroup D (d) the group of peoples who share on the location n.5178 the letter A (for Adenine chemical into nucleotid) instead of letter C (for Cytosine chemical into nucleotid) because this latter is shared by another (typical) group

that's all

now the (generic) typical european genetic group
(that is a genome named H and located mainly in Languedoc) was named CRS for "Cambridge Reference Sequence" after the University who sequenced it in 1981 (next revised in 1999 as rCRS) and is used for simple
standardization on every genome sequencing by comparing all the 16.569 diversity location numbers to list the few locus (if any) that do not match this standard sequence: a single diversity is named SNP (snip) for "Single Nucleotide Polymorphism" like was in our exemple the location n.5178 hence naming an haplogroup (d) which do not match on this locus the standard sequence (because we see that letter C was translated A)

single nucleotide polymorphism SNP is one of many form that one nucleotide could have into your DNA chain .....so the one you are interested in..... is the only one you can use to exactly portray yourself into your genetic family (haplogroup) who is a group of people simply labelled alphabetically (by ABCDE etcetera) instead to be labelled by one of 16.569 unmatching numbers

.....of course it is the same system all people already use for naming finnish a finnish and aztec an aztec (!) at last

[click diagram to read italian captions]

if you like numbers (!) here are linked the (mitochondrial DNA) complete genome sequence labelled CRS (established in 1981 and coded J01415 on databases) and superseded by his revised sequence named rCRS (established in 1997-1999 and coded NC 012920 on databases) now in use:

original Cambridge Reference Sequence CRS (1981) page
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/J01415

revised Cambridge Reference Sequence rCRS (1999) page
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_012920.1

proposed Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence RSRS (2012) page
http://www.phylotree.org/resources/RSRS_annotated.htm

differences by Cambridge rCRS and proposed RSRS (2017) page
http://www.phylotree.org/resources/RSRS_vs_rCRS.htm

(these four links opens in a new window)
you can read it and for the sake of numbers eventually verify all our pictures and transcriptions (on this page) of course

so far
seem that we modern humans (named
cro-magnon humans) are sharing only a handful of MT-DNA haplogroups based on the maternal mitochondrions that are: A B C D E F G H HV I J K L1 L2 L3 M N P Q R T U V W X Y Z (being 27 groups in a simplified diagram but 34 totalling with L4 L5 L6 Lzero Rzero S and O seven more groups not shown on our simple diagram) aside with some haplogroups of neandertal humans who (of course) we have listed by one (found near Vicenza on Monti Lessini holds T16362T plymorphism exactly matching the CRS protocol)

the simple mtDNA diagram show also
that (aside
Neanders) the Cro-magnons share three supergroups only: these are the [L] by African origins and [M] by Asian origins and [N] by European origins (at large) where in this latter dominion the most ancients have their origins beyond the Last Glacial Maximum during the Aurignacian palaeolithic period (22-32.000 years ago) like are the haplogroups [H] by Languedoc origins [T] by Tuscan origins [V] by Basque origins [X] by Georgian origins .....well after the elders [U] by Greeks origins and [K] by Altaitalian origins who arised 50-60.000 years ago

interestingly
the haplogroups ever gathers some younger subgroups (subclades and haplotypes) where you see for instance by the
haplogroup K down to subclade K1 and down to K1d the family of our Tyrolean iceman (with his C8137T SNP diversity number) but.....

do not exist young subclade or haplotype that superseded
some haplogroup: our six oldest european haplogroups
U H T V K X are here today again bold and fresh and steady notwithstanding who boast (everytime anywhere) for kurgs for celts for slavs for indioeuropoids or whatsabout biblical migration that..... sure killed peoples and destroyed our cities and cornfields for loot and blood but (when K-haplogroup is here again) definitely they was unables to destroy or change our most ancient genes

our kappa is here again .....so they was superbly unables

into our second simplified diagram for Y-DNA the sequence is by nucleotides within a chain of DNA located into male chromosome Y (ypsilon) one of 46 chromosomes we have in reproductive cells: out of 46 twin chromosomes this one Y is located in male cells only and pairing with one female chromosome named X (22+22+X+Y=46) instead of womens who have two (22+22+X+X=46) but these nucleotides are..... millions and millions (!)

