Brahma Sutras

Brahma Sutras
tr. by George Thibaut
Read Sivananda's commentary here
and Shankara's commentary here.

First Adhy‚ya
First P‚da

1. Then therefore the enquiry into Brahman.
2. (Brahman is that) from which the origin, &c., of this (world proceed).
3. Because Scripture is the source (of the knowledge of Brahman).
4. But that (i.e. the authoritativeness of Scripture with regard to Brahman) exists on account of the connexion (of Scripture with the highest aim of man).
5. On account of seeing (i.e. thinking) that which is not founded on Scripture (i.e. the Pradh‚na) is not (what is taught by the texts referring to the origination of the world).
6. If it be said that (the word 'seeing') has a secondary (figurative) meaning; we deny this, on account of the word 'Self' (being applied to the cause of the world).
7. Because release is taught of him who takes his stand on it.
8. And because there is no statement of its having to be set aside.
9. And on account of the contradiction of the initial statement.
10. On account of (the individual soul) going to the Self.
11. On account of the uniformity of view.
12. And because it is directly stated in Scripture.
13. The Self consisting of Bliss (is the highest Self) on account of multiplication.
14. If, on account of its being a word denoting an effect, (‚nandamaya be said) not (to denote the highest Self); (we say) no, on account of abundance.
15. And because he is declared to be the cause of thatra.
16. And because that (Brahman) which is referred to in the mantra is declared (to be the ‚nandamaya).
17. Not the other, on account of impossibility.
18. And on account of the declaration of difference.
19. And on account of desire, there is no regard to what is inferred (i.e. matter).
20. And Scripture teaches the joining of this (i.e. the individual soul) with that (i.e. bliss) in that (i.e. the ‚nandamaya).
21. The one within (the sun and the eye); on account of his qualities being declared.
22. And on account of the declaration of difference (the highest Self is) other (than the individual souls of the sun, &c.).
23. Ether (is Brahman), on account of the characteristic marks.
24. For the same reason breath (is Brahman).
25. The light (is Brahman), on account of the mention of feet.
26. If it be objected that (Brahman is) not (denoted) on account of the metre being denoted; (we reply) not so, because thus the direction of the mind (on Brahman) is declared; for thus it is seen.
27. And thus also, because (thus only) the designation of the beings, and so on, being the (four) feet is possible.
28. If it be said that (Brahman is) not (recognised) on account of the difference of designation; (we say) not so, on account of there being no contradiction in either (designation).
29. Pr‚na is Brahman, on account of connexion.
30. If it be said that (Brahman is) not (denoted) on account of the speaker denoting himself; (we say, not so), because the multitude of connexions with the inner Self (is possible only) in that (speaker if viewed as Brahman).
31. The instruction (given by Indra about himself) (is possible) through insight based on Scripture, as in the case of V‚madeva.
32. If it be said (that Brahman is not meant) on account of characteristic marks of the individual soul and the chief vital air; we say no, on account of the threefoldness of meditation; on account of (such threefold meditation) being met (in other texts also); and on account of (such threefold meditation) being appropriate here (also).

Second Pada

1. Everywhere; because there is taught what is known.
2. And because the qualities meant to be stated are possible (in Brahman).
3. But, on account of impossibility, not the embodied soul.
4. And because there is (separate) denotation of the object and the agent.
5. On account of the difference of words.
6. And on account of Smriti.
7. Should it be said that (the passage does) not (refer to Brahman) on account of the smallness of the abode, and on account of the denotation of that (viz. minuteness of the being meditated on); we say no, because (Brahman) has thus to be meditated upon, and because (in the same passage) it is said to be like ether.
8. Should it be said that there is attainment of fruition (of pleasure and pain); we reply, not so, on account of difference.
9. The eater (is the highest Self) on account of there being taken all that is movable and immovable.
10. And on account of the topic of the whole section.
11. The 'two entered into the cave' are the two Selfs; on account of this being seen.
12. And on account of distinctive qualities.
13. (The Person) within the eye (is the highest Self) on account of suitability.
14. And on account of the statement as to abode, and so on.
15. And on account of the text referring only to what is characterised by pleasure.
16. For that very reason that (ether) is Brahman.
17. And on account of the statement of the way of him who has heard the Upanishads.
18. Not any other, on account of non-permanency of abode, and of impossibility.
19. The internal Ruler (referred to) in the clauses with respect to the gods, with respect to the worlds, &c. (is the highest Self), because the attributes of that are designated.
20. And not that which Smriti assumes, on account of the declaration of qualities not belonging to that; nor the embodied one.
21. For both also speak of it as something different.
22. That which possesses the qualities of invisibility, &c., on account of the declaration of attributes.
23. Not the two others, on account of distinction and statement of difference.
24. And on account of the description of its form.
25. Vaisv‚nara (is the highest Self), on account of the distinctions qualifying the common term.
26. That which the text refers to is an inferential mark--thus.
27. Should it be said that it is not so, on account of the word, &c., and on account of the abiding within; we say, no; on account of meditation being taught thus, on account of impossibility; and because they read of him as person.
28. For the same reasons not the divinity and the element.
29. Gaimini thinks that there is no objection to (the word 'Agni') directly (denoting the highest Self).
30. On account of definiteness; thus ¬smarathya opines.
31. On account of meditation, B‚dari thinks.
32. On account of imaginative identification, thus Gaimini thinks; for thus the text declares.
33. Moreover, they record him in that.

