The loop has to be perfectly round, and the entry and exit have to be at the same altitude. Entering the maneuver from the bottom, the pilot increases power and gently pulls the nose skyward then the pilot increases the power. As the plane gets past the vertical the pilot eases the stick a bit and then as the plane continues over the top when coming back down the pilot pulls back on the stick again. When the pilot comes back down and the nose approaches level flight he or she reduces power. And then the loop is complete.


Barrel Roll

The barrel roll is a combination between a loop and a roll. The pilot completes one loop while completing one roll at the same time. The flight path during a barrel roll has the shape of a horizontal corkscrew. During a barrel roll, the pilot always experiences positive G's. The maximum is about 2.5 to 3 G, the minimum about 0.5 G.




The immelelman was used in WW I and is still used by fast jets today, the main function of the immelman is it trades airspeed for height. The maneuver starts at level flight then the pilot pulls back on the stick and starts to do a half loop, when the pilot reaches the top of the loop, he or she doesn’t continue back down but then turns the plane from inverted flight over to normal flight. This is one of the maneuvers that has been used to reverse direction.




The hammerhead is a turnaround maneuver performed at the end of a vertical climb just as the airplane runs out of airspeed it stops climbing and has slowed enough, full rudder is given and the nose moves in a vertical circle, the blast of wind off the propeller pushes the tail of the airplane to the side around its vertical axis and does a complete turn around. Then the nose is pushed down to pick up speed again, the maneuver is finished with the last quarter of a loop to horizontal flight. The airplane never stalls during the maneuver even though the airspeed may be very low, close to zero during the pivot a wing cant stall while it is at zero gravity.


Aileron rolls

There are many types of rolls but a roll is the plane spinning on the x-axes.

Slow Rolls


A slow and graceful rotation, entered at a relatively high speed, in which the aircraft appears to almost drift across the sky. Slow rolls have to be flown normally on a straight line. The roll rate has to be constant and the x-axis of the plane has to be straight. This requires constantly changing rudder and elevator control inputs throughout the roll.

Snap Rolls


The snap or flick rolls are entered at a medium to slow speed. The wing is forced to stall by applying full rudder and the plane appears to corkscrew through the air. A snap roll is a normal spin with one wing stalled.




This manoeuvre involves bringing the airplane to a complete stop, vertically and then the pilot causes the plane to back up, tail first sliding back toward the ground. Then by pulling the control stick back, the nose tumbles forward; then by pushing the control stick forward, the plane tumbles momentarily onto its back, as the nose comes down the plane tips over and falls. Then the pilot recovers to normal flight. An aerobatic pilot must always be ready to make a spin recovery from a tailslides, just in case the manoeuvre miscarries.



A signature manoeuvre is one or a series of manoeuvres which a professional air show pilot uses to "sign" his act. The pilot is known for the manoeuvre and it usually appearing early in the routine.




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