a huge female X-chromosome is composed by 153.000.000 base pairs (totalling 153+153=306.000.000 millions bases) and a tiny male Y-chromosome is composed by 60 millions base pairs (totalling 60+60=120.000.000 bases) with the same nucleotides organization containing a molecule of sugar hinged to a molecule of phosphoric acid and a molecule called base like the four chemicals Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine

so far
seem we modern humans (named
cro-magnon humans)
are sharing only a handful of
Y-DNA haplogroups based on the paternal Y-chromosome that are: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T (being 20 groups) aside with unknown haplogroups of neandertal humans who we have listed here by one only

the simple yDNA diagram shows
that (aside
Neanders) the Cro-magnons share two supergroups only: the Africans of M91 with M94 and Eurasians of M168 who contains two basic subgroups like M89 and M9 where..... alike with mt-DNA investigation we see that elder ancient european groups have origins beyond the Last Glacial Maximum (22-32.000 years ago) during the Aurignacian palaeolithic period like R1b and I1b+I1b2 when all others european haplogroups have a younger genesis

if you like diagrams (!) here is linked the Y-chromosome DNA complete "tree" of 153 haplogroups established in 2002 by Arizona University "Y Chromosome Consortium" (YCC) like a database under revision and ever in use:

http://www.isogg.org/tree/
you can read the state of revisions in the YCC site pages where it is pointed out that (ten years later) nomenclature is far to be perfect because of too many heterogeneous contributions: in fact you can read all revisions rearward..... year by year reaching the amount of complexity you are interested
(now updated in 2017 link opens in a new window)

moreover you can read the mitochondrial database at the linked electronic address of:

http://www.mitomap.org/MITOMAP
where Cambridge CRS and rCRS are complete and highly detailed

http://www.phylotree.org/
here's an updated 2017 complete mtDNA phylogenetic tree on six page-diagrams

http://www.mtdnacommunity.org/downloads/mtDNAPhylogeny.xml
here are same diagrams on a huge unique page via xml typing
(all links opens in a new window)

now if the katabatic hinterlands of pleistocene are home to
our ancient
mt-DNA haplogroups sure are home to y-DNA haplogroups ever: we know that thickness of R1b is spreading from Gibraltar to elder Zara city occupying all katabatic slopes between Big Boulder (Gran Sasso) and Sierra Nevada next covering all lands beside Alpine ice-cap from the Baby Alps (Alpi Bebii) to Languedoc and Cognac on Atlantic shores encompassing Pyrenean two sides

no other haplogroups was there (along with UHTVKX) during the Last Glacial Maximum if not I1b of Dalmatia (the ancient illiricum between Adriatic shore and Danube iron doors) along with I1b2 of Sardinia when the sea was 140 meters under today sea level

we don't care who came after: here today we are home again

[ these two maps are on our BASIC PROTOCOL ] [ click to enlarge ]

[ italian read this hinterland map ] [ italian read this katabatic map ]

.

[ these diagrams are on our BASIC PROTOCOL ] [ click to enlarge ]

[ italian reading: katabatic breeze and katabatic wind and weather map and barometric complex and katabatic diagram and jetstream map and breeze map ]


PROTOCOLS and METHODS
where: cisalpina and hinterland
basket 4 - sequencing of kappa haplogroup will be about alpine-cisalpine compound

this tree (on diagram n.4 here under) is upsidedown (sorry) thus from the roots of the most ancient haplogroup L3 downward to most recent kappa haplogroup: in fact every new mutation into a whatsabout population (for instance into L3 group) if will be accepted by the natural selection will spread out and above of his early population who ignored or refused that same (new) mutation..... and so the peoples who hold this new mutation will become a new group stratifying itself above the ancient mutations of the same elder population

in fact the diagram is a list of prehistorical stratifications (layers by one above another) where someone evolved above ancient layer L3 at first and next above layer N next above layer R next above layer U etcetera etc. reaching the strata layered as K1 and K2 at last

IN EXEMPLE
when into
L3 group (here composed of peoples who have G769G and G1018G and T16311T ancient SNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) a new mutation appear (like SNP G15301G maybe) the population L3 will ignore it until who holds this (new) G15301G will grow enough to have enough weddings and funerals and groceries and horses and fishermens and churches and childs into classrooms etcetera etc.....

this day of enoughness the "new" group is already a new strata layering above (his) "old" population: so being a (new) population itself (here G15301G along with A8701A T9540T A10398A T10873T appeared early and gathered into N haplogroup in fact) hence stretching his (genetic) distance from (his) elder L3 population