Third Pada

1. The abode of heaven, earth, &c. (is the highest Self), on account of terms which are its own.
2. And on account of its being declared that to which the released have to resort.
3. Not that which is inferred, on account of the absence of terms denoting it, and (so also not) the bearer of the Pr‚nas (i. e. the individual soul).
4. On account of the declaration of difference.
5. On account of the subject-matter.
6. And on account of abiding and eating.
7. The bhŻman (is the highest Self), as the instruction about it is additional to that about serenity.
8. And on account of the suitability of the attributes.
9. The Imperishable (is Brahman), on account of its supporting that which is the end of ether.
10. And this (supporting) (springs) from command.
11. And on account of the exclusion of (what is of) another nature (than Brahman).
12. On account of his being designated as the object of seeing, he (i.e. the highest Self) (is that object).
13. The small (ether) (is Brahman), on account of the subsequent (arguments).
14. On account of the going and of the word; for thus it is seen; and (there is) an inferential sign.
15. And on account of there being observed in that (small ether), supporting which is a greatness of that (i. e. Brahman).
16. And on account of the settled meaning.
17. If it be said that on account of reference to the other one he is meant; we say no, on account of impossibility.
18. Should it be said that from a subsequent passage (it appears that the individual Soul is meant); rather (the soul) in so far as its true nature has become manifest.
19. And the reference has a different meaning.
20. If it be said, owing to the scriptural declaration of smallness; that has been explained.
21. And on account of the imitation of that.
22. The same is declared by Smriti also.
23. On account of the term, the one measured.
24. But with reference to the heart, men being qualified.
25. Also beings above them (i.e. men), B‚dar‚yana thinks, on account of possibility.
26. If it be said that there results a contradiction to work; we deny this, on account of the observation of the assumption of several (bodies).
27. If it be said (that a contradiction will result) with regard to words; we say no, since beings originate from them (as appears) from perception and inference.
28. And for this very reason eternity (of the Veda).
29. And on account of the equality of names and forms there is no contradiction, even in the renovation (of the world); as appears from--Sruti and Smriti.
30. On account of the impossibility (of qualification for the madhuvidy‚, &c.) (Gaimini maintains the non-qualification (of gods, &c.).
31. And on account of (meditating on the part of the gods) being in the Light.
33. (That) grief of him (arose), this is intimated by his (G‚nasruti's) resorting to him (Raikva) on hearing a disrespectful speech about himself.
34. And on account of (G‚nasruti ) kshattriya-hood being understood.
35. On account of the inferential sign further on, together with Kaitraratha.
36. On account of the reference to ceremonial purifications, and on account of the declaration of their absence.
37. And on account of the procedure, on the ascertainment of the non-being of that.
38. And on account of the prohibition of hearing, studying, and performance of (Vedic) matter.
39. And on account of Smriti.
40. On account of the trembling.
41. On account of light being seen (declared in the text).
42. The ether, on account of the designation of something different, and so on.
43. On account of difference in deep sleep and departing.
44. And on account of such words as Lord..

Fourth P‚da

1. If it be said that some (mention) that which rests on Inference; we deny this because (the form) refers to what is contained in the simile of the body; and (this the text) shows.
2. But the subtle (body), on account of its capability.
3. (Matter in its subtle state) subserves an end, on account of its dependence on him (viz. the Supreme Person).
4. And on account of there being no statement of its being an object of knowledge.
5. Should it be said that (the text) declares (it); we say, not so; for the intelligent Self (is meant), on account of subject-matter.
6. And of three only there is this mention and question.
7. And as in the case of the 'Great.'
8. On account of there being no special characteristic; as in the case of the cup.
9. But she begins with light; for thus some read in their text.
10. And on account of the teaching of formation (i.e. creation) there is no contradiction; as in the case of the honey.
11. Not from the mention of the number even, on account of the diversity and of the excess.
12. The breath, and so on, on the ground of the complementary passage.
13. By light, food not being (mentioned in the text) of some.
14. And on account of (Brahman) as described being declared to be the cause with regard to Ether, and so on.
15. From connexion.
16. Because it denotes the world.
17. Should it be said that this is not so on account of the inferential marks of the individual soul and the chief vital air; we reply that this has been explained before.
18. But Gaimini thinks that it has another purport, on account of the question and answer; and thus some also.
19. On account of the connected meaning of the sentences.
20. (It is) a mark indicating that the promissory statement is proved; thus ¬smarathya thinks.
21. Because (the soul) when it will depart is such; thus Audulomi thinks.
22. On account of (Brahman's) abiding (within the individual soul); thus K‚sakritsna (holds).
23. (Brahman is) the material cause on account of this not being in conflict with the promissory statements and the illustrative instances.
24. And on account of the statement of reflection.
25. And on account of both being directly declared.
26. On account of (the Self) making itself.
27. Owing to modification.
28. And because it is called the womb.
29. Herewith all (texts) are explained, explained.