NEVERTHELESS
this is the classic natural genesis the natural selection uses by every haplogroup.....

being a simple modification or deletion or fake transcription (mutation) by something on a numbered location along the ladder of DNA into a cell of someone who born sometime and somewhere into some population..... notwithstanding this mutation next will be accepted or refused by that entire population as we know that will be almost refused anyway

see here a diagram for a numbered location into a typical DNA ladder

[ this diagram is on our BASIC PROTOCOL ] [ click to read italian captions ]

on this diagram n.4 you see that
someone on
his location number-8137 changed the base-C into base-T (by some unknown reason of course) and next during many thousand years who shared this change survived enough to breed and spread the change into his entire population where he or she was born..... so breeding this way an entire new population sharing many things before and after this deep lucky change

sure this change fits very well on this body improving something into his anatomy and fisiology and psychology and the body survived enough time to gather enough rewards by natural selection and thus spread wide enough to be a (new) population itself

sure his story is identical to very few other numbered locations thus population markers living in the distant prehistory of Europe .....alike few other populations around the World: it seem about 60 (sixty) ancient main genetic groups or haplogroups even if they breeds dozens of late and most recent and rough subgroups or subclades

on our iceman diagram n.4 you see stratified all the possible layers of SNP numbers down to KAPPA group (but please revolve it downside up or at least rotate it right or leftside) note that sometime a number alone is not enough to warrant layering: will be the natural selection (time) who will warrant enoughness into one or more SNP layering numbers

[ the SNP diagram n.4 is on our BASIC PROTOCOL ] [ click links to enlarge ]

[ english this SNP diagram sequencing ] [ italian this diagramma SNP sequencing ]

sequencing of our iceman mitochondrial DNA is nevertheless
the sequencing of a
typical Kappa haplogroup here portrayed into four complete SNP tables for who like numbers:

(n.1) a list by seven SNP into haplogroup K along with K1 and K1d here including our iceman

(n.2) a list by seven SNP into european haplogroup U8 (along with U8bk and U8k formerly named simply K for kappa on early sequencing) who are home for K*, K1, K1a, K1b, K1c, K1d, groups

(n.3) a list by seven SNP into ancient haplogroup N and R and U being the platform where next arised most european haplogroups including our ancient kappa group: all these seven SNP evolved above peoples L3 here with T16311T along with other six SNP (within L3 and N) not shown because they are matching the CRS protocol where instead our kappa is not

(n.4) a diagram by all basic SNP into whole K group including 10 major clades L3 (three SNP) N (five) R (two SNP only) next three SNP by haplogroup U and only one SNP by U8 root (a wide population who is root of U2 U3 U4 U7 U8 U9 in fact) and one SNP by U8 and (next) down to all fourteen K clades like U8bk, U8k, K, K1, K1a, K1b, K1c, K1d, K2, K2a, K2b, K2c, less the younger subgroups (because of later personal genealogy interest) who cannot entail the genesis at all

(n.5) here is the database of our Tyrolean iceman complete genome with genes and circular DNA 1 through 16.576 locus list: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/EU810403 how was kindly detailed by Luca Ermini, Cristina Olivieri, Ermanno Rizzi, Giorgio Corti, Raoul Bonnal, Pedro Soares, Stefania Luciani, Isolina Marota, Gianluca De Bellis, Martin B. Richards, Franco Rollo (University of Camerino and University of Leeds) validated on 17 November 2008

their paper detailing search for complete iceman genome is linked on databases like these:

[ http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18976917 ]
[
http://www.cell.com/current-biology/retrieve/pii/S0960982208012542 ]
[
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982208012542 ]
[
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/10/29 ]
all these documents opens in a new window

please note: on our diagram n.4 the lineage of our Tyrolean iceman must be traced by L3, N, R, U, U8Root, U8, U8bk, U8k, K, K1, and the provisional class K1d that houses the iceman along with other two bodies sharing SNP T16362C as well

[ SNP diagrams n.1, 2, 3 are on our BASIC PROTOCOL ] [ click links to enlarge ]

[ SNP listing 1 ] [ SNP listing 2 ] [ SNP listing 3 ] [ SNP lista 1 ] [ SNP lista 2 ] [ SNP lista 3 ]

please note about younger subgroups that
all subtypes or clades are usual like
leaves on oak ever.....
hence
they will pass and oak will live: diversity into oak's fresh leaves is and must be usual when arises from the core of her stout tree and deep roots

a typical haplogroup (typical mendelian population) do not live as bare boulder but ever is the wide and deep core of a typical compound: peoples that are not by your haplogroup subtypes only but also by other haplogroups (not yours only) sharing neighbourhood .....all they who meet and match and care of

in fact this compound is managed between some matching populations who care live within a range of friendly haplogroups..... their all typical (modal) haplogroups

IN FACT
when exist a core
(for instance a nucleus like the KAPPA haplogroup) fitted for life and capable to sustain the environment (for instance an environment like the CISALPINE ecosystem overlapping Alpine hinterland) there exist his growing population who meet everything and go on: so go ahead alike every primates on whole Earth hence never go out of his environment

alpina/cisalpina hinterland
hold his continuity along all the pleistocene glaciations during two millions and 600 thousand years: by the Last Glacial Maximum our Kappa haplogroup dwells alone here again where no others groups survived if not sharing their lives enchained to our core group

that is the room where the so-called selective pressure grow until the ecosystem accept who match the requirements for living there within .....and just there into nine only 9 european hinterlands arised the nine only 9 european haplogroups we know today

hence
there are other (friendly) populations who meets a core-haplogroup and match his requirements or needs and so live according this group..... all these neighbours will survive together that group but will be the core group ever who
sustain the whole compound when the neighbour groups are free to change their life or themself ever..... because the friendly neighbour can re-join his parent haplogroup anywhere anytime when the core-group must stay on and steady ever

if these nine only 9 groups are here today (after many thousand years of life) so they are steady and matching all natural selection requirements here

on whole Earth (three or four milliards peoples) there are very few genetic cores like these who resisted some dozens thousand years: seem to be 34 mtDNA and 20 yDNA chief haplogroups only.....

do not tread on them

.

[ Stieler's and Alpine maps are on our BASIC PROTOCOL ] [ click to enlarge ]

[ italian briefing map ] [ italian wide map ] [ italian CEE geography of Alpi nostre ]


PROTOCOLS and METHODS
when: pliocene and pleistocene
basket 5 - time-scales will be measured before 2000 alike before present

Time is timeless (of course) hence
dealing with genetic
(so early genesis at first) alike with biology and geology or astronomy and oceanography or some other deep investigation into heart of all these our immense living bodies we cannot pretend to use as our time-scale a simple (unuseful) segment of the whole time-scale (notwithstanding we don't know how will be this whole)

in fact when you do not have a simple but correct scale of time (like in our prehistory) there is simpler use the last (so the first or the lowest) rung of the ladder: use Time Before Present (BP) and you are definitely correct

here we are dealing with immense distances by Time: the dendrochronology reach 10.400 perfect years ago and the Last Glacial Maximum is suggested around 22.000 years ago when the Aurignacian prehistoric culture is typical around 30.000 years ago and Neandertalers reach 80-90.000 100.000 years ago the Australopitecinae are beyond 1.000.000 years elder and Pliocene paradise is well beyond 3.000.000 years at least

honestly speaking it is unwise deals with these things and hear again and again: before and after Jesus Christ before and after Communist before and after Fascist before and after before and after..... who care?

before and after Rome or Buddah do not worth (and do not warrant) a time-scale..... it appear that scholars investigating the incredible universe of chimpanzees and primates or of plancton and pollen or of planets and comets are attempting to humanize the whole world jailing it in a frame they can hold safely: no more wide of that no more deep of that no more long of that no more short of that no more frozen of that no more wet of that no more dry of that no more hot of that no more no more no more..... that's the frame

but who pretend to anthropomorphize Nature?

sixty years ago they (of course they are ever) boasted that Pleistocene was long one million years (no more that was the distance they could manage into their skull really their frame) but next appeared Robert Ardrey and Elaine Morgan who seemingly do not known nothing of Pliocene and Pleistocene and smashed the frame.....

today diagrams by oxigen-18 isotope stages (by Cesare Emiliani and Maureen Raymo stratigraphies) show us that Pleistocene was at least 2.600.000 years long

just in that years prof. Colin Renfrew who knows well Pliocene and Pleistocene smashed other distances (other totem and taboo also) showing that prehistory down untouchable Europe was (is) very very long according radiocarbon and dendrochronology investigations

noteworthy who pretend to use a framing time-scale sometime could be wrong according his scale: in the mediaeval era was sure useful the chronology compiled by Dionisius "the minus" alike is useful again sunday morning into your church mass (of course)

but when you have to count years by whatsoever reason (like is when you keep lectures by your University for instance) you cannot use it or (for sure) you must not use it because the whole count into this time-scale is wrong (by seven years you know) no matter if seven years do not care at all..... it simply is wrong and so (simply) you must do not use it

you do not need any reason to be honest with TIME..... you simply must be

[ Dionisius diagram is on our BASIC PROTOCOL ] [ click to enlarge ]