Second Adhy‚ya
First P‚da.

1. If it be said that there would result the fault of there being no room for (certain) Smritis: (we reply) 'no,' because there would result the fault of want of room for other Smritis.
2. And on account of the non-perception (of truth on the part) of others.
3. Hereby the Yoga is refuted.
4. Not, on account of the difference of character of that; and its being such (appears) from Scripture.
5. But (there is) denotation of the superintending (deities), on account of distinction and entering.
6. But it is seen.
7. If it be said that (the effect is) non-existing; we say no, there being a mere denial.
8. On account of such consequences in reabsorption (the Ved‚nta-texts would be) inappropriate.
9. Not so; as there are parallel instances.
10. And on account of the objections to his view.
11. Also in consequence of the ill-foundedness of reasoning.
12. Should it be said that inference is to be carried on in a different way; (we reply that) thus also it follows that (the objection raised) is not got rid of.
13. Thereby also the remaining (theories) which are not comprised (within the Veda) are explained.
14. If it be said that from (Brahman) becoming an enjoyer, there follows non-distinction (of Brahman and the individual soul); we reply--it may be as in ordinary life.
15. The non-difference (of the world) from that (viz. Brahman) follows from what begins with the word ‚rambhana.
16. And because (the cause) is perceived in the existence of the effect.
17. And on account of the existence of that which is posterior.
18. If it be said 'not, on account of the designation of the (effect as the) non-existent; we reply, not so, on account (of such designation being due to) another attribute, (as appears) from the complementary passage, from Reasoning, and from another Vedic text.
19. And like a piece of cloth.
20. And as the different vital airs.
21. From the designation of the 'other' (as non-different from Brahman) there result (Brahman's) not creating what is beneficial, and other imperfections.
22. But (Brahman is) additional, on account of the declaration of difference.
23. And as in the analogous case of stones and the like, there is impossibility of that.
24. Should it be said that (it is) not, on account of the observation of employment; we say, not so; for as in the case of milk.
25. And as in the case of the gods and so on, in (their) world.
26. Or the consequence of the entire (Brahman entering into the effect), and stultification of (Brahman's) being devoid of parts.
27. But on account of Scripture; (Brahman's possession of various powers) being founded upon the word.
28. And thus in the Self; for (there are) manifold (powers).
29. And on account of the defects of his view also.
30. And (the divinity is) endowed with all powers, because that is seen.
31. Not, on account of the absence of organs; this has been explained (before).
32. (Brahman is) not (the cause); on account of (the world) having the nature of what depends on a motive.
33. But (it is) mere sport, as in ordinary life.
34. Not inequality and cruelty, on account of there being regard; for so (Scripture) declares.
35. If it be said 'not so, on account of non-distinction of deeds'; we say, 'not so, on account of beginninglessness'; this is reasonable, and it is also observed.
36. And because all the attributes are proved (to be present in Brahman).

Second P‚da.

1. Not that which is inferred, on account of the impossibility of construction, and on account of activity.
2. If it be said--like milk or water; there also (intelligence guides).
3. And because from the independence (of the Pradh‚na) there would follow the non-existence of what is different (from creation, i.e. of the pralaya condition).
4. Nor like grass and so on; because (milk) does not exist elsewhere.
5. And if you say--as the man and the stone; thus also.
6. And on account of the impossibility of the relation of principal (and subordinate) matter.
7. And if another inference be made (the result remains unchanged), on account of (the Pradh‚na) being destitute of the power of a knowing subject.
8. And even if it be admitted; on account of the absence of a purpose.
9. And (it is) objectionable on account of the contradictions.
10. Or in the same way as the big and long from the short and the atomic.
11. On both assumptions also there is no motion, and thence non-being (of the origination of the world).
12. And because owing to the acknowledgment of samav‚ya, there results a regressus in infinitum from equality.
13. And because (the world also) would thus be eternal.
14. And on account of (the atoms) having colour and so on, the reverse (takes place); as it is observed.
15. And as there are objections in both cases.
16. And as it is not accepted, it is altogether disregarded.
17. Even on the aggregate with its two causes, there is non-establishment of that.
18. If it be said that (this) is to be explained through successive causality; we say 'no,' on account of their not being the causes of aggregation.
19. And on account of the cessation of the preceding one on the origination of the subsequent one.
20. There not being (a cause), there results contradiction of the admitted principle; otherwise simultaneousness.
21. There is non-establishment of pratisankhy‚ and apratisankhy‚ destruction, on account of non-interruption.
22. And on account of the objections presenting themselves in either case.
23. And in the case of space also, on account of there being no difference.
24. And on account of recognition.
25. Not from non-entity, this not being observed.
26. And thus there would be accomplishment on the part of non-active people also.
27. Not non-existence, on account of consciousness.
28. And on account of difference of nature (they are) not like dreams.
29. The existence (is) not, on account of the absence of perception.
30. And on account of its being unproved in every way.
31. Not so, on account of the impossibility in one.
33. And likewise non-entireness of the Self.
34. Nor also is there non-contradiction from pary‚ya; on account of change, and so on.
35. And on account of the endurance of the final (size), and the (resulting) permanency of both; there is no difference.
36. (The system) of the Lord (must be disregarded), on account of inappropriateness.
37. And on account of the impossibility of rulership.
38. If you say, as in the case of the organs; we deny this, on account of enjoyment and so on.
39. Finiteness or absence of omniscience.
40. On account of the impossibility of origination.
41. And there is not (origination) of the instrument from the agent.
42. Or, if they are of the nature of that which is knowledge and so on, there is no contradiction to that (i.e. the Bh‚gavata doctrine).
43. And on account of contradiction.