[ english read this calendarius Dionisius ] [ italian read this calendario Dionigi ]

nevertheless a time-scale must describe TIME within readable limits (of course) but not frame or bound it by arbitrary purposes: for sure a mediaeval or liturgical time-scale will be unwise dealing with ecosystems and chimpanzees or neandertalians as well

here we must investigate TIME
of PLIOCENE and PLEISTOCENE

at first [1] we must investigate the early genesis of our KAPPA haplogroup hence all about the stratified layers before birth of actual whole group so investigating primates into Pliocene paradise (like the so-called Proconsul and most recent Australopitecinae) down to last glaciation of Pleistocene (named Wurm) investigating elder Heidelberg and Neander and Cro-magnon humans encompassing whole Villafrancan until early Aurignacian periods or cultures (since three or four millions years ago and up to 50.000-100.000 years ago) over the floors or layers stratifications where next above them will start our KAPPA group

that was the early habitat and life of our prototype populations: from this distant landscape we retain today a deep kinship with water and his swimmers like dolphins and whales..... and retain unforgettable words and rituals as well

our fair and wet ancestral territory here into pliocene climatic optimum (that is a typical hawaian climate on mediterranean shores) was the same already inherited by our most distant miocene's ancestors (like is typical by Primates on whole Earth) maybe commencing on oxigen isotope stage n.222 when the miocene hot climate turned fair into pliocene with the arctic sea temperature that sink to zero degrees (that is 32 farenheit) about 5.200.000 years ago and by 2.000.000 fantastic years onward

here is a map of our pliocenic paradise

[ these maps are on our BASIC PROTOCOL ] [ click for a better view ]

please note that these ellipses are encircling the habitat of our genesis even if haplogroups K and T will emerge later (about 60.000 years ago)

[ italian read habitat del Pliocene ] [ italian read geologia del Pliocene ]

slowly next during many thousand years we began to experience some dry and cold climatic long seasons revolving every 40.000 years about (exactly 41.000) until their maximum turned immense and very cold alike 100.000 frozen years (every round) became typical

during a million years at least twelve deep frozen waves (into five seasons named Donau, Gunz, Mindel, Riss, and Wurm) seated on our Alps and Pyreneans and Sierra Nevada and Cevennes and Big Boulder and Olympus and Caucasus where the ice-cap reached 2.000 meters above the valley bottom when all around there was the dust of arctic desert..... less the leewardside of these ice-caps where the sinking katabatic fair wind preserved year-round a very nice dwelling hinterland

just here atop one of ultimate ice waves
about 60.000 years ago (if not many years before) appeared
our KAPPA group out of our optimistic ancient population

see two first maps of frozen pleistocene reading aequilibrium line altitude (ELA) and his temperature along with Mediterranean sea surface temperatures (SST) during typical glaciations like the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) where figures show how dwelling hinterlands was more favourable leeward side of icecaps (north or south) than otherwise..... mainly on our alpine/cisalpine hinterland just on the plain of Lombardy

equilibrium line altitudes during last glacial maximum

[ maps and diagram are on our BASIC PROTOCOL ] [ click to enlarge ]

[ italian read equilibrio and temperatura durante L'ultimo Glaciale Massimo and ELA diagram]

following [2] by the birth of our KAPPA haplogroup so completing the genesis at his climax 50.000-60.000 years ago during the first high wave of Wurm and next going to the Last Glacial Maximum of Pleistocene (the ultimate glacial maximum about 32.000-22.000 years ago) when huge ice-cap got double thickness above our Alps living into Aurignacian prehistory seemingly to be highest point of palaeolithic cultures

here our group dwelled 10.000 frozen years again

in those endless bright seasons
maybe
friendly groups joined our alpine hinterland and meets our needs so matching our genetic compound maybe forever or maybe until defrost 10400-12400 years ago when glaciers began melting and mammuths along with sabretooth tigers and all reindeers slowly began moving north.....