Third P‚da

1. Not Ether; on account of the absence of scriptural statement.
2. But there is.
3. It has a secondary sense, on account of impossibility and of the text.
4. There may be (a double sense) of the one (word), as in the case of the word 'Brahman.'
5. The non-abandonment of the promissory statement (results) from non-difference.
6. (As follows also) from (other) texts.
7. But the division (origination) extends over all effects; as in ordinary life.
8. Hereby air is explained.
9. But there is non-origination of that which is (only); on account of impossibility.
10. Fire (is produced) thence, for thus Scripture declares.
11. Water (from fire).
12. Earth (from water).
13. Earth on account of the subject-matter, the colour, and other texts.
14. But he; from the inferential mark supplied by their reflection.
15. But the order of succession (which is stated) in reverse order (of the true one) is possible, (only if the origination of all effects is) thence (i.e. from Brahman).
16. If it be said that knowledge and mind (which are mentioned) between (breath and the elements) (are stated) in order of succession, owing to an inferential mark of this; we say, not so, on account of non-difference.
17. But that which abides in the things movable and immovable, i.e. the terms denoting those things, are non-secondary (i.e. of primary denotative power, viz. with regard to Brahman); since (their denotative power) is effected by the being of that (i.e. Brahman).
18. Not the Self, on account of scriptural statement, and on account of the eternity (which results) from them.
19. For this very reason (the individual soul is) a knower.
20. On account of (its) passing out, moving and returning.
21. And on account of the latter two (being effected) through the Self.
22. If it be said that (the soul) is not atomic, on account of scriptural statement of (what is) not that; we say no, on account of the other one being the topic.
23. And on account of the very word, and of measure.
24. There is no contradiction, as in the case of sandal-ointment.
25. Should it be said (that this is not so) on account of specialisation of abode; we say no, on account of the acknowledgment (of a place of the Self), viz. in the heart.
26. Or on account of its quality as light.
27. There is distinction as in the case of smell; and thus Scripture declares.
28. On account of the separate statement.
29. But (the Self) is designated as that because it has that quality (viz. knowledge) for its essential quality; as in the case of the intelligent (pr‚gŮa) Self.
30. And there is no objection, since (the quality of knowledge) exists wherever the Self is; this being observed.
31. Since there may be manifestation of that which exists; as in the case of virile power and so on.
32. There would result permanent consciousness or non-consciousness, or else limitative restriction to either.
33. (The soul is) an agent, on account of Scripture (thus) having a purport.
34. On account of taking and the declaration as to its moving about.
35. And on account of the designation (of the Self as the agent) in actions. If not so, there would be change of grammatical expression.
36. (There would be) absence of definite rule, as in the case of consciousness.
37. On account of the inversion of power.
38. And on account of the absence of sam‚dhi.
39. And as the carpenter, in both ways.
40. But from the highest, this being declared by Scripture.
41. But with a view to the efforts made (the Lord makes the soul act) on account of the (thus resulting) non-meaninglessness of injunctions and prohibitions and the rest.
42. (The soul is) a part, on account of the declarations of difference and otherwise; some also record (that Brahman is of) the nature of slaves, fishermen, and so on.
43. And on account of the mantra.
44. Moreover it is so stated in Smriti.
45. But as in the case of light and so on. Not so is the highest.
46. And Smriti texts declare this.
47. Permission and exclusion (result) from connexion with a body; as in the case of light and so on.
48. And on account of non-connectedness there is no confusion.
49. And it is a mere apparent argument.
50. On account of the non-determination of the adrishtas.
51. And it is thus also in the case of purposes and so on.
52. Should it be said (that that is possible) owing to the difference of place; we deny this, on account of (all up‚dhis) being within (all places).