nevertheless we remained here
and sure we all keep contact thru high alpine passes broken down by tonnes of melting ice

in this new season our ancient aurignacian calendars was re-designed matching the newly opened (free of ice-cap) distant horizons just when the four seasons matched the perihelion between year 11.640 (-23:18 hours) and 11.501 (+23:47 hours) during a whole century as our ancient proverbs remember it again today

.....and next the stone tools was abandoned for copper and brass and iron spreading into the modern Villanovan culture until roughly 2.000 years ago

moreover [3] there will be possible to track time since friendly peoples joined our Alpine and Altaitalia Modal Haplogroup compound (AAMH) around the steady KAPPA haplogroup nucleus .....but all useful dates will stop around 2.000 years ago when Roman Calendar superseded our ancient (former Aurignacian) Villanovan Calendar of course

some other researches dealing with younger times (from year zero of our Era Vulgaris onward) are of genealogy interest and so will be described into your genealogy pages

these diagrams will be our basic time-scale

[ all diagrams are on our BASIC PROTOCOL ] [ click to enlarge ]

[ english read this oxygen-18 diagram ] [ italian read this ossigeno-18 diagram ]

this first TIME DIAGRAM show levels of Oxygen-delta18 during our last 65 million years: note that zero-degrees into polar seas water was reached on pliocenic age only..... when before PLIOCENE the polar seas water was warmer than zero degrees ever

an unique climate optimum

here under, two diagrams show towering icecaps above Arctica and Antarctica, Himalaia, Caucasus, Olympus, Gran Sasso, Cevennes, Pyreneans, and Alpine mountains during our last 300.000 years

[ english read this Wurm diagram ] [ italian read this Wurm diagram ]

[ this antarctica icecore diagram ] [ this antartide icecore italian diagram ]

here at last
the
Time will be measured by genetic distance or time between SNP bases (like in the diagram n.1 by prof. Cavalli-Sforza on this page) so locating all ancient events on a readable time-scale and next matching the main events accordingly by comparing other precision time-scales like radiocarbon and dendrochronology and oxigen isotope stages diagrams

that will be useful with all screening results

NEXT
deeping into
life of KAPPA group we think that genetic results can be compared by whatsoever you wish to measure..... but we do not: here we must compare only with data by fixing date

for instance: language elements will be compared only if could help to date something (in a timeless past) alike fix something into environment where otherwise some dating could be measured..... like words embedded into proverb rhymes because are possible time-markers on the genesis of proverb itself

alike if precision dating will be our goal

.

these diagrams will be our basic time-scales

[ these two diagrams here under are on our BASIC PROTOCOL ] [ click to read italian captions ]

the above diagram by prof. Maureen Raymo of Boston University (1994)
trace 3.200.000 years quantities of oxygen-delta-18 isotope drilled down North Atlantic sea bottom

that was the first time a professional researcher assembled deep sea drilling data spanning by million years .....not thousand as usual
here an
updated link to this diagram

prof. Raymo and Lorraine Lisiecki of California University next make out the huge diagram by 5.300.000 years oxygen isotope stages tracking 57 sites around the world

[ english read this pleistocene diagram or caption vertical ] [ italian fashion read pleistocene diagramma o la didascalia verticale ]

here the reports on delta18 isotope stages timeline
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2004PA001071/full and
in pdf
www.lorraine-lisiecki.com/LisieckiRaymo2005.pdf

here the huge basic diagram

about our time-scale please now read this:

longer timescale for human evolution by John Hawks 2012
generation times in wild chimpanzees by Kevin Langergraber and 19 scholars with Svante Paabo 2012
turning back the clock by Richard Green and Beth Shapiro 2013
human mutation rate by Aylwyn Scally 2016

.

our next page will deals with
a summary of alpine hinterland genetics like prof. Cavalli-Sforza first framed it
and how never will change in the future (of course) if not by new details

the book "Genes, Peoples, and Languages" here used to trail our discussion
suggest early on his cover that ancient and actual humans must be regarded or "measured" trough their genes (
mitochondrial and nuclear) their body (living and fossilized) their language (sure archaic but not artificial) and so trough their complexity

our investigation commenced on simplest and basic branch of population genetics showing some "diversities" between haplogroups where few european populations could be regarded as prehistoric .....by now our reportage is not a complete one but it will be.....


 

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page updated 6 April 2017

to be continued.....