Fourth P‚da

1. Thus the pr‚nas.
2. (The scriptural statement of the plural) is secondary, on account of impossibility; and since (the highest Self) is declared before that.
3. On account of speech having for its antecedent that.
4. (They are seven) on account of the going of the seven and of specification.
5. But the hands and so on also; (since they assist the soul) abiding (in the body). Hence (it is) not so.
6. And (they are) minute.
7. And the best.
8. Neither air nor function, on account of its being stated separately.
9. But like the eye and the rest, on account of being taught with them, and for other reasons.
10. And there is no objection on account of its not having an activity (karana); for (Scripture) thus declares.
11. It is designated as having five functions like mind.
12. And (it is) minute.
13. But the rule (over the pr‚nas) on the part of Fire and the rest, together with him to whom the pr‚na belong (i.e. the soul), is owing to the thinking of that (viz. the highest Self); on account of scriptural statement.
14. And on account of the eternity of this.
15. They, with the exception of the best, are organs, on account of being so designated.
16. On account of scriptural statement of difference, and on account of difference of characteristics.
17. But the making of names and forms (belongs) to him who renders tripartite, on account of scriptural teaching.
18. Flesh is of earthy nature; in the case of the two others also according to the text.
19. But on account of their distinctive nature there is that designation, that designation.

Third Adhy‚ya
First P‚da

1. In obtaining another of that, it goes enveloped, (as appears) from question and explanation.
2. But on account of (water) consisting of the three elements; on account of predominance.
3. And on account of the going of the pr‚nas.
4. If it be said (that it is not so) on account of scriptural statement as to going to Agni and the rest; we say no, on account of the secondary nature (of the statement).
5. Should it be said, on account of absence of mention in the first (reply); we say no, for just that (is meant), on the ground of fitness.
6. 'On account of this not being stated by Scripture'; not so, on account of those who perform sacrifices and so on being understood.
7. Or it is metaphorical, on account of their not knowing the Self. For thus Scripture declares.
8. On the passing away of the works, with a remainder, according to Scripture and Smriti; as it went and not so.
9. 'On account of conduct'; not so, since (karana) connotes works; thus K‚rshn‚gini thinks.
10. 'There is purposelessness'; not so, on account of the dependence on that.
11. But only good and evil works, thus B‚dari thinks.
12. Of those also who do not perform sacrifices (the ascent) is declared by Scripture.
13. But of the others having enjoyed in Samyamana, there is ascent and descent; as such a course is declared.
14. Smriti texts also declare this.
15. Moreover there are seven.
16. On account of his activity there also, there is no contradiction.
17. But, of knowledge and work--as these are the leading topics.
18. Not in the case of the third (place), as it is thus perceived.
19. It moreover is recorded, in the world.
20. And on account of its being seen.
21. The third term includes that which springs from heat.
22. There is entering into similarity of being with those, there being a reason.
23. Not very long; on account of special statement.
24. Into (plants) animated by other souls, because the statement is as in the previous cases.
25. It is unholy. Not so, on the ground of Scripture.
26. After that conjunction with him who performs the act of generation.
27. From the yoni the body.

Second P‚da

1. In the intermediate sphere the creation (is effected by the soul); for (Scripture) says (so).
2. And some (state the soul to be) the shaper; and sons, and so on.
3. But it is mere M‚y‚; on account of the true nature (of the soul) not being fully manifested.
4. But owing to the wish of the highest it is hidden; for from that are its bondage and the opposite state.
5. Or that (results) also from connexion with the body.
6. And it is suggestive, according to Scripture; this the experts also declare.
7. The absence of that takes place in the n‚dÓs and in the Self, according to scriptural statement.
8. Hence the awaking from that.
9. But the same, on account of work, remembrance, text, and injunction.
10. In the swooning person there is half-combination; this being the remaining (hypothesis).
11. Not on account of place even (is there any imperfection) of the Highest; for everywhere (it is described) as having twofold characteristics.
12. Should it be said 'on account of difference'; not so, because with reference to each the text says what is not that.
13. Some also (teach) thus.
14. For (Brahman is) without form merely, since it is the principal agent with regard to that.
15. And in the same way as (a Brahman) consisting of light; (the texts thus) not being devoid of meaning.
16. And (the text) says so much only.
17. (This Scripture) also shows, and it is also stated in Smriti.
18. For this very reason comparisons, such as reflected images of the sun and the like.
19. But because it is not apprehended like water, there is no equality.
20. The participation (on Brahman's part) in increase and decrease, due to its abiding within (is denied); on account of the appropriateness of both (comparisons), and because thus it is seen.
21. For the text denies the previously declared so-muchness; and declares more than that.
22. That (is) unmanifested; for (this Scripture) declares.
23. Also in perfect conciliation, according to Scripture and Smriti.
24. And there is non-difference (of the intention of Brahman's distinguishing attributes), as in the case of light; and the light (is) intuited as constituting Brahman's essential nature by repetition of the practice (of meditation).
25. Hence (Brahman is distinguished) by what is infinite; for thus the characteristics (hold good).
26. But on account of twofold designation, as the snake and its coils.
27. Or else like light and its abode, both being fire.
28. Or else in the manner stated above.
29. And on account of denial.
30. (There is something) higher than that; on account of the designations of bridge, measure, connexion, and difference.
31. But on account of resemblance.
32. It subserves the purpose of thought; as in the case of the feet.
33. Owing to difference of place, as in the case of light, and so on.
34. And on account of possibility.
35. Thus, from the denial of anything else.
36. The omnipresence (possessed) by that, (understood) from the declaration of extent.
37. From thence the reward; on account of possibility.
38. And on account of scriptural declaration.
39. For the same reasons Gaimini (thinks it to be) religious action.
40. But the former, B‚dar‚yana (thinks), on account of the designation (of deities) as the cause.

Third P‚da

1. What is understood from all the Ved‚nta-texts (is one), on account of the non-difference of injunction and the rest.
2. If it be said (that the vidy‚s are not one) on account of difference, we deny this, since even in one (vidy‚ there may be repetition).
3. For (the sirovrata) concerns the mode of the study of the Veda; also on account of (that rite) being a heading in the sam‚k‚ra; and the restriction is like that of the libations.
4. Scripture also declares this.
5. (Meditation) thus being equal, there is combination (of gunas); on account of non-difference of purport in the case of what subserves injunction.
6. If it be said that there is difference on account of the text; we say no; on account of non-difference.
7. Or not, on account of difference of subject-matter; as in the case of the attribute of being higher than the high, and so on.
8. If that be declared on account of name; (we object, since) that is also (where the objects of injunction differ).
9. And (this is) appropriate, on account of the extension.
10. On account of non-difference of everything, those elsewhere.
11. Bliss and other qualities, as belonging to the subject of the qualities.
12. Such qualities as having joy for its head, and so on, are not established, for if there were difference (of members) there would be increase and decrease.
13. But the others, on account of equality with the thing.
14. For meditation, owing to the absence of purpose.
15. And on account of the term 'Self.'
16. There is reference to the Self, as in other places; on account of the subsequent passage.
17. If it be said 'on account of connexion'; it may be so, on account of ascertainment.
18. The new (thing is enjoined); on account of the statement of what has to be done.
19. And (the qualities) thus being equal, on account of non-difference.
20. On account of connexion, thus elsewhere also.
21. Or not so, on account of difference.
22. The text also declares this.
23. And for the same reason the holding together and the pervading the sky.
24. And although (they both be) meditations on man; on account of others not being recorded.
25. On account of the difference of sense of piercing and so on.
26. But in the case of the getting rid of (it has to be combined with the obtaining), as it is supplementary to statements of obtaining; as in the case of the kusas, the metres, the praise, and the singing. This has been explained.
27. At departing; there being nothing to be reached. For thus others (also declare).
28. As it is desired; on account of there being no contradiction of either.
29. There is meaning of the soul's going (only) on the twofold hypothesis; for otherwise there is contradiction.
30. (That assumption) is justified; on account of the perception of things which are marks of that; as in ordinary experience.
31. Of those who have a certain office there is subsistence (of their works) as long as the office lasts.
32. There is no restriction (since) all (have to go on that path). (Thus) there is non-contradiction of sacred text and Smriti.
33. But the conceptions of the Imperishable are to be comprised (in all meditations). There being equality (of the Brahman to be meditated on) and (those conceptions) existing (in Brahman); as in the case of what belongs to the upasad. This has been explained.
34. So much; on account of reflection.
35. Should it be said that (the former reply refers) to that Self to which the aggregate of material things belongs (since) otherwise the difference (of the two replies) could not be accounted for; we say--no; as in the case of instruction.
36. There is interchange (of ideas), for the texts distinguish; as in other cases.
37. For one and the same (highest divinity), called the 'truly being,' and so on (is the subject of that meditation).
38. Wishes and the rest, here and there; (as is known from the abode, and so on).
39. On account of emphasis there is non-omission.
40. In the case of him who has approached (Brahman); just on that account, this being declared by the text.
41. There is non-restriction of determination, because this is seen; for there is a separate fruit, viz. non-obstruction.
42. Just as in the case of the offerings. This has been explained.
43. On account of the plurality of indicatory marks; for that (proof) is stronger. This also is declared (in the PŻrva MÓm‚ms‚).
44. There is option with regard to what precedes (i.e. the altar made of bricks) on account of subject-matter, and hence there is action; as in the case of the m‚nasa cup.
45. And on account of the transfer.
46. But it is a meditation only, on account of assertion and what is seen.
47. And on account of the greater strength of direct statement, and so on, there is no refutation.
48. On account of connexions and the rest, as in the case of the separateness of other cognitions. And this is seen (elsewhere also); as declared (in the PŻrva MÓm‚ms‚).
49. Not so, on account of this being observed on account of similarity also; as in the case of Death; for (the person in yonder orb) does not occupy the worlds (of Death).
50. And by a subsequent (Br‚hmana) also the 'being of such a kind' of the word (is proved). But the connexion is on account of plurality.
51. Some, on account of the existence of a Self within a body.
52. But this is not so, (but rather) difference; since it is of the being of that; as in the case of intuition.
53. But those (meditations) which are connected with members (of sacrifices) are not (restricted) to (particular) s‚kh‚s, but rather (belong) to all s‚kh‚s.
54. Or there is no contradiction as in the case of mantras and the rest.
55. There is pre-eminence of plenitude, as in the case of the sacrifice; for thus Scripture shows.
56. (The meditations are) separate, on account of the difference of words, and so on.
57. Option, on account of the non-difference of result.
58. But meditations aiming at objects of desire may, according to one's liking, be cumulated or not; on account of the absence of the former reason.
59. They belong to the constituent members, as the bases.
60. And on account of injunction.
61. On account of rectification.
62. And on account of the declaration of a quality being common (to all the Vedas).
63. Rather not, as the text does not declare their going together.
64. And because (Scripture) shows it.

Fourth P‚da

1. The benefit to man results from thence, on account of scriptural statement; thus B‚dar‚yana thinks.
2. On account of (the Self) standing in a complementary relation, they are arthav‚das, as in other cases; thus Gaimini opines.
3. On account of (such) conduct being seen.
4. On account of direct scriptural statement.
5. On account of the taking hold together.
6. On account of injunction for such a one.
7. On account of definite rule.
8. But on account of the teaching of the different one, Badar‚yana's (view is valid); as this is seen.
9. But the declarations are equal.
10. (It is) non-comprehensive.
11. There is distribution, as in the case of the hundred.
12. Of him who has merely read the Veda.
13. Not so, on account of non-specification.
14. Or the permission is for the purpose of glorification.
15. Some also, by proceeding according to their liking.
16. And destruction.
17. And of him who is chaste; for in Scripture (this is declared).
18. A reference (only) Gaimini (holds them to be), on account of absence of injunction; for (Scripture) forbids.
19. It is to be accomplished, B‚darayana holds, on account of scriptural statement of equality.
20. Or an injunction, as in the case of the carrying.
21. If it be said that they are mere glorification, on account of their reference; not so, on account of the newness.
22. And on account of the words denoting becoming.
23. Should it be said that (the stories told in the Upanishads) are for the purpose of the P‚riplava; not so, since (certain stories) are specified.
24. This follows also from the textual connexion (of those stories with injunctions).
25. For this very reason there is no need of the lighting of the fire and so on.
26. And there is need of all (works), on account of the scriptural statement of sacrifices and the rest; as in the case of the horse.
27. But all the same he must be possessed of calmness, subjection of the senses, &c., since those are enjoined as auxiliaries to that, and must necessarily be accomplished.
28. And there is permission of all food in the case of danger of life; on account of this being seen.
29. And on account of non-sublation.
30. This is said in Smriti also.
31. And hence also a scriptural passage as to non-proceeding according to liking.
32. The works of the ‚sramas also, on account of their being enjoined.
33. And on account of co-operativeness.
34. In any case they are the same, on account of twofold inferential signs.
35. And Scripture also declares (knowledge) not to be overpowered.
36. Also in the case of those outside, as this is seen.
37. Smriti also states this.
38. And there is the promotion (of knowledge) through special acts (of duty).
39. But better than that is the other also on account of an inferential mark.
40. But of him who has become that there is no becoming not that, according to Gaimini also, on account of (Scripture) restraining from the absence of the forms of that.
41. Nor the (expiatory performance) described in the chapter treating of qualification; that being impossible on account of the Smriti referring to such lapse.
42. A minor one, thus some; (and hence they hold) the existence (of expiation), as in the case of eating. This has been explained.
43. But in either case (such men) stand outside; on account of Smriti and custom.
44. By the Lord (of the sacrifice), since Scripture declares a fruit--thus ¬treya thinks.
45. (They are) the priest's work, Audulomi thinks; since for that he is engaged.
46. There is injunction of other auxiliary means for him who is such, as in the case of injunction and so on; (the term mauna denoting) according to an alternative meaning a third something.
47. But on account of the existence (of knowledge) in all, there is winding up with the householder.
48. On account of the others also being taught, in the same way as the condition of the Muni.
49. Not manifesting itself; on account of the connexion.
50. What belongs to this world, there being no obstruction at hand; as this is seen.
51. In the same way there is non-determination with regard to what has Release for its result; that condition being ascertained, that condition being ascertained.

Fourth Adhy‚ya
First P‚da

1. Repetition, on account of the text teaching (what has to be done more than once).
2. And on account of an inferential mark.
3. But as the Self; this (the ancient Devotees) acknowledge (since the texts) make (them) apprehend (in that way).
4. Not in the symbol; for (the symbol) is not that one (i.e. the Self of the Devotee).
5. The view of Brahman, on account of superiority.
6. And the ideas of ¬ditya and the rest on the member; on account of this being rational.
7. Sitting; on account of possibility.
8. And on account of meditation.
9. And with reference to immobility.
10. And Smriti texts say the same.
11. Where concentration of mind (is possible), there; on account of there being no difference.
12. Up to death; for there also it is seen.
13. On the attainment of this, there result the non-clinging and the destruction of later and earlier sins; this being declared.
14. Of the other also there is thus non-clinging; but at death.
15. But only those former works the effects of which have not yet begun; on account of that being the term.
16. But the Agnihotra and the rest, (because they tend) to that effect only; this being seen.
17. According to some (a class of good works) other than these, of both kinds.
18. For (there is the text) 'whatever he does with knowledge.'
19. But having destroyed by fruition the other two sets he becomes one with Brahman.

Second P‚da

1. Speech with mind, on account of this being seen and of scriptural statement.
2. And for the same reason all follow after.
3. That mind in breath, owing to the subsequent clause.
4. That (is united) with the ruler, on account of the going to it, and so on.
5. With the elements, this being stated by Scripture.
6. Not with one; for both declare this.
7. And it is common up to the beginning of the way; and the immortality (is that which is obtained), without having burned.
8. Since, up to the union with that (i.e. Brahman) the texts describe the Sams‚ra state.
9. And the subtle (body persists), on account of a means of knowledge, it being thus observed (in Scripture).
10. Hence not in the way of destruction of bondage.
11. And to that very (subtle body) (there belongs) the warmth, this only being reasonable.
12. If it be said that on account of the denial (it is not so); we deny this. From the embodied soul; for (that one is) clear, according to some. 13. Smriti also declares this.
14. With the Highest; for thus it says.
15. Non-division, according to statement.
16. A lighting up of the point of the abode of that; having the door illuminated by that (the soul), owing to the power of its knowledge and the application of remembrance of the way which is an element of that (viz. of knowledge), being assisted by him who abides within the heart, (passes out) by way of the hundred and first artery.
17. Following the rays.
18. Should it be said, not in the night; we say, no; because the connexion persists as long as the body does. Scripture also declares this.
19. For the same reason also during the southern progress of the sun.
20. And those two (paths) are, with a view to the Yogins, mentioned as to be remembered.

Third P‚da

1. On the path beginning with light, that being known.
2. From the year to V‚yu; on account of non-specification and specification.
3. Beyond lightning there is Varuna, on account of connexion.
4. Conductors, this being indicated.
5. From thence by him only who belongs to lightning, the text stating that.
6. (Him who meditates on) the effected Brahman, (thus opines) B‚dari; because for him going is possible.
7. And on account of (Brahman) being specified.
8. But on account of nearness there is that designation.
9. On the passing away of the effected (world of Brahma), together with its ruler, (the souls go) to what is higher than that; on account of scriptural declaration.
10. And on account of Smriti.
11. The Highest, Gaimini thinks; on account of primariness of meaning.
12. And because Scripture declares it.
13. And there is no aiming at the effected (Brahman).
14. Those not depending on symbols he leads, thus B‚dar‚yana thinks; there being a defect in both cases; and he whose thought is that.
15. And Scripture declares the difference.

Fourth P‚da

1. (On the soul's) having approached (the highest light) there is manifestation; (as we infer) from the word 'own.'
2. The released one; on account of the promise.
3. The Self, on account of subject-matter.
4. In non-division; because that is seen.
5. In (a nature like) that of Brahman, thus Gaimini thinks; on account of suggestion and the rest.
6. In the sole nature of intelligence; as that is its Self. Thus Audulomi thinks.
7. Thus also, on account of existence of the former qualities (as proved) by suggestion, B‚darayana holds absence of contradiction.
8. By the mere will; Scripture stating that.
9. And for this very reason without another ruler.
10. The absence, B‚dari holds; for thus Scripture says.
11. The presence, Gaimini holds; because the text declares manifoldness.
12. For this reason B‚dar‚yana (holds him to be) of both kinds; as in the case of the twelve days' sacrifice.
13. In the absence of a body, as in the state of dream; that being possible.
14. When there is a body, as in the waking state.
15. The entering is as in the case of a lamp; for thus Scripture declares.
16. It refers either to dreamless sleep or to union (sampatti); for this is manifested.
17. With the exception of world-energy; on account of leading subject-matter and of non-proximity.
18. If it be said that this is not so, on account of direct teaching; we reply not so, on account of the texts declaring that which abides within the spheres of those entrusted with special functions.
19. That which is not within change; for thus Scripture declares the abiding (of the soul).
20. And thus Perception and Inference show.
21. And on account of the indication of the equality of enjoyment only.
22. Non-return, according to Scripture; non-return, according to Scripture.

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